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1,2-Butadiene

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
GT - Glushko Thermocenter, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas162.2 ± 0.59kJ/molCmProsen, Maron, et al., 1951ALS
Deltafgas165.4 ± 1.2kJ/molCcbProsen, Maron, et al., 1949ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacgas-2593.8 ± 0.54kJ/molCmProsen, Maron, et al., 1951Corresponding «DELTA»fgas = 162.3 kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS
Deltacgas-2597.0 ± 1.2kJ/molCcbProsen, Maron, et al., 1949Corresponding «DELTA»fgas = 165.4 kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS

Constant pressure heat capacity of gas

Cp,gas (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
35.8350.Thermodynamics Research Center, 1997Recommended values are in close agreement with those obtained from earlier statistical thermodynamics calculation [ Kilpatrick J.E., 1949].; GT
45.63100.
54.41150.
62.51200.
75.00273.15
79.48298.15
79.81300.
97.62400.
113.74500.
127.62600.
139.54700.
149.8800.
159.8900.
166.51000.
173.31100.
179.11200.
184.21300.
188.61400.
192.41500.

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
liquid206.19J/mol*KN/AAston and Szasz, 1947 

Constant pressure heat capacity of liquid

Cp,liquid (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
122.80290.Aston and Szasz, 1947T = 14 to 282 K.

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Kenneth Kroenlein director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil284.KN/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
Tboil291.7KN/AFeugeas and Giusti, 1968Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 2. K; TRC
Tboil284.06KN/AStreiff, Murphy, et al., 1946Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.3 K; TRC
Tboil283.5KN/AHurd and Meinert, 1931Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.5 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus136.940KN/AStreiff, Murphy, et al., 1947Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.05 K; TRC
Tfus136.960KN/AStreiff, Murphy, et al., 1947Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.02 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple136.920KN/AAston and Szasz, 1947, 2Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.06 K; TRC
Ttriple136.950KN/AAston and Szasz, 1947, 2Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.05 K; TRC
Ttriple136.94KN/ATooke and Aston, 1945Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.08 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap23.68kJ/molN/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
Deltavap23.9kJ/molN/AReid, 1972AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
24.623273.24N/AAston and Szasz, 1947P = 66.41 kPa; DH
24.02284.N/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
25.3276.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 243. - 291. K.; AC
26.4228.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 204. - 243. K.; AC
24.6 ± 0.3273.25CAston and Szasz, 1947, 3ALS
24.6 ± 0.1273.CAston and Szasz, 1947AC
25.2276.N/AStull, 1947Based on data from 184. - 291. K.; AC

Entropy of vaporization

DeltavapS (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
90.11273.24Aston and Szasz, 1947P; DH

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

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Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
184. - 291.73.78159941.601-42.565Stull, 1947Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
6.9613136.92Aston and Szasz, 1947DH
6.95136.9Domalski and Hearing, 1996AC

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
50.84136.92Aston and Szasz, 1947DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Reaction thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

C4H5- + Hydrogen cation = 1,2-Butadiene

By formula: C4H5- + H+ = C4H6

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1608. ± 8.8kJ/molG+TSN/Agas phase; Relative to dGacid(MeOH)= 375. Acid: MeCH=C=CH2; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1574. ± 8.4kJ/molIMREN/Agas phase; Relative to dGacid(MeOH)= 375. Acid: MeCH=C=CH2; B

1,2-Butadiene = 1,3-Butadiene

By formula: C4H6 = C4H6

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar53.47 ± 0.67kJ/molCcbProsen, Maron, et al., 1949gas phase; ALS

Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron

View reactions leading to C4H6+ (ion structure unspecified)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)778.9kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity749.8kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
9.03PEBeez, Bieri, et al., 1973LLK
9.23 ± 0.02PIParr and Elder, 1968RDSH
9.33 ± 0.02PEBieri, Burger, et al., 1977Vertical value; LLK
9.0PEWhite, Carlson, et al., 1974Vertical value; LLK
9.33PEBrogli, Crandall, et al., 1973Vertical value; LLK

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
CH3+14.4 ± 0.2?EICollin and Lossing, 1957RDSH
C3H3+10.86 ± 0.04CH3PIParr and Elder, 1968RDSH
C4H5+11.04 ± 0.04HPIParr and Elder, 1968RDSH

De-protonation reactions

C4H5- + Hydrogen cation = 1,2-Butadiene

By formula: C4H5- + H+ = C4H6

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1608. ± 8.8kJ/molG+TSN/Agas phase; Relative to dGacid(MeOH)= 375. Acid: MeCH=C=CH2; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1574. ± 8.4kJ/molIMREN/Agas phase; Relative to dGacid(MeOH)= 375. Acid: MeCH=C=CH2; B

IR Spectrum

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Gas Phase Spectrum

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IR spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Standard Reference Data Program
Collection (C) 2018 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
State gas
Instrument HP-GC/MS/IRD

This IR spectrum is from the NIST/EPA Gas-Phase Infrared Database .


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
NIST MS number 18905

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


UV/Visible spectrum

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Victor Talrose, Eugeny B. Stern, Antonina A. Goncharova, Natalia A. Messineva, Natalia V. Trusova, Margarita V. Efimkina

Spectrum

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UVVis spectrum
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Additional Data

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Source Jones and Taylor, 1955
Owner INEP CP RAS, NIST OSRD
Collection (C) 2007 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin INSTITUTE OF ENERGY PROBLEMS OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, RAS
Source reference RAS UV No. 2454
Instrument Beckman DU
Melting point -136.2
Boiling point 10.9

Gas Chromatography

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillarySqualane50.428.5Bajus, Veselý, et al., 1979Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane70.427.9Bajus, Veselý, et al., 1979Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane27.429.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane49.430.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane67.430.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane86.430.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSE-3070.448.Widmer, 1967Diatoport S; Column length: 7.9 m
PackedSqualane26.427.Zulaïca and Guiochon, 1966Column length: 10. m

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPetrocol DH-100450.Haagen-Smit Laboratory, 1997He; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.2 mm; Program: 5C(10min) => 5C/min => 50C(48min) => 1.5C/min => 195C(91min)

Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
PackedCarbowax 20M130.562.Widmer, 1967Diatoport P; Column length: 7.9 m
PackedCarbowax 20M70.540.Widmer, 1967Diatoport P; Column length: 7.9 m

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane: CP-Sil 5 CB441.Bramston-Cook, 201360. m/0.25 mm/1.0 «mu»m, Helium, 45. C @ 1.45 min, 3.6 K/min, 210. C @ 2.72 min
CapillaryOV-101427.Zenkevich, 200525. m/0.20 mm/0.10 «mu»m, N2/He, 6. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 250. C

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Prosen, Maron, et al., 1951
Prosen, E.J.; Maron, F.W.; Rossini, F.D., Heats of combustion, formation, and insomerization of ten C4 hydrocarbons, J. Res. NBS, 1951, 46, 106-112. [all data]

Prosen, Maron, et al., 1949
Prosen, E.J.; Maron, F.W.; Rossini, F.D., Heat of isomerization of the two butadienes, J. Res. NBS, 1949, 42, 269-275. [all data]

Thermodynamics Research Center, 1997
Thermodynamics Research Center, Selected Values of Properties of Chemical Compounds., Thermodynamics Research Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 1997. [all data]

Kilpatrick J.E., 1949
Kilpatrick J.E., Heats, equilibrium constants, and free energies of formation of the C3 to C5 diolefins, styrene, and the methylstyrenes, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand., 1949, 42, 225-240. [all data]

Aston and Szasz, 1947
Aston, J.G.; Szasz, G.J., The thermodynamics of butadiene-1,2 from calorimetric and spectroscopic data, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1947, 69, 3108-3114. [all data]

Majer and Svoboda, 1985
Majer, V.; Svoboda, V., Enthalpies of Vaporization of Organic Compounds: A Critical Review and Data Compilation, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1985, 300. [all data]

Feugeas and Giusti, 1968
Feugeas, C.; Giusti, G.L., C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Ser. C, 1968, 267, 84. [all data]

Streiff, Murphy, et al., 1946
Streiff, A.J.; Murphy, E.T.; Cahill, J.C.; Soule, L.F.; Sedlak, V.A.; Willingham, C.B.; Rossini, F.D., , Am. Pet. Inst. Res. Proj. 6, unpublished, Natl. Bur. Stand., 1946. [all data]

Hurd and Meinert, 1931
Hurd, C.D.; Meinert, R.N., Synthesis and pyrolysis of methylallene and ethylacetylene, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1931, 53, 289-300. [all data]

Streiff, Murphy, et al., 1947
Streiff, A.J.; Murphy, E.T.; Zimmerman, J.C.; Soule, L.F.; Sedlak, V.A.; Willingham, C.B.; Rossini, F.D., Purification, purity, and freezing points of n-decane, 4 alkylcyclopentanes 9 alkylcyclohexanes, 2 monoolefins, 1,2-butadiene, and 2-butyne of the API-standard and API-NBS series., J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U. S.), 1947, 39, 321. [all data]

Aston and Szasz, 1947, 2
Aston, J.G.; Szasz, G.J., The Thermodynamics of Butadiene-1,2 from Calorimetric and Spectroscopic Data, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1947, 69, 3108. [all data]

Tooke and Aston, 1945
Tooke, J.W.; Aston, J.G., Solid Solutions in Hydrocarbon Systems, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1945, 67, 2275. [all data]

Reid, 1972
Reid, Robert C., Handbook on vapor pressure and heats of vaporization of hydrocarbons and related compounds, R. C. Wilhort and B. J. Zwolinski, Texas A Research Foundation. College Station, Texas(1971). 329 pages.$10.00, AIChE J., 1972, 18, 6, 1278-1278, https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690180637 . [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Aston and Szasz, 1947, 3
Aston, J.G.; Szasz, G.J., The thermodynamics of butadiene-1,2 from calorimetric and spectroscopic data, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1947, 69, 3108-31. [all data]

Stull, 1947
Stull, Daniel R., Vapor Pressure of Pure Substances. Organic and Inorganic Compounds, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1947, 39, 4, 517-540, https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50448a022 . [all data]

Domalski and Hearing, 1996
Domalski, Eugene S.; Hearing, Elizabeth D., Heat Capacities and Entropies of Organic Compounds in the Condensed Phase. Volume III, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1996, 25, 1, 1, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555985 . [all data]

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556018 . [all data]

Beez, Bieri, et al., 1973
Beez, M.; Bieri, G.; Bock, H.; Heilbronner, E., The ionization potentials of butadiene, hexatriene, andtheir methyl derivatives: evidence for through space interaction between double bond «pi»-orbitals and non-bonded pseudo-«pi» orbitals of methyl groups?, Helv. Chim. Acta, 1973, 56, 1028. [all data]

Parr and Elder, 1968
Parr, A.C.; Elder, F.A., Photoionization of 1,3butadiene, 1,2-butadiene, allene, and propyne, J. Chem. Phys., 1968, 49, 2659. [all data]

Bieri, Burger, et al., 1977
Bieri, G.; Burger, F.; Heilbronner, E.; Maier, J.P., Valence ionization enrgies of hydrocarbons, Helv. Chim. Acta, 1977, 60, 2213. [all data]

White, Carlson, et al., 1974
White, R.M.; Carlson, T.A.; Spears, D.P., Angular distribution of the photoelectron spectra for ethylene, propylene, butene and butadiene, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1974, 3, 59. [all data]

Brogli, Crandall, et al., 1973
Brogli, F.; Crandall, J.K.; Heilbronner, E.; Kloster-Jensen, E.; Sojka, S.A., The photoelectron spectra of methyl-substituted allenes and of tetramethyl-bisallenyl, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1973, 2, 455. [all data]

Collin and Lossing, 1957
Collin, J.; Lossing, F.P., Ionization and dissociation of allene, propyne, 1-butyne, and 1,2- and 1,3-butadienes by electron impact; the C3H3+ ion, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1957, 79, 5848. [all data]

Jones and Taylor, 1955
Jones, L.C., Jr.; Taylor, L.W., Far ultraviolet absorption spectra of unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, Anal. Chem., 1955, 27, 2, 228-237. [all data]

Bajus, Veselý, et al., 1979
Bajus, M.; Veselý, V.; Leclercq, P.A.; Rijks, J.A., Steam cracking of hydrocarbons. 2. Pyrolysis of methylcyclohexane, Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev., 1979, 18, 2, 135-142, https://doi.org/10.1021/i360070a012 . [all data]

Hively and Hinton, 1968
Hively, R.A.; Hinton, R.E., Variation of the retention index with temperature on squalane substrates, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1968, 6, 4, 203-217, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/6.4.203 . [all data]

Widmer, 1967
Widmer, H., Gas chromatographic identification of hydrocarbons using retention indices, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1967, 5, 10, 506-510, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/5.10.506 . [all data]

Zulaïca and Guiochon, 1966
Zulaïca, J.; Guiochon, G., Analyse des hauts polymères par chromatographie en phase gazeuse de leurs produits de pyrolyse. II. Application à quelques hydrocarbures macromoléculaires purs, Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr., 1966, 4, 1351-1363. [all data]

Haagen-Smit Laboratory, 1997
Haagen-Smit Laboratory, Procedure for the detailed hydrocarbon analysis of gasolines by single column high efficiency (capillary) column gas chromatography, SOP NO. MLD 118, Revision No. 1.1, California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board, El Monte, California, 1997, 22. [all data]

Bramston-Cook, 2013
Bramston-Cook, R., Kovats indices for C2-C13 hydrocarbons and selected oxygenated/halocarbons with 100 % dimethylpolysiloxane columns, 2013, retrieved from http://lotusinstruments.com/monographs/List .... [all data]

Zenkevich, 2005
Zenkevich, I.G., Experimentally measured retention indices., 2005. [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References