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2-Pyrrolidinone

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas-197.4 ± 3.1kJ/molCcbSteele, Chirico, et al., 1989 

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafliquid-266.04 ± 0.42kJ/molCcbSteele, Chirico, et al., 1989ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacliquid-2308.40 ± 0.34kJ/molCcbSteele, Chirico, et al., 1989ALS
Deltacliquid-2288.2 ± 0.42kJ/molCcbStrepikeev, Skuratov, et al., 1955Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -2289. kJ/mol; ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
liquid189.7J/mol*KN/AKolesov, Paukov, et al., 1962DH
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
solid,1 bar136.8J/mol*KN/AKolesov, Paukov, et al., 1959DH

Constant pressure heat capacity of liquid

Cp,liquid (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
169.6300.Steele, Chirico, et al., 1989DH
169.4300.00Kolesov, Paukov, et al., 1962T = 60 to 350 K.; DH

Constant pressure heat capacity of solid

Cp,solid (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
135.6290.Kolesov, Paukov, et al., 1959T = 60 to 335 K.; DH

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Kenneth Kroenlein director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil518.2KN/AAldrich Chemical Company Inc., 1990BS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus298.72KN/ABlumenshine and Sears, 1966Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.1 K; TRC
Tfus298.65KN/AStrepikheev, Skuratov, et al., 1955Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.5 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple299.080KN/AKolesov, Paukov, et al., 1962, 2Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.01 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap73.6 ± 1.3kJ/molEB,BGMorgan and Kopp, 1998Based on data from 391. - 484. K.; AC
Deltavap68.7 ± 1.5kJ/molVSteele, Chirico, et al., 1989ALS

Reduced pressure boiling point

Tboil (K) Pressure (bar) Reference Comment
406.20.016Weast and Grasselli, 1989BS

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
60.410.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 395. - 518. K.; AC

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
13.920299.082Kolesov, Paukov, et al., 1962DH
13.920299.082Kolesov, Paukov, et al., 1959DH
13.92299.Domalski and Hearing, 1996AC

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
46.5299.082Kolesov, Paukov, et al., 1962DH
46.5299.082Kolesov, Paukov, et al., 1959DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
9.2PEAndreocci, Devillanova, et al., 1980LLK
9.32 ± 0.02PIPotapov, Filyugina, et al., 1968RDSH
9.45PEAndreocci, Devillanova, et al., 1980Vertical value; LLK
9.53PEGerson, Worley, et al., 1978Vertical value; LLK

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
C2H3NO+10.7C2H4PIPotapov, Filyugina, et al., 1968RDSH
C4H6NO+9.9HPIPotapov, Filyugina, et al., 1968RDSH

IR Spectrum

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Gas Phase Spectrum

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IR spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Standard Reference Data Program
Collection (C) 2018 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Sadtler Research Labs Under US-EPA Contract
State gas

This IR spectrum is from the NIST/EPA Gas-Phase Infrared Database .


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

View image of digitized spectrum (can be printed in landscape orientation).

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Japan AIST/NIMC Database- Spectrum MS-NW-4213
NIST MS number 227720

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


Gas Chromatography

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-51076.Dallüge, van Stee, et al., 200230. m/0.25 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 2.5 K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryHP-5MS1077.Kim, Shin, et al., 200130. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 200. C @ 20. min

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-5MS1059.9Andriamaharavo, 201430. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 60C (1 min) => 5 C/min => 210C => 10 C/min => 280C (15 min)

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySupelcowax-102002.Chung, Fung, et al., 200560. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 35. C @ 5. min, 6. K/min, 195. C @ 60. min
CapillaryDB-Wax2029.Aubert, Günata, et al., 200330. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, 40. C @ 3. min, 2. K/min, 245. C @ 20. min
CapillaryDB-Wax2020.Kim, Shin, et al., 200130. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 200. C @ 20. min

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySPB-51069.Vasta, Ratel, et al., 200760. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, 40. C @ 5. min, 3. K/min, 230. C @ 5. min
CapillaryDB-11045.Chen and Ho, 199960. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 2. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 260. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryBPX-51078.Machiels, van Ruth, et al., 200360. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He; Program: 40C (4min) => 2C/min => 90C => 4C/min => 130C => 8C/min => 250 C (10min)
CapillaryRSL-1501048.Buchbauer, Nikiforov, et al., 199460. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 30c (1.5min) => 20C/min => 55C => 6C/min => 200C(10min)

Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryRTX-Wax2048.Prososki, Etzel, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 10. K/min, 220. C @ 10. min
CapillaryDB-Wax2037.Wei, Mura, et al., 200160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 200. C

Normal alkane RI, polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax2002.Welke, Manfroi, et al., 201230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-Wax2017.Welke, Manfroi, et al., 201230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-Wax1988.Krings, Zelena, et al., 200630. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 45C(5min) => 5C/min => 150C => 10C/min => 240C (10min)
CapillaryDB-Wax1988.Krings, Zelena, et al., 200630. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 45C(5min) => 5C/min => 150C => 10C/min => 240C (10min)

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Steele, Chirico, et al., 1989
Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Nguyen, A.; Hossenlopp, I.A.; Smith, N.K., Determination of some pure compound ideal-gas enthalpies of formation, AIChE Symp. Ser., 1989, 85, 140-162. [all data]

Strepikeev, Skuratov, et al., 1955
Strepikeev, A.A.; Skuratov, S.M.; Kachinskaya, O.N.; Muromova, R.S.; Brikina, E.P.; Shtekhter, S.M., About the tension of cycle in lactames, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1955, 102, 105-108. [all data]

Cox and Pilcher, 1970
Cox, J.D.; Pilcher, G., Thermochemistry of Organic and Organometallic Compounds, Academic Press, New York, 1970, 1-636. [all data]

Kolesov, Paukov, et al., 1962
Kolesov, V.P.; Paukov, I.E.; Skuratov, S.M., Free energy change in the polymerization of lactams under standard conditions [low temperature heat capacities of lactams and potassium], Zhur. Fiz. Khim., 1962, 36, 770-779. [all data]

Kolesov, Paukov, et al., 1959
Kolesov, V.P.; Paukov, I.E.; Skuratov, S.M.; Seregin, E.A., Standard entropies of certain lactams, Dokl. Akad. Nauk., 1959, SSSR 128, 130-132. [all data]

Aldrich Chemical Company Inc., 1990
Aldrich Chemical Company Inc., Catalog Handbook of Fine Chemicals, Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc., Milwaukee WI, 1990, 1. [all data]

Blumenshine and Sears, 1966
Blumenshine, R.L.; Sears, P.G., Several Properties of the 2-Pyrrolidone-Water System as Functions of Composition and Temperature, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1966, 11, 141. [all data]

Strepikheev, Skuratov, et al., 1955
Strepikheev, A.A.; Skuratov, S.M.; Kachinskaya, O.N.; Muromova, R.S.; Brykina, E.P.; Shtekher, S.M., Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1955, 102, 105. [all data]

Kolesov, Paukov, et al., 1962, 2
Kolesov, V.P.; Paukov, I.E.; Skuratov, S.M., Free energy change in the polymerizations of lactams under standard conditions chloride), Zh. Fiz. Khim., 1962, 36, 770. [all data]

Morgan and Kopp, 1998
Morgan, Kathleen M.; Kopp, Daniel A., Solvent effects on the stability of simple secondary amides «8224», J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2, 1998, 12, 2759-2764, https://doi.org/10.1039/a802717j . [all data]

Weast and Grasselli, 1989
CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds, 2nd Editon, Weast,R.C and Grasselli, J.G., ed(s)., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1989, 1. [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Domalski and Hearing, 1996
Domalski, Eugene S.; Hearing, Elizabeth D., Heat Capacities and Entropies of Organic Compounds in the Condensed Phase. Volume III, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1996, 25, 1, 1, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555985 . [all data]

Andreocci, Devillanova, et al., 1980
Andreocci, M.V.; Devillanova, F.A.; Furlani, C.; Mattogno, G.; Verani, G.; Zanoni, R., Structural characterization of some substituted azolidine molecules: UPS photoelectron spectroscopic studies, J. Mol. Struct., 1980, 69, 151. [all data]

Potapov, Filyugina, et al., 1968
Potapov, V.K.; Filyugina, A.D.; Shigorin, D.N.; Ozerova, G.A., Photoionization of some compounds containing the carbonyl and amino groups, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1968, 180, 398, In original 352. [all data]

Gerson, Worley, et al., 1978
Gerson, S.H.; Worley, S.D.; Bodor, N.; Kaminski, J.J.; Flechtner, T.W., The photoelectron spectra of some heterocyclic compounds which contain N, O, Cl, and Br, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1978, 13, 421. [all data]

Dallüge, van Stee, et al., 2002
Dallüge, J.; van Stee, L.L.P.; Xu, X.; Williams, J.; Beens, J.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.Th., Unravelling the composition of very complex samples by comprehensive gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Cigarette smoke, J. Chromatogr. A, 2002, 974, 1-2, 169-184, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(02)01384-5 . [all data]

Kim, Shin, et al., 2001
Kim, T.H.; Shin, J.H.; Baek, H.H.; Lee, H.J., Volatile flavour compounds in suspension culture of Agastache rugosa Kuntze (Korean mint), J. Sci. Food Agric., 2001, 81, 6, 569-575, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.845 . [all data]

Andriamaharavo, 2014
Andriamaharavo, N.R., Retention Data. NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center., NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, 2014. [all data]

Chung, Fung, et al., 2005
Chung, H.Y.; Fung, P.K.; Kim, J.-S., Aroma impact components in commercial plain sufu, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53, 5, 1684-1691, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf048617d . [all data]

Aubert, Günata, et al., 2003
Aubert, C.; Günata; Ambid, C.; Baumes, R., Changes in physicochemical characteristics and volatile constituents of yellow- and white-fleshed nectarines during maturation and artificial ripening, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2003, 51, 10, 3083-3091, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf026153i . [all data]

Vasta, Ratel, et al., 2007
Vasta, V.; Ratel, J.; Engel, E., Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Volatile Compounds in Raw Meat for the Authentication of the Feeding Background of Farm Animals, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55, 12, 4630-4639, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf063432n . [all data]

Chen and Ho, 1999
Chen, J.; Ho, C.-T., Comparison of volatile generation in serine/threonine/glutamine-ribose/glucose/fructose model systems, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1999, 47, 2, 643-647, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf980771a . [all data]

Machiels, van Ruth, et al., 2003
Machiels, D.; van Ruth, S.M.; Posthumus, M.A.; Istasse, L., Gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis of the volatile compounds of two commercial Irish beef meats, Talanta, 2003, 60, 4, 755-764, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0039-9140(03)00133-4 . [all data]

Buchbauer, Nikiforov, et al., 1994
Buchbauer, G.; Nikiforov, A.; Remberg, B., Headspace constituents of opium, Planta Medica, 1994, 60, 2, 181-183, https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-959447 . [all data]

Prososki, Etzel, et al., 2007
Prososki, R.A.; Etzel, M.R.; Rankin, S.A., Solvent type affects the number, distribution, and relative quantities of volatile compounds found in sweet whey powder, J. Dairy Sci., 2007, 90, 2, 523-531, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(07)71535-7 . [all data]

Wei, Mura, et al., 2001
Wei, A.; Mura, K.; Shibamoto, T., Antioxidative activity of volatile chemicals extracted from beer, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001, 49, 8, 4097-4101, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf010325e . [all data]

Welke, Manfroi, et al., 2012
Welke, J.E.; Manfroi, V.; Zanus, M.; Lazarotto, M.; Zini, C.A., Characterization of the volatile profile of Brazilian merlot wines through comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection, J. Chromatogr. A, 2012, 1226, 124-139, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2012.01.002 . [all data]

Krings, Zelena, et al., 2006
Krings, U.; Zelena, K.; Wu, S.; Berger, R.G., Thin-layer high-vacuum distillation to isolate volatile flavour compounds of cocoa powder, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 2006, 223, 5, 675-681, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-006-0252-x . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References