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Formic acid

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
GT - Glushko Thermocenter, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas-378.6kJ/molCmGuthrie, 1974Heat of hydrolysis; ALS
Deltafgas-379.0kJ/molN/ALebedeva, 1964Value computed using «DELTA»fHliquid° value of -425.5±0.3 kj/mol from Lebedeva, 1964 and «DELTA»vapH° value of 46.5 kj/mol from Guthrie, 1974.; DRB
Deltafgas-379.2 ± 0.6kJ/molCcbLebedeva, 1964Value computed using «DELTA»fHliquid° from Lebedeva, 1964 and «DELTA»vapH° value of 46.3 kJ/mol from Konicek and Wadso, 1970.; DRB
Deltafgas-378.3kJ/molN/ASinke, 1959Value computed using «DELTA»fHliquid° value of -424.8±0.3 kj/mol from Sinke, 1959 and «DELTA»vapH° value of 46.5 kj/mol from Guthrie, 1974.; DRB
Deltafgas-378.5 ± 0.6kJ/molCcbSinke, 1959Value computed using «DELTA»fHliquid° from Sinke, 1959 and «DELTA»vapH° value of 46.3 kJ/mol from Konicek and Wadso, 1970.; DRB
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
gas248.70 ± 0.42J/mol*KN/AMillikan R.C., 1957Other third-law S(298.15 K) value is 248.11(1.26) J/mol*K [ Halford J.O., 1942, Millikan R.C., 1957]. Please also see Waring W., 1952.; GT

Constant pressure heat capacity of gas

Cp,gas (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
33.2650.Chao J., 1986p=1 bar. Selected entropies and heat capacities are in close agreement with statistically calculated values [ Fukushima K., 1971] and value of S(298.15 K) calculated by ab initio method [ East A.L.L., 1997]. Maximum discrepancies with other statistical calculations [ Waring W., 1952, Green J.H.S., 1961, Gurvich, Veyts, et al., 1989] amount to 1.1-3.9 J/mol*K for S(T) and 3.0-5.9 J/mol*K for Cp(T). Please also see Chao J., 1978.; GT
33.44100.
34.91150.
37.83200.
43.54273.15
45.68 ± 0.07298.15
45.84300.
54.52400.
62.63500.
69.81600.
76.04700.
81.34800.
85.77900.
89.401000.
92.331100.
94.651200.
96.481300.
97.911400.
99.021500.

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafliquid-425.09kJ/molCmGuthrie, 1974Heat of hydrolysis; ALS
Deltafliquid-425.5 ± 0.3kJ/molCcbLebedeva, 1964ALS
Deltafliquid-424.8 ± 0.3kJ/molCcbSinke, 1959ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacliquid-253.8 ± 0.3kJ/molCcbLebedeva, 1964Corresponding «DELTA»fliquid = -425.51 kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS
Deltacliquid-254.6 ± 0.3kJ/molCcbSinke, 1959Corresponding «DELTA»fliquid = -424.72 kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
liquid131.84J/mol*KN/AStout and Fisher, 1941Includes 2.89 J/mol*K for zero-point entropy.; DH
liquid128.4J/mol*KN/AParks, Kelley, et al., 1929Extrapolation below 90 K, 29.7 J/mol*K. Revision of previous data.; DH
liquid143.1J/mol*KN/AGibson, Latimer, et al., 1920Used Berthelot's value, 10125 J/mol for H fusion. Extrapolation below 70 K, no details.; DH

Constant pressure heat capacity of liquid

Cp,liquid (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
99.04298.15Stout and Fisher, 1941T = 15 to 300 K.; DH
98.10298.15Glagoleva and Chervov, 1936Temperature range: 298.15, 333.15, 353.15 K.; DH
100.0290.Radulescu and Jula, 1934DH
98.3291.5Gibson, Latimer, et al., 1920T = 71 to 292 K. Value is unsmoothed experimental datum.; DH
95.4298.von Reis, 1881T = 291 to 385 K.; DH

Reaction thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
M - Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

Chlorine anion + Formic acid = (Chlorine anion bullet Formic acid)

By formula: Cl- + CH2O2 = (Cl- bullet CH2O2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar115. ± 8.4kJ/molTDAsFrench, Ikuta, et al., 1982gas phase; B,M
Deltar116. ± 8.8kJ/molCIDTWalker and Sunderlin, 1999gas phase; B
Deltar107. ± 8.4kJ/molIMRELarson and McMahon, 1984gas phase; B,M
Deltar156. ± 8.4kJ/molTDAsYamdagni and Kebarle, 1971gas phase; In serious disagreement with other's values. Source of error not obvious.; B,M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar103.J/mol*KPHPMSFrench, Ikuta, et al., 1982gas phase; M
Deltar101.J/mol*KN/ALarson and McMahon, 1984, 2gas phase; switching reaction(Cl-)t-C4H9OH, Entropy change calculated or estimated; French, Ikuta, et al., 1982; M
Deltar166.J/mol*KPHPMSYamdagni and Kebarle, 1971gas phase; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar84.1 ± 8.4kJ/molTDAsFrench, Ikuta, et al., 1982gas phase; B
Deltar77.0 ± 8.4kJ/molIMRELarson and McMahon, 1984gas phase; B,M
Deltar106. ± 8.4kJ/molTDAsYamdagni and Kebarle, 1971gas phase; In serious disagreement with other's values. Source of error not obvious.; B

HCO2 anion + Hydrogen cation = Formic acid

By formula: CHO2- + H+ = CH2O2

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1449. ± 5.0kJ/molD-EAKim, Bradforth, et al., 1995gas phase; dHacid(0K) = 344.67±0.62 kcal/mol; B
Deltar1445. ± 9.2kJ/molG+TSCaldwell, Renneboog, et al., 1989gas phase; B
Deltar1445. ± 9.2kJ/molG+TSFujio, McIver, et al., 1981gas phase; value altered from reference due to change in acidity scale; B
Deltar1444. ± 12.kJ/molG+TSCumming and Kebarle, 1978gas phase; B
Deltar1423. ± 19.kJ/molEIAEMuftakhov, Vasil'ev, et al., 1999gas phase; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1419. ± 6.3kJ/molH-TSKim, Bradforth, et al., 1995gas phase; dHacid(0K) = 344.67±0.62 kcal/mol; B
Deltar1415. ± 8.4kJ/molIMRECaldwell, Renneboog, et al., 1989gas phase; B
Deltar1416. ± 8.4kJ/molIMREFujio, McIver, et al., 1981gas phase; value altered from reference due to change in acidity scale; B
Deltar1415. ± 8.4kJ/molIMRECumming and Kebarle, 1978gas phase; B

Fluorine anion + Formic acid = (Fluorine anion bullet Formic acid)

By formula: F- + CH2O2 = (F- bullet CH2O2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar190. ± 8.4kJ/molIMRELarson and McMahon, 1983gas phase; These relative affinities are ca. 10 kcal/mol weaker than threshold values (see Wenthold and Squires, 1995) for donors greater than ca. 27 kcal/mol in free energy. This discrepancy has not yet been resolved, though the stronger value appears preferable.; B,M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar101.J/mol*KN/ALarson and McMahon, 1983gas phase; switching reaction(F-)H2O, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Arshadi, Yamdagni, et al., 1970; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar159. ± 8.4kJ/molIMRELarson and McMahon, 1983gas phase; These relative affinities are ca. 10 kcal/mol weaker than threshold values (see Wenthold and Squires, 1995) for donors greater than ca. 27 kcal/mol in free energy. This discrepancy has not yet been resolved, though the stronger value appears preferable.; B,M

CH5O+ + Formic acid = (CH5O+ bullet Formic acid)

By formula: CH5O+ + CH2O2 = (CH5O+ bullet CH2O2)

Bond type: Hydrogen bonds of the type OH-O between organics

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar134.kJ/molICRLarson and McMahon, 1982gas phase; switching reaction((CH3)2OH+)(CH3)2O, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Grimsrud and Kebarle, 1973, Lias, Liebman, et al., 1984, Keesee and Castleman, 1986; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar116.J/mol*KN/ALarson and McMahon, 1982gas phase; switching reaction((CH3)2OH+)(CH3)2O, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Grimsrud and Kebarle, 1973, Lias, Liebman, et al., 1984, Keesee and Castleman, 1986; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar99.6kJ/molICRLarson and McMahon, 1982gas phase; switching reaction((CH3)2OH+)(CH3)2O, Entropy change calculated or estimated; Grimsrud and Kebarle, 1973, Lias, Liebman, et al., 1984, Keesee and Castleman, 1986; M

Iodide + Formic acid = (Iodide bullet Formic acid)

By formula: I- + CH2O2 = (I- bullet CH2O2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar79.1 ± 4.2kJ/molTDAsCaldwell and Kebarle, 1984gas phase; B,M
Deltar54.0 ± 8.8kJ/molCIDTWalker and Sunderlin, 1999gas phase; Authors suggest real value somewhere between this and Caldwell and Kebarle, 1984; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar86.6J/mol*KPHPMSCaldwell and Kebarle, 1984gas phase; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar53.1 ± 4.2kJ/molTDAsCaldwell and Kebarle, 1984gas phase; B

(Chlorine anion bullet Formic acid) + Formic acid = (Chlorine anion bullet 2Formic acid)

By formula: (Cl- bullet CH2O2) + CH2O2 = (Cl- bullet 2CH2O2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar46.9 ± 8.8kJ/molCIDTWalker and Sunderlin, 1999gas phase; B
Deltar143. ± 13.kJ/molN/ALuczynski, Wlodek, et al., 1978gas phase; Buffer gas: H2. Value too bound based on French, Ikuta, et al., 1982, by Grimsrud fractionation factor ( Williamson, Knighton, et al., 1996).; B,M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar230.J/mol*KHPMSLuczynski, Wlodek, et al., 1978gas phase; Entropy change is questionable; M

(Chlorine anion bullet 4Formic acid) + Formic acid = (Chlorine anion bullet 5Formic acid)

By formula: (Cl- bullet 4CH2O2) + CH2O2 = (Cl- bullet 5CH2O2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar42.3 ± 8.4kJ/molN/ALuczynski, Wlodek, et al., 1978gas phase; Buffer gas: H2. Value too bound based on French, Ikuta, et al., 1982, by Grimsrud fractionation factor ( Williamson, Knighton, et al., 1996).; B,M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar48.1J/mol*KHPMSLuczynski, Wlodek, et al., 1978gas phase; Entropy change is questionable; M

(Chlorine anion bullet 2Formic acid) + Formic acid = (Chlorine anion bullet 3Formic acid)

By formula: (Cl- bullet 2CH2O2) + CH2O2 = (Cl- bullet 3CH2O2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar93. ± 11.kJ/molN/ALuczynski, Wlodek, et al., 1978gas phase; Buffer gas: H2. Value too bound based on French, Ikuta, et al., 1982, by Grimsrud fractionation factor ( Williamson, Knighton, et al., 1996).; B,M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar150.J/mol*KHPMSLuczynski, Wlodek, et al., 1978gas phase; Entropy change is questionable; M

HCO2 anion + Formic acid = (HCO2 anion bullet Formic acid)

By formula: CHO2- + CH2O2 = (CHO2- bullet CH2O2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar154. ± 4.2kJ/molN/AMeot-Ner and Sieck, 1986gas phase; B,M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar164.J/mol*KPHPMSMeot-Ner and Sieck, 1986gas phase; large «DELTA»rH, «DELTA»rS,; cyclic structure? pyrolysis?; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar105. ± 6.7kJ/molTDAsMeot-Ner and Sieck, 1986gas phase; B

(HCO2 anion bullet 4Formic acid) + Formic acid = (HCO2 anion bullet 5Formic acid)

By formula: (CHO2- bullet 4CH2O2) + CH2O2 = (CHO2- bullet 5CH2O2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar42.3 ± 8.4kJ/molN/ALuczynski, Wlodek, et al., 1978gas phase; Buffer gas H2. There may be appreciable fractionation of neutral gases: Williamson, Knighton, et al., 1996; B,M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar50.J/mol*KHPMSLuczynski, Wlodek, et al., 1978gas phase; Entropy change is questionable; M

(Chlorine anion bullet 3Formic acid) + Formic acid = (Chlorine anion bullet 4Formic acid)

By formula: (Cl- bullet 3CH2O2) + CH2O2 = (Cl- bullet 4CH2O2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar59.0 ± 9.2kJ/molN/ALuczynski, Wlodek, et al., 1978gas phase; Buffer gas: H2. Value too bound based on French, Ikuta, et al., 1982, by Grimsrud fractionation factor ( Williamson, Knighton, et al., 1996).; B,M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar84.J/mol*KHPMSLuczynski, Wlodek, et al., 1978gas phase; M

(HCO2 anion bullet 3Formic acid) + Formic acid = (HCO2 anion bullet 4Formic acid)

By formula: (CHO2- bullet 3CH2O2) + CH2O2 = (CHO2- bullet 4CH2O2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar59.4 ± 8.8kJ/molN/ALuczynski, Wlodek, et al., 1978gas phase; Buffer gas H2. There may be appreciable fractionation of neutral gases: Williamson, Knighton, et al., 1996; B,M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar90.0J/mol*KHPMSLuczynski, Wlodek, et al., 1978gas phase; M

(HCO2 anion bullet 2Formic acid) + Formic acid = (HCO2 anion bullet 3Formic acid)

By formula: (CHO2- bullet 2CH2O2) + CH2O2 = (CHO2- bullet 3CH2O2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar84. ± 11.kJ/molN/ALuczynski, Wlodek, et al., 1978gas phase; Buffer gas H2. There may be appreciable fractionation of neutral gases: Williamson, Knighton, et al., 1996; B,M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar130.J/mol*KHPMSLuczynski, Wlodek, et al., 1978gas phase; M

(HCO2 anion bullet Formic acid) + Formic acid = (HCO2 anion bullet 2Formic acid)

By formula: (CHO2- bullet CH2O2) + CH2O2 = (CHO2- bullet 2CH2O2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar109. ± 13.kJ/molN/ALuczynski, Wlodek, et al., 1978gas phase; Buffer gas H2. There may be appreciable fractionation of neutral gases: Williamson, Knighton, et al., 1996; B,M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar140.J/mol*KHPMSLuczynski, Wlodek, et al., 1978gas phase; M

CH6N+ + Formic acid = (CH6N+ bullet Formic acid)

By formula: CH6N+ + CH2O2 = (CH6N+ bullet CH2O2)

Bond type: Hydrogen bonds of the type NH+-O between organics

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar79.5kJ/molPHPMSMeot-Ner, 1984gas phase; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar101.J/mol*KPHPMSMeot-Ner, 1984gas phase; M

CH2NO5- + Water + Formic acid = CH4NO6-

By formula: CH2NO5- + H2O + CH2O2 = CH4NO6-

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar18.4 ± 0.84kJ/molIMREViidanoja, Reiner, et al., 2000gas phase; B

Bromine anion + Formic acid = CH2BrO2-

By formula: Br- + CH2O2 = CH2BrO2-

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar72.0 ± 7.1kJ/molCIDTWalker and Sunderlin, 1999gas phase; B

CH2IO2- + 2Formic acid = C2H4IO4-

By formula: CH2IO2- + 2CH2O2 = C2H4IO4-

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar41.8 ± 8.8kJ/molCIDTWalker and Sunderlin, 1999gas phase; B

NO3 anion + Formic acid = CH2NO5-

By formula: NO3- + CH2O2 = CH2NO5-

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar47.70 ± 0.84kJ/molIMREViidanoja, Reiner, et al., 1998gas phase; B

CH2BrO2- + 2Formic acid = C2H4BrO4-

By formula: CH2BrO2- + 2CH2O2 = C2H4BrO4-

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar40. ± 7.1kJ/molCIDTWalker and Sunderlin, 1999gas phase; B

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Guthrie, 1974
Guthrie, J.P., Hydration of carboxamides. Evaluation of the free energy change for addition of water to acetamide and formamide derivatives, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1974, 96, 3608-3615. [all data]

Lebedeva, 1964
Lebedeva, N.D., Heats of combustion of monocarboxylic acids, Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.), 1964, 38, 1435-1437. [all data]

Konicek and Wadso, 1970
Konicek, J.; Wadso, I., Enthalpies of vaporization of organic compounds. VII. Some carboxylic acids, Acta Chem. Scand., 1970, 24, 2612-26. [all data]

Sinke, 1959
Sinke, G.C., The heat of formation of formic acid, J. Phys. Chem., 1959, 63, 2063. [all data]

Millikan R.C., 1957
Millikan R.C., Infrared spectra and vibrational assignment of monomeric formic acid, J. Chem. Phys., 1957, 27, 1305-1308. [all data]

Halford J.O., 1942
Halford J.O., Entropy of the monomeric forms of formic acid and acetic acid, J. Chem. Phys., 1942, 10, 582-584. [all data]

Waring W., 1952
Waring W., Some thermodynamic properties of formic acid, Chem. Rev., 1952, 51, 171-183. [all data]

Chao J., 1986
Chao J., Thermodynamic properties of key organic oxygen compounds in the carbon range C1 to C4. Part 2. Ideal gas properties, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1986, 15, 1369-1436. [all data]

Fukushima K., 1971
Fukushima K., Normal coordinate treatment and thermodynamic properties of the cis-trans isomers of formic acid and its deutero-analog, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1971, 3, 553-562. [all data]

East A.L.L., 1997
East A.L.L., Ab initio statistical thermodynamical models for the computation of third-law entropies, J. Chem. Phys., 1997, 106, 6655-6674. [all data]

Green J.H.S., 1961
Green J.H.S., Thermodynamic properties of organic oxygen compounds. Part III. Formic acid, J. Chem. Soc., 1961, 2241-2242. [all data]

Gurvich, Veyts, et al., 1989
Gurvich, L.V.; Veyts, I.V.; Alcock, C.B., Thermodynamic Properties of Individual Substances, 4th ed.; Vols. 1 and 2, Hemisphere, New York, 1989. [all data]

Chao J., 1978
Chao J., Ideal gas thermodynamic properties of methanoic and ethanoic acids, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1978, 7, 363-377. [all data]

Stout and Fisher, 1941
Stout, J.W.; Fisher, L.H., The entropy of formic acid. The heat capacity from 15 to 300K. Heats of fusion and vaporization, J. Chem. Phys., 1941, 9, 163-168. [all data]

Parks, Kelley, et al., 1929
Parks, G.S.; Kelley, K.K.; Huffman, H.M., Thermal data on organic compounds. V. A revision of the entropies and free energies of nineteen organic compounds, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1929, 51, 1969-1973. [all data]

Gibson, Latimer, et al., 1920
Gibson, G.E.; Latimer, W.M.; Parks, G.S., Entropy changes at low temperatures. I. Formic acid and urea. A test of the third law of thermodynamics, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1920, 42, 1533-1542. [all data]

Glagoleva and Chervov, 1936
Glagoleva, A.A.; Chervov, S.I., Investigation of the heat capacity of formic acid and its aqueous solutions, Zhur. Obshch. Khim., 1936, 6, 685-690. [all data]

Radulescu and Jula, 1934
Radulescu, D.; Jula, O., Beiträge zur Bestimmung der Abstufung der Polarität des Aminstickstoffes in den organischen Verbindungen, Z. Phys. Chem., 1934, B26, 390-393. [all data]

von Reis, 1881
von Reis, M.A., Die specifische Wärme flüssiger organischer Verbindungen und ihre Beziehung zu deren Moleculargewicht, Ann. Physik [3], 1881, 13, 447-464. [all data]

French, Ikuta, et al., 1982
French, M.A.; Ikuta, S.; Kebarle, P., Hydrogen bonding of O-H and C-H hydrogen donors to Cl-. Results from mass spectrometric measurement of the ion-molecule equilibria RH + Cl- = RHCl-, Can. J. Chem., 1982, 60, 1907. [all data]

Walker and Sunderlin, 1999
Walker, B.W.; Sunderlin, L.S., The thermochemistry of formic acid halide anion clusters, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 1999, 184, 2-3, 183-189, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1387-3806(99)00008-1 . [all data]

Larson and McMahon, 1984
Larson, J.W.; McMahon, T.B., Hydrogen bonding in gas phase anions. An experimental investigation of the interaction between chloride ion and bronsted acids from ICR chloride exchange equilibria, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1984, 106, 517. [all data]

Yamdagni and Kebarle, 1971
Yamdagni, R.; Kebarle, P., Hydrogen bonding energies to negative ions from gas phase measurements of ionic equilibria, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1971, 93, 7139. [all data]

Larson and McMahon, 1984, 2
Larson, J.W.; McMahon, T.B., Gas phase negative ion chemistry of alkylchloroformates, Can. J. Chem., 1984, 62, 675. [all data]

Kim, Bradforth, et al., 1995
Kim, E.H.; Bradforth, S.E.; Arnold, D.W.; Metz, R.B.; Neumark, D.M., Study of HCO2 and DCO2 by Negative Ion Photoelectron Spectroscopy, J. Chem. Phys., 1995, 103, 18, 7801, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.470196 . [all data]

Caldwell, Renneboog, et al., 1989
Caldwell, G.; Renneboog, R.; Kebarle, P., Gas Phase Acidities of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids, Based on Measurements of Proton Transfer Equilibria, Can. J. Chem., 1989, 67, 4, 661, https://doi.org/10.1139/v89-092 . [all data]

Fujio, McIver, et al., 1981
Fujio, M.; McIver, R.T., Jr.; Taft, R.W., Effects on the acidities of phenols from specific substituent-solvent interactions. Inherent substituent parameters from gas phase acidities, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1981, 103, 4017. [all data]

Cumming and Kebarle, 1978
Cumming, J.B.; Kebarle, P., Summary of gas phase measurements involving acids AH. Entropy changes in proton transfer reactions involving negative ions. Bond dissociation energies D(A-H) and electron affinities EA(A), Can. J. Chem., 1978, 56, 1. [all data]

Muftakhov, Vasil'ev, et al., 1999
Muftakhov, M.V.; Vasil'ev, Y.V.; Mazunov, V.A., Determination of electron affinity of carbonyl radicals by means of negative ion mass spectrometry, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 1999, 13, 12, 1104-1108, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0231(19990630)13:12<1104::AID-RCM619>3.0.CO;2-C . [all data]

Larson and McMahon, 1983
Larson, J.W.; McMahon, T.B., Strong hydrogen bonding in gas-phase anions. An ion cyclotron resonance determination of fluoride binding energetics to bronsted acids from gas-phase fluoride exchange equilibria measurements, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1983, 105, 2944. [all data]

Wenthold and Squires, 1995
Wenthold, P.G.; Squires, R.R., Bond dissociation energies of F2(-) and HF2(-). A gas-phase experimental and G2 theoretical study, J. Phys. Chem., 1995, 99, 7, 2002, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100007a034 . [all data]

Arshadi, Yamdagni, et al., 1970
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Larson and McMahon, 1982
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Notes

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