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Formic acid

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Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Chris Muzny, director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil373.9 ± 0.5KAVGN/AAverage of 25 out of 30 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus281.5 ± 0.6KAVGN/AAverage of 9 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple281.45KN/AWilhoit, Chao, et al., 1985Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.1 K; TRC
Ttriple281.40KN/AStout and Fisher, 1941Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.06 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ptriple0.0236barN/ATaylor and Bruton, 1952Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.000067 bar; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc577.KN/AAnselme and Teja, 1990Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 30. K; Tc > 577 K, which was observed with decomposition; TRC
Tc588.KN/AAmbrose and Ghiassee, 1987Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 10. K; TRC
Tc580.KN/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap46.3kJ/molN/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
Deltavap36.0kJ/molAStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 283. - 384. K.; AC
Deltavap46.3 ± 0.5kJ/molCKonicek and Wadso, 1970ALS
Deltavap46.3 ± 0.5kJ/molCKonicek, Wadsö, et al., 1970AC
Deltavap19.9kJ/molN/AStout and Fisher, 1941, 2AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
22.69373.8N/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
35.2315.EBAmbrose and Ghiassee, 1987, 2Based on data from 300. - 392. K.; AC
35.2325.N/ADreisbach and Shrader, 1949Based on data from 310. - 374. K. See also Dreisbach and Martin, 1949.; AC
29.6303.N/ACampbell and Campbell, 1934AC
20.3315.N/ACoolidge, 1930Based on data from 273. - 373. K.; AC
20.9338.N/ACoolidge, 1930Based on data from 273. - 373. K.; AC
20.4315.CCoolidge, 1930AC
21.1338.CCoolidge, 1930AC
36.8288.N/AKahlbaum, 1894Based on data from 273. - 307. K.; AC
47.7374.N/AKahlbaum, 1883Based on data from 295. - 374. K.; AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

ΔvapH = A exp(-αTr) (1 − Tr)β
    ΔvapH = Enthalpy of vaporization (at saturation pressure) (kJ/mol)
    Tr = reduced temperature (T / Tc)

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Temperature (K) 298. - 374.
A (kJ/mol) 23.8
alpha 2.1043
beta -1.2652
Tc (K) 580.
ReferenceMajer and Svoboda, 1985

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

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Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
273.7 - 307.42.00121515.-139.408Kahlbaum, 1894, 2Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

Enthalpy of sublimation

DeltasubH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
60.5275.N/AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 268. - 281. K.; AC
62. ± 1.213.TE,MECalis-Van Ginkel, Calis, et al., 1978Based on data from 203. - 218. K.; AC
60.1264.AStull, 1947Based on data from 253. - 275. K.; AC
60.7266.N/ACoolidge, 1930Based on data from 265. - 268. K. See also Jones, 1960.; AC

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
12.678281.40Stout and Fisher, 1941, 3DH

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
45.05281.40Stout and Fisher, 1941, 3DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


References

Go To: Top, Phase change data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Wilhoit, Chao, et al., 1985
Wilhoit, R.C.; Chao, J.; Hall, K.R., Thermodynamic Properties of Key Organic Compounds in the Carbon Range C1 to C4. Part 1. Properties of Condensed Phases, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1985, 14, 1. [all data]

Stout and Fisher, 1941
Stout, J.W.; Fisher, L.H., The entropy of formic acid. The heat capacity from 15 to 300 K. Heats of fusion and vaporization, J. Chem. Phys., 1941, 9, 163-8. [all data]

Taylor and Bruton, 1952
Taylor, M.D.; Bruton, J., The vapour phase dissociation of some carboxylic acids. II. Formic and propionic acids., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1952, 74, 4151. [all data]

Anselme and Teja, 1990
Anselme, M.J.; Teja, A.S., The critical properties of rapidly reacting substances, AIChE Symp. Ser., 1990, 86, 279, 128-32. [all data]

Ambrose and Ghiassee, 1987
Ambrose, D.; Ghiassee, N.B., Vapor Pressures and Critical Temperatures and Critical Pressures of Some Alkanoic Acids: C1 to C10, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1987, 19, 505. [all data]

Majer and Svoboda, 1985
Majer, V.; Svoboda, V., Enthalpies of Vaporization of Organic Compounds: A Critical Review and Data Compilation, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1985, 300. [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Konicek and Wadso, 1970
Konicek, J.; Wadso, I., Enthalpies of vaporization of organic compounds. VII. Some carboxylic acids, Acta Chem. Scand., 1970, 24, 2612-26. [all data]

Konicek, Wadsö, et al., 1970
Konicek, Jiri; Wadsö, Ingemar; Munch-Petersen, J.; Ohlson, Ragnar; Shimizu, Akira, Enthalpies of Vaporization of Organic Compounds. VII. Some Carboxylic Acids., Acta Chem. Scand., 1970, 24, 2612-2616, https://doi.org/10.3891/acta.chem.scand.24-2612 . [all data]

Stout and Fisher, 1941, 2
Stout, J.W.; Fisher, Leon H., The Entropy of Formic Acid. The Heat Capacity from 15 to 300°K. Heats of Fusion and Vaporization, J. Chem. Phys., 1941, 9, 2, 163, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1750869 . [all data]

Ambrose and Ghiassee, 1987, 2
Ambrose, D.; Ghiassee, N.B., Vapour pressures and critical temperatures and critical pressures of some alkanoic acids: C1 to C10, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 1987, 19, 5, 505-519, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9614(87)90147-9 . [all data]

Dreisbach and Shrader, 1949
Dreisbach, R.R.; Shrader, S.A., Vapor Pressure--Temperature Data on Some Organic Compounds, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1949, 41, 12, 2879-2880, https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50480a054 . [all data]

Dreisbach and Martin, 1949
Dreisbach, R.R.; Martin, R.A., Physical Data on Some Organic Compounds, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1949, 41, 12, 2875-2878, https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50480a053 . [all data]

Campbell and Campbell, 1934
Campbell, Alan Newton; Campbell, Alexandra Jean Robson, The thermodynamics of binary liquid mixtures : formic acid and water, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1934, 30, 1109, https://doi.org/10.1039/tf9343001109 . [all data]

Coolidge, 1930
Coolidge, Albert Sprague, THE VAPOR PRESSURE AND HEATS OF FUSION AND VAPORIZATION OF FORMIC ACID, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1930, 52, 5, 1874-1887, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01368a018 . [all data]

Kahlbaum, 1894
Kahlbaum, G.W.A., Z. Phys. Chem., Stoechiom. Verwandtschaftsl., 1894, 13, 14. [all data]

Kahlbaum, 1883
Kahlbaum, Georg W.A., Ueber die Abhängigkeit der Siedetemperatur vom Luftdruck, Ber. Dtsch. Chem. Ges., 1883, 16, 2, 2476-2484, https://doi.org/10.1002/cber.188301602178 . [all data]

Kahlbaum, 1894, 2
Kahlbaum, G.W.A., Studien uber Dampfspannkraftsmessungen, Z. Phys. Chem. (Leipzig), 1894, 13, 14-55. [all data]

Calis-Van Ginkel, Calis, et al., 1978
Calis-Van Ginkel, C.H.D.; Calis, G.H.M.; Timmermans, C.W.M.; de Kruif, C.G.; Oonk, H.A.J., Enthalpies of sublimation and dimerization in the vapour phase of formic, acetic, propanoic, and butanoic acids, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 1978, 10, 11, 1083-1088, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9614(78)90082-4 . [all data]

Stull, 1947
Stull, Daniel R., Vapor Pressure of Pure Substances. Organic and Inorganic Compounds, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1947, 39, 4, 517-540, https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50448a022 . [all data]

Jones, 1960
Jones, A.H., Sublimation Pressure Data for Organic Compounds., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1960, 5, 2, 196-200, https://doi.org/10.1021/je60006a019 . [all data]

Stout and Fisher, 1941, 3
Stout, J.W.; Fisher, L.H., The entropy of formic acid. The heat capacity from 15 to 300K. Heats of fusion and vaporization, J. Chem. Phys., 1941, 9, 163-168. [all data]


Notes

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