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Pentane, 3-ethyl-2-methyl-

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Gas Chromatography

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillarySqualane100.762.Heinzen, Soares, et al., 1999 
CapillaryOV-1010.743.Skrbic, 1997 
CapillaryOV-1010.755.Skrbic, 1997 
PackedSqualane78.5765.5Zhang and Lu, 1996 
CapillarySqualane25.758.Hilal, Carreira, et al., 1994 
CapillaryOV-160.763.Engewald, Maurer, et al., 1989 
CapillaryOV-10140.759.Laub and Purnell, 1988 
CapillaryOV-10160.762.Laub and Purnell, 1988 
CapillaryOV-10180.765.Laub and Purnell, 1988 
CapillarySqualane50.760.3Lunskii and Paizanskaya, 1988He; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm
CapillarySqualane70.762.75Lunskii and Paizanskaya, 1988He; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm
CapillaryOV-10140.760.2Boneva and Dimov, 1986100. m/0.27 mm/0.9 «mu»m
CapillaryOV-10150.761.5Boneva and Dimov, 1986100. m/0.27 mm/0.9 «mu»m
CapillaryOV-10160.762.7Boneva and Dimov, 1986100. m/0.27 mm/0.9 «mu»m
CapillaryOV-10170.763.8Boneva and Dimov, 1986100. m/0.27 mm/0.9 «mu»m
CapillaryOV-10130.758.Chien, Furio, et al., 1983 
CapillaryOV-10140.759.Chien, Furio, et al., 1983 
CapillaryOV-10150.760.Chien, Furio, et al., 1983 
CapillaryOV-10160.762.Chien, Furio, et al., 1983 
CapillaryOV-10170.763.Chien, Furio, et al., 1983 
CapillaryOV-10180.765.Chien, Furio, et al., 1983 
CapillaryDB-160.763.2Lubeck and Sutton, 1983Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.264 mm
CapillaryDB-160.763.3Lubeck and Sutton, 198360. m/0.259 mm/1. «mu»m
CapillarySqualane50.761.1Bajus, Veselý, et al., 1979Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedTriacontane80.763.Castello and D'Amato, 1979He, Chromosorb W AW (60-80 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedSqualane80.764.Castello and D'Amato, 1979He, Chromosorb W AW (60-80 mesh); Column length: 3. m
CapillarySqualane60.762.Chretien and Dubois, 1976 
CapillarySqualane50.761.Rijks and Cramers, 1974N2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane70.764.Rijks and Cramers, 1974N2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryVacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)35.756.Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972 
CapillaryVacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)45.758.Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972 
CapillaryVacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)50.759.Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972 
CapillaryVacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)58.760.Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972 
CapillaryVacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)68.762.Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972 
CapillarySqualane70.761.5Dimov and Schopov, 1971Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSE-3080.763.Mitra and Saha, 1970N2
PackedSqualane25.759.Mitra and Saha, 1970N2
PackedSqualane80.764.Mitra and Saha, 1970N2
CapillarySqualane40.760.Matukuma, 1969N2; Column length: 91.4 m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane27.758.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane49.762.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane67.763.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane86.765.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane30.759.Tourres, 1967H2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane50.762.Tourres, 1967H2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane70.765.Tourres, 1967H2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane22.758.Evans, 1966Untreated celite; Column length: 1.8 m
PackedSqualane40.760.Evans, 1966Untreated celite; Column length: 1.8 m
PackedSqualane55.762.Evans, 1966Untreated celite; Column length: 1.8 m
PackedSqualane70.764.Evans, 1966Untreated celite; Column length: 1.8 m

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-101755.Hayes and Pitzer, 1982110. m/0.25 mm/0.20 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 35. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryApiezon L760.Louis, 1971N2, 1. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 60. C

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPetrocol DH-100759.Haagen-Smit Laboratory, 1997He; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.2 mm; Program: 5C(10min) => 5C/min => 50C(48min) => 1.5C/min => 195C(91min)

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPetrocol DH762.4Censullo, Jones, et al., 200350. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 10. min, 3. K/min, 200. C @ 10. min
CapillarySPB-1755.95LECO Corporation, 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 40. C @ 2. min, 10. K/min, 250. C @ 2. min
CapillaryDB-5760.4Xu, van Stee, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 2.5 K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryOV-101759.7Yin, Liu, et al., 2001N2, 1. K/min; Column length: 80. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 130. C
CapillaryPetrocol DH757.28Subramaniam, Bochniak, et al., 1994100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryPetrocol DH758.White, Hackett, et al., 1992100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryOV-101755.Hayes and Pitzer, 1981108. m/0.25 mm/0.2 «mu»m, 1. K/min; Tstart: 35. C; Tend: 200. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-101760.Wu and Lu, 1984Program: not specified

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-10140.760.Li and Deng, 1998N2; Column length: 51. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryOV-10150.761.Wu and Lu, 1984, 2 
CapillaryOV-10170.764.Wu and Lu, 1984, 2 
CapillarySqualane100.767.Dimov N., 1976 
CapillarySqualane70.764.Dimov N., 1976 
CapillarySqualane86.756.Vigdergauz and Martynov, 1971He; Column length: 150. m; Column diameter: 0.35 mm

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane: CP-Sil 5 CB762.Bramston-Cook, 201360. m/0.25 mm/1.0 «mu»m, Helium, 45. C @ 1.45 min, 3.6 K/min, 210. C @ 2.72 min
CapillaryPetrocol DH762.Supelco, 2012100. m/0.25 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Helium, 20. C @ 15. min, 15. K/min, 220. C @ 30. min
CapillaryOV-101759.Orav, Kailas, et al., 199950. m/0.20 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Helium, 30. C @ 6. min, 1. K/min; Tend: 100. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-101763.Du and Liang, 2003Program: not specified
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane762.Junkes, Castanho, et al., 2003Program: not specified
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxanes760.Yin, Guo, et al., 2001Program: not specified
CapillaryMethyl Silicone760.Xu, Chu, et al., 1995Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-101755.Skrbic and Cvejanov, 1993Program: not specified
CapillarySqualane759.Petrov, 1984Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.755.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.762.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Gas Chromatography, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Heinzen, Soares, et al., 1999
Heinzen, V.E.F.; Soares, M.F.; Yunes, R.A., Semi-empirical topological method for the prediction of the chromatographic retention of cis- and trans-alkene isomers and alkanes, J. Chromatogr. A, 1999, 849, 2, 495-506, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(99)00530-0 . [all data]

Skrbic, 1997
Skrbic, B.D., Unified retention concept -- statistical treatment of Kováts retention index, J. Chromatogr. A, 1997, 764, 2, 257-264, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(96)00955-7 . [all data]

Zhang and Lu, 1996
Zhang, X.; Lu, P., Unified equation between Kováts indices on different stationary phases for select types of compounds, J. Chromatogr. A, 1996, 731, 1-2, 187-199, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(95)01213-3 . [all data]

Hilal, Carreira, et al., 1994
Hilal, S.H.; Carreira, L.A.; Karickhoff, S.W.; Melton, C.M., Estimation of Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Retention Times from Molecular Structure, J. Chromatogr. A, 1994, 662, 2, 269-280, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(94)80515-6 . [all data]

Engewald, Maurer, et al., 1989
Engewald, W.; Maurer, T.; Schiefke, A., Investigation of isomeric hydrocarbons by gas-solid chromatography on graphitized thermal carbon black, Pure Appl. Chem., 1989, 61, 11, 2001-2004, https://doi.org/10.1351/pac198961112001 . [all data]

Laub and Purnell, 1988
Laub, R.J.; Purnell, J.H., Specific retention volumes, retention indices, and family-plot regressions of aliphatic, alicyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbon solutes with OV-101 poly (dimethylsiloxane) stationary phase, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1988, 11, 9, 649-660, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240110908 . [all data]

Lunskii and Paizanskaya, 1988
Lunskii, M.Kh.; Paizanskaya, I.L., Identification of hydrocarbons C1-C9 of petrol fractions of oils and condensates in the use of capillary columns with dinonylphthalate, Zh. Anal. Khim., 1988, 43, 127-135. [all data]

Boneva and Dimov, 1986
Boneva, S.; Dimov, N., Unified retention index of hydrocarbons separated on dimethylsilicone OV-101, Chromatographia, 1986, 21, 12, 697-700, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02313682 . [all data]

Chien, Furio, et al., 1983
Chien, C.-F.; Furio, D.L.; Kopecni, M.M.; Laub, R.J., Specific Retention Volumes and Retention Indices of Selected Hydrocarbon Solutes with OV-101 and SP-2100 Polydimethylsiloxane Solvents, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1983, 6, 10, 577-580, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240061013 . [all data]

Lubeck and Sutton, 1983
Lubeck, A.J.; Sutton, DL., Kovats retention indices of selected hydrocarbons through C10 on bonded phase fused silica capillaries, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1983, 6, 6, 328-332, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240060612 . [all data]

Bajus, Veselý, et al., 1979
Bajus, M.; Veselý, V.; Leclercq, P.A.; Rijks, J.A., Steam cracking of hydrocarbons. 1. Pyrolysis of heptane, Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev., 1979, 18, 1, 30-37, https://doi.org/10.1021/i360069a007 . [all data]

Castello and D'Amato, 1979
Castello, G.; D'Amato, G., Use of Linear and Branched-Chain Paraffinic Liquid Phases as Non-Polar Reference Materials in Gas Chromatography, J. Chromatogr., 1979, 175, 1, 27-35, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)86400-6 . [all data]

Chretien and Dubois, 1976
Chretien, J.R.; Dubois, J.-E., New Perspectives in the Prediction of Kovats Indices, J. Chromatogr., 1976, 126, 171-189, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)84071-1 . [all data]

Rijks and Cramers, 1974
Rijks, J.A.; Cramers, C.A., High precision capillary gas chromatography of hydrocarbons, Chromatographia, 1974, 7, 3, 99-106, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02269819 . [all data]

Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972
Sidorov, R.I.; Petrova, V.I.; Ivanova, M.P., Qualitative analysis of wide-boiling fraction C5-C10 with capillary chromatography in Processes in chromatographic columns. Vol.17, 1972, 14-25. [all data]

Dimov and Schopov, 1971
Dimov, N.; Schopov, D., Empirische korrektion der physikalisch-chemischen retentionsindexe von kohlenwasserstoffen auf squalan, J. Chromatogr., 1971, 63, 223-228, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)85634-X . [all data]

Mitra and Saha, 1970
Mitra, G.D.; Saha, N.C., Determination of Retention Indices of Saturated Hydrocarbons by Graphical Methods, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 1970, 8, 2, 95-102, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/8.2.95 . [all data]

Matukuma, 1969
Matukuma, A., Retention indices of alkanes through C10 and alkenes through C8 and relation between boiling points and retention data, Gas Chromatogr., Int. Symp. Anal. Instrum. Div Instrum Soc. Amer., 1969, 7, 55-75. [all data]

Hively and Hinton, 1968
Hively, R.A.; Hinton, R.E., Variation of the retention index with temperature on squalane substrates, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1968, 6, 4, 203-217, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/6.4.203 . [all data]

Tourres, 1967
Tourres, D.A., Structure moléculaire et rétention en chromatographie en phase gazeuse. Influence de la température sur l'indice de rétention d'alcanes isomères, J. Chromatogr., 1967, 30, 357-377, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)84168-0 . [all data]

Evans, 1966
Evans, M.B., Retention indices of solutes on squalane, dinonyl phthalate, and polyethylene glycol 400, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1966, 4, 1, 1-3, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/4.1.1 . [all data]

Hayes and Pitzer, 1982
Hayes, P.C., Jr.; Pitzer, E.W., Characterizing petroleum- and shale-derived jet fuel distillates via temperature-programmed Kováts indices, J. Chromatogr., 1982, 253, 179-198, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)88376-X . [all data]

Louis, 1971
Louis, R., Kovats-index-tafeln zur gaschromatographischen analyse von kohlenwasserstoffgemischen, Erdoel Kohle Erdgas Petrochem., 1971, 24, 2, 88-94. [all data]

Haagen-Smit Laboratory, 1997
Haagen-Smit Laboratory, Procedure for the detailed hydrocarbon analysis of gasolines by single column high efficiency (capillary) column gas chromatography, SOP NO. MLD 118, Revision No. 1.1, California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board, El Monte, California, 1997, 22. [all data]

Censullo, Jones, et al., 2003
Censullo, A.C.; Jones, D.R.; Wills, M.T., Speciation of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in solventborne aerosol coatings by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography, J. Coat. Technol., 2003, 75, 936, 47-53, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02697922 . [all data]

LECO Corporation, 2003
LECO Corporation, Determination of hydrocarbon components in petroleum naphthas, 2003, retrieved from http://www.leco.org/customersupport/apps/separationscience/-190.pdf. [all data]

Xu, van Stee, et al., 2003
Xu, X.; van Stee, L.L.P.; Williams, J.; Beens, J.; Adahchour, M.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.Th.; Lelieveld, J., Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) measurements of volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2003, 3, 3, 665-682, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-3-665-2003 . [all data]

Yin, Liu, et al., 2001
Yin, C.; Liu, W.; Li, Z.; Pan, Z.; Lin, T.; Zhang, M., Chemometrics to chemical modeling: structural coding in hydrocarbons and retention indices of gas chromatography, J. Sep. Sci., 2001, 24, 3, 213-220, https://doi.org/10.1002/1615-9314(20010301)24:3<213::AID-JSSC213>3.0.CO;2-4 . [all data]

Subramaniam, Bochniak, et al., 1994
Subramaniam, B.; Bochniak, D.; Snavely, K., Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in supercritical reaction media, Lawrence Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering (DOE/PC/92532--T7), United States Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA, 1994, 8, retrieved from http://www.NTIS.gov. [all data]

White, Hackett, et al., 1992
White, C.M.; Hackett, J.; Anderson, R.R.; Kail, S.; Spock, P.S., Linear temperature programmed retention indices of gasoline range hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons on cross-linked polydimethylsiloxane, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1992, 15, 2, 105-120, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240150211 . [all data]

Hayes and Pitzer, 1981
Hayes, P.C., Jr.; Pitzer, E.W., Kovats indices as a tool in characterizing hydrocarbon fuels in temperature programmed glass capillary gas chromatography. Part 1. Qualitative identification, Inhouse rpt. for Air Force Wright Aeronautical Labs., Air Force Wright Aeronautical Labs., Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, 1981, 75. [all data]

Wu and Lu, 1984
Wu, J.; Lu, W., Hydrocarbon analysis by open-tubular column chromatography with programmed temperature for straight run gasoline, Anal. Chem., 1984, 12, 7, 572-578. [all data]

Li and Deng, 1998
Li, H.; Deng, C., Qualitative analysis of light components of gasoline cracking using Kovats retention indices, J. Instrumental Analysis, 1998, 17, 1, 67-69. [all data]

Wu and Lu, 1984, 2
Wu, J.; Lu, W., Kovats indices of C4-C10 hydrocarbons in apolar quartz capillary OV-101, Chin. J. Chromatogr., 1984, 1, 1, 11-17. [all data]

Dimov N., 1976
Dimov N., Quantitative gas chromatographic analysis and determination of solute properties. An exact equation for the calculation of the retention indices of isoalkanes on Squalane, J. Chromatogr., 1976, 119, 109-118, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)86775-8 . [all data]

Vigdergauz and Martynov, 1971
Vigdergauz, M.S.; Martynov, A.A., Some applications of the gas chromatographic linear retention indices, Chromatographia, 1971, 4, 10, 463-467, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02268816 . [all data]

Bramston-Cook, 2013
Bramston-Cook, R., Kovats indices for C2-C13 hydrocarbons and selected oxygenated/halocarbons with 100 % dimethylpolysiloxane columns, 2013, retrieved from http://lotusinstruments.com/monographs/List .... [all data]

Supelco, 2012
Supelco, CatalogNo. 24160-U, Petrocol DH Columns. Catalog No. 24160-U, 2012, retrieved from http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/etc/medialib/docs/Supelco/Datasheet/1/w97949.Par.0001.File.tmp/w97949.pdf. [all data]

Orav, Kailas, et al., 1999
Orav, A.; Kailas, T.; Muurisepp, M.; Kann, J., Composition of the oil from waste tires. 1. Fraction boiling at yp to 160 0C, Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci. Chem., 1999, 48, 1, 30-39. [all data]

Du and Liang, 2003
Du, Y.; Liang, Y., Data mining for seeking accurate quantitative relationship between molecular structure and GC retention indices of alkanes by projection pursuit, Comput. Biol. Chem., 2003, 27, 3, 339-353, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1476-9271(02)00081-6 . [all data]

Junkes, Castanho, et al., 2003
Junkes, B.S.; Castanho, R.D.M.; Amboni, C.; Yunes, R.A.; Heinzen, V.E.F., Semiempirical Topological Index: A Novel Molecular Descriptor for Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationship Studies, Internet Electronic Journal of Molecular Design, 2003, 2, 1, 33-49. [all data]

Yin, Guo, et al., 2001
Yin, C.; Guo, W.; Lin, T.; Liu, S.; Fu, R.; Pan, Z.; Wang, L., Application of wavelet neural network to the prediction of gas chromatographic retention indices of alkanes, J. Chinese Chem. Soc., 2001, 48, 739-749. [all data]

Xu, Chu, et al., 1995
Xu, X.; Chu, S.; Song, N., Application of chromatographic studies of air pollution in China, J. Chromatogr. A, 1995, 710, 1, 21-37, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(95)00173-K . [all data]

Skrbic and Cvejanov, 1993
Skrbic, B.D.; Cvejanov, J.Dj., Correlation of unified retention indices for OV-101 and squalane, Chromatographia, 1993, 35, 1/2, 109-110, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02278566 . [all data]

Petrov, 1984
Petrov, A.A., Hydrocarbons of petroleum, Nauka (publishing house), Moscow, 1984, 263. [all data]

Waggott and Davies, 1984
Waggott, A.; Davies, I.W., Identification of organic pollutants using linear temperature programmed retention indices (LTPRIs) - Part II, 1984, retrieved from http://dwi.defra.gov.uk/research/completed-research/reports/dwi0383.pdf. [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas Chromatography, References