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1,1'-Biphenyl, 2-methyl-

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas36.52 ± 0.36kcal/molCcbSteele, Chirico, et al., 1995 

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafliquid20.7 ± 0.31kcal/molCcbSteele, Chirico, et al., 1995 
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacliquid-1653.2 ± 0.29kcal/molCcbSteele, Chirico, et al., 1995Corresponding «DELTA»fliquid = 20.7 kcal/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections)
Deltacliquid-1661.3kcal/molCcbWise, Serijan, et al., 1951Corresponding «DELTA»fliquid = 28.7 kcal/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections)
Deltacliquid-1600.kcal/molCcbGoodman and Wise, 1950Corresponding «DELTA»fliquid = -33. kcal/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections)
Deltacliquid-1658.4 ± 1.7kcal/molCcbBrull, 1935Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -1658.12 kcal/mol; Corresponding «DELTA»fliquid = 25.85 kcal/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections)

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Chris Muzny, director
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil532. ± 7.KAVGN/AAverage of 12 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus272.95KN/AGoodman and Wise, 1951Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.15 K; TRC
Tfus418.KN/ACook, Dickson, et al., 1950TRC
Tfus272.95KN/AGoodman and Wise, 1950, 2Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.1 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap15.8 ± 0.1kcal/molVSteele, Chirico, et al., 1995ALS
Deltavap15.8kcal/molN/ASteele, Chirico, et al., 1995DRB

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)195.0kcal/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity187.2kcal/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
8.10 ± 0.02PEMaier and Turner, 1972LLK

IR Spectrum

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Gas Phase Spectrum

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IR spectrum
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Notice: Concentration information is not available for this spectrum and, therefore, molar absorptivity values cannot be derived.

Additional Data

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Owner NIST Standard Reference Data Program
Collection (C) 2018 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
State gas
Instrument HP-GC/MS/IRD

This IR spectrum is from the NIST/EPA Gas-Phase Infrared Database .


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
NIST MS number 6409

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


UV/Visible spectrum

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Victor Talrose, Eugeny B. Stern, Antonina A. Goncharova, Natalia A. Messineva, Natalia V. Trusova, Margarita V. Efimkina

Spectrum

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UVVis spectrum
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Additional Data

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Source Friedel, Orchin, et al., 1948
Owner INEP CP RAS, NIST OSRD
Collection (C) 2007 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin INSTITUTE OF ENERGY PROBLEMS OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, RAS
Source reference RAS UV No. 660
Instrument Beckman spectrophotometer
Melting point -0.2
Boiling point 255.5

Gas Chromatography

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
PackedApiezon L170.1438.Kríz, Popl, et al., 1974 
PackedApiezon L185.1449.Kríz, Popl, et al., 1974 

Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

View large format table.

Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillarySP-1000185.2000.Kríz, Popl, et al., 1974N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySP-1000200.1960.Kríz, Popl, et al., 1974N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-51390.0Song, Lai, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51397.6Song, Lai, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51402.3Song, Lai, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 6. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51390.Lai and Song, 199530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51397.6Lai and Song, 199530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51402.3Lai and Song, 199530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 6. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51404.Rostad and Pereira, 198630. m/0.26 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 4. min, 6. K/min, 300. C @ 20. min

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
PackedPolydimethyl siloxane183.1388.Ferrand, 1962 

Lee's RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-5255.7Wang, Hou, et al., 200730. m/0.30 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 50. C @ 5. min, 5. K/min, 200. C @ 15. min
CapillaryHP-5256.Shao, Wang, et al., 200630. m/0.3 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 5. min, 5. K/min, 200. C @ 15. min
CapillaryHP-5239.57Marynowski, Pieta, et al., 200460. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 35. C; Tend: 300. C
CapillaryHP-5239.57Marynowski, Pieta, et al., 200460. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 35. C; Tend: 300. C
CapillaryHP-5239.99Piao, Chu, et al., 199930. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 50. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 280. C @ 20. min
CapillaryCP Sil 8 CB240.0Bundt, Herbel, et al., 199150. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 300. C
CapillaryDB-5239.84Rostad and Pereira, 198630. m/0.26 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 4. min, 6. K/min, 300. C @ 20. min
CapillaryDB-5238.55Tong, Centen, et al., 1985He, 4. K/min; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 90. C; Tend: 325. C
CapillarySE-52255.41Vassilaros, Kong, et al., 198220. m/0.30 mm/0.25 «mu»m, H2, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 265. C
CapillarySE-52238.77Lee, Vassilaros, et al., 197912. m/0.3 mm/0.34 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 250. C

Lee's RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-5263.9Fuentes, Font, et al., 2007Column length: 60. m; Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-5MS238.2Aracil, Font, et al., 2005Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-5238.77Tong, Centen, et al., 1985He; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Steele, Chirico, et al., 1995
Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Smith, N.K., The standard enthalpies of formation of 2-methylbiphenyl and diphenylmethane, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1995, 27, 671-678. [all data]

Wise, Serijan, et al., 1951
Wise, C.H.; Serijan, K.T.; Goodman, I.A., NACA Technical Report 1003, NACA Technical Report 1003, 1951, 1-10. [all data]

Goodman and Wise, 1950
Goodman, I.A.; Wise, P.H., Dicyclic hydrocarbons. I. 2-Aklylbiphenyls, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1950, 72, 3076-3078. [all data]

Brull, 1935
Brull, L., Sui calori di combustione di alcuni derivati del bifenil, Gazz. Chim. Ital., 1935, 65, 19-28. [all data]

Cox and Pilcher, 1970
Cox, J.D.; Pilcher, G., Thermochemistry of Organic and Organometallic Compounds, Academic Press, New York, 1970, 1-636. [all data]

Goodman and Wise, 1951
Goodman, I.A.; Wise, P.H., Synthesis & purification of some alkylbiphenyls & alkylbicyclohexyls., Natl. Advis. Comm. Aeronaut., Tech. Note NACA TN 2260, Lewis Flight Propulsion Lab., Cleveland, Ohio, 1951. [all data]

Cook, Dickson, et al., 1950
Cook, J.W.; Dickson, G.T.; Jack, J.; Loudon, J.D.; McKeown, J.; MacMillan, J.; Williamson, W.F., Colchicine and Related Compounds, J. Chem. Soc., 1950, 139. [all data]

Goodman and Wise, 1950, 2
Goodman, I.A.; Wise, P.H., Dicycloic Hydrocarbons I. 2-Alkylbiphenyls, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1950, 72, 3076. [all data]

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556018 . [all data]

Maier and Turner, 1972
Maier, J.P.; Turner, D.W., Steric inhibition of resonance studied by molecular photoelectron spectroscopy. Part I. Biphenyls, Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc., 1972, 54, 149. [all data]

Friedel, Orchin, et al., 1948
Friedel, R.A.; Orchin, M.; Reggel, L., Steric hindrance and short wave length bands in the ultraviolet spectra of some naphthalene and diphenyl derivatives, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1948, 70, 199-204. [all data]

Kríz, Popl, et al., 1974
Kríz, J.; Popl, M.; Mostecký, J., Retention indices of biphenyls and diphenylalkanes, J. Chromatogr., 1974, 97, 1, 3-13, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)97577-6 . [all data]

Song, Lai, et al., 2003
Song, C.; Lai, W.-C.; Madhusudan Reddy, K.; Wei, B., Chapter 7. Temperature-programmed retention indices for GC and GC-MS of hydrocarbon fuels and simulated distillation GC of heavy oils in Analytical advances for hydrocarbon research, Hsu,C.S., ed(s)., Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, 2003, 147-193. [all data]

Lai and Song, 1995
Lai, W.-C.; Song, C., Temperature-programmed retention indices for g.c. and g.c.-m.s. analysis of coal- and petroleum-derived liquid fuels, Fuel, 1995, 74, 10, 1436-1451, https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-2361(95)00108-H . [all data]

Rostad and Pereira, 1986
Rostad, C.E.; Pereira, W.E., Kovats and Lee retention indices determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for organic compounds of environmental interest, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1986, 9, 6, 328-334, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240090603 . [all data]

Ferrand, 1962
Ferrand, R., Gas phase chromatography using retention indices for the analysis of tars and their hydrogenation products, Journees internationales d'etude des methodes de separation immediate at de chromatographie; Org. sur l'initiative du IX., 1962, 132-140. [all data]

Wang, Hou, et al., 2007
Wang, G.; Hou, Z.; Sun, Y.; Liu, Y.; Xie, B.; Liu, S., Investigation of pyrolysis behavior of fenoxycarb using PY-GC-MS assisted with chemometric methods, Chem. Anal., 2007, 52, 141-156. [all data]

Shao, Wang, et al., 2006
Shao, X.; Wang, G.; Sun, Y.; Zhang, R.; Xie, K.; Liu, H., Determination and Characterization of the Pyrolysis Products of Isoprocarb by GC-MS, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 2006, 44, 3, 141-147, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/44.3.141 . [all data]

Marynowski, Pieta, et al., 2004
Marynowski, L.; Pieta, M.; Janeczek, J., Composition and source of polycyclic aromatic compounds in deposited dust from selected sites around the Upper Silesia, Poland, Geol. Q., 2004, 48, 2, 169-180. [all data]

Piao, Chu, et al., 1999
Piao, M.; Chu, S.; Zheng, M.; Xu, X., Characterization of the combustion products of polyethylene, Chemosphere, 1999, 39, 9, 1497-1512, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00054-5 . [all data]

Bundt, Herbel, et al., 1991
Bundt, J.; Herbel, W.; Steinhart, H.; Franke, S.; Francke, W., Structure-type separation of diesel fuels by solid phase extraction and identification of the two- and three-ring aromatics by capillary GC-mass spectrometry, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1991, 14, 2, 91-98, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240140205 . [all data]

Tong, Centen, et al., 1985
Tong, H.Y.; Centen, J.D.; Karasek, F.W.; Jellum, E.; Helland, P., Identification of Trace Organic Compounds in Dimethyl Sulphoxide Solution Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, J. Chromatogr., 1985, 324, 373-383, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)81336-4 . [all data]

Vassilaros, Kong, et al., 1982
Vassilaros, D.L.; Kong, R.C.; Later, D.W.; Lee, M.L., Linear retention index system for polycyclic aromatic compounds. Critical evaluation and additional indices, J. Chromatogr., 1982, 252, 1-20, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)88394-1 . [all data]

Lee, Vassilaros, et al., 1979
Lee, M.L.; Vassilaros, D.L.; White, C.M.; Novotny, M., Retention Indices for Programmed-Temperature Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Anal. Chem., 1979, 51, 6, 768-773, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac50042a043 . [all data]

Fuentes, Font, et al., 2007
Fuentes, M.J.; Font, R.; Gomez-Rico, M.F.; Martin-Gullon, I., Pyrolysis and combustion of waste lubricant oil from diesel cars: Decomposition and pollutants, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 2007, 79, 1-2, 215-226, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2006.12.004 . [all data]

Aracil, Font, et al., 2005
Aracil, I.; Font, R.; Conesa, J.A., Semivolatile and volatile compounds from the pyrolysis and combustion of polyvinyl chloride, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 2005, 74, 1-2, 465-478, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2004.09.008 . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References