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1,1'-Biphenyl, 4-methyl-

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas33.03 ± 0.69kcal/molCcbRibeiro da Silva, Matos, et al., 1997 

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafsolid13.9 ± 0.60kcal/molCcbRibeiro da Silva, Matos, et al., 1997 
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacsolid-1646.4 ± 0.43kcal/molCcbRibeiro da Silva, Matos, et al., 1997Corresponding «DELTA»fsolid = 13.9 kcal/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections)
Deltacsolid-1645.8 ± 1.7kcal/molCcbBrull, 1935Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -1645.43 kcal/mol; Corresponding «DELTA»fsolid = 13.25 kcal/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections)

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Chris Muzny, director
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil541. ± 9.KAVGN/AAverage of 8 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus321. ± 3.KAVGN/AAverage of 17 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltasub19.2 ± 0.33kcal/molCRibeiro da Silva, Matos, et al., 1997ALS
Deltasub19.2 ± 0.33kcal/molCRibeiro da Silva, Matos, et al., 1997, 2AC
Deltasub19.2kcal/molN/AN/ADRB

Reduced pressure boiling point

Tboil (K) Pressure (atm) Reference Comment
408.20.020Weast and Grasselli, 1989BS

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)195.5kcal/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity187.7kcal/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
8.6 ± 0.1EIBohlmann, Koppel, et al., 1974LLK
7.80 ± 0.02PEMaier and Turner, 1972LLK

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
C7H7+13.7 ± 0.3?EIMcLafferty and Winkler, 1974LLK
C13H11+11.3 ± 0.1HEIBohlmann, Koppel, et al., 1974LLK

IR Spectrum

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Data compiled by: Coblentz Society, Inc.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, 1990.
NIST MS number 113287

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


UV/Visible spectrum

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Victor Talrose, Alexander N. Yermakov, Alexy A. Usov, Antonina A. Goncharova, Axlexander N. Leskin, Natalia A. Messineva, Natalia V. Trusova, Margarita V. Efimkina

Spectrum

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UVVis spectrum
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Additional Data

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Source Kusakov, et al., 1963
Owner INEP CP RAS, NIST OSRD
Collection (C) 2007 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin INSTITUTE OF ENERGY PROBLEMS OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, RAS
Source reference RAS UV No. 20057
Instrument unknown
Melting point 49.5
Boiling point 276.5

Gas Chromatography

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-1160.1504.Zhang, Chen, et al., 199725. m/0.2 mm/0.33 «mu»m, N2
CapillaryOV-101140.1472.7Gerasimenko, Kirilenko, et al., 1981N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm
CapillaryOV-101160.1484.5Gerasimenko, Kirilenko, et al., 1981N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm
PackedSE-30150.1478.Shlyakhov, Anvaer, et al., 1975 
PackedSE-30200.1511.Shlyakhov, Anvaer, et al., 1975 

Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillarySP-1000185.2182.Kríz, Popl, et al., 1974N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySP-1000200.2134.Kríz, Popl, et al., 1974N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-51492.2Song, Lai, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51492.3Song, Lai, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51482.8Song, Lai, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51492.2Song, Lai, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51497.3Song, Lai, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 6. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51482.8Lai and Song, 199530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51492.2Lai and Song, 199530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51497.3Lai and Song, 199530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 6. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51492.2Lai and Song, 199530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51492.3Lai and Song, 199530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51501.Rostad and Pereira, 198630. m/0.26 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 4. min, 6. K/min, 300. C @ 20. min

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySupelcowax-102117.Chung, 199960. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 195. C @ 90. min

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-101120.1473.Nabivach and Gerasimenko, 1996 
CapillaryPolidimethyl siloxane130.1465.Nabivach and Gerasimenko, 1996 
CapillaryPolidimethyl siloxane130.1466.Nabivach and Gerasimenko, 1996 
PackedPolydimethyl siloxane183.1499.Ferrand, 1962 

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryUltra-11455.Okumura, 199125. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 260. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySiloxane, 5 % Ph1519.VOC BinBase, 2012Program: not specified
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane, 5 % phenyl1519.Skogerson, Wohlgemuth, et al., 2011Program: not specified

Lee's RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-5257.3Shao, Wang, et al., 200630. m/0.3 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 5. min, 5. K/min, 200. C @ 15. min
CapillaryHP-5254.66Piao, Chu, et al., 199930. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 50. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 280. C @ 20. min
CapillaryCP Sil 8 CB256.0Bundt, Herbel, et al., 199150. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 300. C
CapillaryDB-5256.12Rostad and Pereira, 198630. m/0.26 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 4. min, 6. K/min, 300. C @ 20. min
CapillarySE-52256.69Vassilaros, Kong, et al., 198220. m/0.30 mm/0.25 «mu»m, H2, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 265. C
CapillarySE-52254.71Lee, Vassilaros, et al., 197912. m/0.3 mm/0.34 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 250. C

Lee's RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-5255.9Fuentes, Font, et al., 2007Column length: 60. m; Program: not specified
CapillaryHP-5255.60Reckendorf, 199725. m/0.2 mm/0.11 «mu»m, He; Program: 106C(0.2min) => 40C/min => 120C => 3C/min => 310C(10min)
CapillaryCP Sil 8 CB256.7Bundt, Herbel, et al., 199150. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Ribeiro da Silva, Matos, et al., 1997
Ribeiro da Silva, M.A.V.; Matos, M.A.R.; do Rio, C.M.A.; Morais, V.M.F., Thermochemical and theoretical studies of 4-methylbiphenyl, 4,4'-dimethylbiphenyl, 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine, J. Chem. Soc. Farad. Trans, 1997, 93, 3061. [all data]

Brull, 1935
Brull, L., Sui calori di combustione di alcuni derivati del bifenil, Gazz. Chim. Ital., 1935, 65, 19-28. [all data]

Cox and Pilcher, 1970
Cox, J.D.; Pilcher, G., Thermochemistry of Organic and Organometallic Compounds, Academic Press, New York, 1970, 1-636. [all data]

Ribeiro da Silva, Matos, et al., 1997, 2
Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Matos, Agostinha R.; do Rio, Carolina M.A.; Morais, Victor M.F., Thermochemical and theoretical studies of 4-methylbiphenyl, 4,4´-dimethylbiphenyl, 4,4´-dimethyl-2,2´-bipyridine, Faraday Trans., 1997, 93, 17, 3061-3065, https://doi.org/10.1039/a701769c . [all data]

Weast and Grasselli, 1989
CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds, 2nd Editon, Weast,R.C and Grasselli, J.G., ed(s)., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1989, 1. [all data]

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556018 . [all data]

Bohlmann, Koppel, et al., 1974
Bohlmann, F.; Koppel, C.; Muller, B.; Schwarz, H.; Weyerstahl, P., Massenspektrometrische Untersuchung isomerer Kohlenwasserstoffe: Struktur und Bildungsenthalpie stabiler (C13H11+) Ionen, Tetrahedron, 1974, 30, 1011. [all data]

Maier and Turner, 1972
Maier, J.P.; Turner, D.W., Steric inhibition of resonance studied by molecular photoelectron spectroscopy. Part I. Biphenyls, Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc., 1972, 54, 149. [all data]

McLafferty and Winkler, 1974
McLafferty, F.W.; Winkler, J., Gaseous tropylium, benzyl, tolyl, and norbornadienyl cations, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1974, 96, 5182. [all data]

Kusakov, et al., 1963
Kusakov, M.M., et al., Ultraviolet Absorption Spectra of Aromatic Hydrocarbons, 1963, 182. [all data]

Zhang, Chen, et al., 1997
Zhang, M.; Chen, B.; Shen, S.; Chen, S., Compositional studies of high-temperature coal tar by g.c.-FT-i.r. analysis of middle oil fractions, Fuel, 1997, 76, 5, 415-423, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-2361(97)85518-4 . [all data]

Gerasimenko, Kirilenko, et al., 1981
Gerasimenko, V.A.; Kirilenko, A.V.; Nabivach, V.M., Capillary gas chromatography of aromatic compounds found in coal tar fractions, J. Chromatogr., 1981, 208, 1, 9-16, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)87953-4 . [all data]

Shlyakhov, Anvaer, et al., 1975
Shlyakhov, A.F.; Anvaer, B.I.; Zolotareva, O.V.; Romina, N.N.; Novikova, N.V.; Koreshkova, R.I., On the possibility of group indentification of hydrocarbons by gas chromatography from temperature coefficients of retention indices, Zh. Anal. Khim., 1975, 30, 788-792. [all data]

Kríz, Popl, et al., 1974
Kríz, J.; Popl, M.; Mostecký, J., Retention indices of biphenyls and diphenylalkanes, J. Chromatogr., 1974, 97, 1, 3-13, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)97577-6 . [all data]

Song, Lai, et al., 2003
Song, C.; Lai, W.-C.; Madhusudan Reddy, K.; Wei, B., Chapter 7. Temperature-programmed retention indices for GC and GC-MS of hydrocarbon fuels and simulated distillation GC of heavy oils in Analytical advances for hydrocarbon research, Hsu,C.S., ed(s)., Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, 2003, 147-193. [all data]

Lai and Song, 1995
Lai, W.-C.; Song, C., Temperature-programmed retention indices for g.c. and g.c.-m.s. analysis of coal- and petroleum-derived liquid fuels, Fuel, 1995, 74, 10, 1436-1451, https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-2361(95)00108-H . [all data]

Rostad and Pereira, 1986
Rostad, C.E.; Pereira, W.E., Kovats and Lee retention indices determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for organic compounds of environmental interest, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1986, 9, 6, 328-334, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240090603 . [all data]

Chung, 1999
Chung, H.Y., Volatile components in crabmeats of Charybdis feriatus, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1999, 47, 6, 2280-2287, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf981027t . [all data]

Nabivach and Gerasimenko, 1996
Nabivach, V.M.; Gerasimenko, V.A., Gas chromatographic retention characteristics of bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Coke and Chemistry (Rus), 1996, 6, 27-31. [all data]

Ferrand, 1962
Ferrand, R., Gas phase chromatography using retention indices for the analysis of tars and their hydrogenation products, Journees internationales d'etude des methodes de separation immediate at de chromatographie; Org. sur l'initiative du IX., 1962, 132-140. [all data]

Okumura, 1991
Okumura, T., retention indices of environmental chemicals on methyl silicone capillary column, Journal of Environmental Chemistry (Japan), 1991, 1, 2, 333-358, https://doi.org/10.5985/jec.1.333 . [all data]

VOC BinBase, 2012
VOC BinBase, The volatile compound BinBase (VOC BinBase), 2012, retrieved from http://fiehnlab.ucdavis.edu/projects/VocBinBase and http://binbase.sourceforge.net. [all data]

Skogerson, Wohlgemuth, et al., 2011
Skogerson, K.; Wohlgemuth, G.; Fiehn, O., VocBinNase, 2011, retrieved from http://fiehnlab.ucdavis.edu/projects//VocBinBase. [all data]

Shao, Wang, et al., 2006
Shao, X.; Wang, G.; Sun, Y.; Zhang, R.; Xie, K.; Liu, H., Determination and Characterization of the Pyrolysis Products of Isoprocarb by GC-MS, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 2006, 44, 3, 141-147, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/44.3.141 . [all data]

Piao, Chu, et al., 1999
Piao, M.; Chu, S.; Zheng, M.; Xu, X., Characterization of the combustion products of polyethylene, Chemosphere, 1999, 39, 9, 1497-1512, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00054-5 . [all data]

Bundt, Herbel, et al., 1991
Bundt, J.; Herbel, W.; Steinhart, H.; Franke, S.; Francke, W., Structure-type separation of diesel fuels by solid phase extraction and identification of the two- and three-ring aromatics by capillary GC-mass spectrometry, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1991, 14, 2, 91-98, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240140205 . [all data]

Vassilaros, Kong, et al., 1982
Vassilaros, D.L.; Kong, R.C.; Later, D.W.; Lee, M.L., Linear retention index system for polycyclic aromatic compounds. Critical evaluation and additional indices, J. Chromatogr., 1982, 252, 1-20, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)88394-1 . [all data]

Lee, Vassilaros, et al., 1979
Lee, M.L.; Vassilaros, D.L.; White, C.M.; Novotny, M., Retention Indices for Programmed-Temperature Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Anal. Chem., 1979, 51, 6, 768-773, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac50042a043 . [all data]

Fuentes, Font, et al., 2007
Fuentes, M.J.; Font, R.; Gomez-Rico, M.F.; Martin-Gullon, I., Pyrolysis and combustion of waste lubricant oil from diesel cars: Decomposition and pollutants, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 2007, 79, 1-2, 215-226, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2006.12.004 . [all data]

Reckendorf, 1997
Reckendorf, R.M., Identification of phenyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds in ring furnace gases using GC-MS and GC-AED, Chromatographia, 1997, 45, 1, 173-182, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02505557 . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References