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2-Butene, (Z)-

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Gas Chromatography

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryBPX-530.426.Aflalaye, Sternberg, et al., 199512. m/0.15 mm/0.25 «mu»m, H2
CapillaryCP Sil 5 CB20.425.Do and Raulin, 199225. m/0.15 mm/2. «mu»m, H2
CapillarySqualane50.417.0Papazova, Milina, et al., 1988Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryDB-140.425.Lubeck and Sutton, 198460. m/0.264 mm/0.25 «mu»m, H2
CapillaryHP-PONA40.425.Lubeck and Sutton, 198450. m/0.21 mm/0.5 «mu»m, H2
CapillaryOV-120.418.Nijs and Jacobs, 1981He; Column length: 150. m; Column diameter: 0.50 mm
CapillarySqualane50.416.5Bajus, Veselý, et al., 1979Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane70.416.5Bajus, Veselý, et al., 1979Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane50.416.3Bajus, Veselý, et al., 1979, 2Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane70.416.5Bajus, Veselý, et al., 1979, 2Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane50.416.85Pacáková and Koslík, 197850. m/0.2 mm/0.5 «mu»m, N2
PackedSqualane80.417.Chrétien and Dubois, 1977 
CapillarySqualane50.417.Chretien and Dubois, 1976 
CapillarySqualane100.427.3Lulova, Leont'eva, et al., 1976He; Column length: 120. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane50.417.Rijks and Cramers, 1974N2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane70.417.Rijks and Cramers, 1974N2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane40.411.Matukuma, 1969N2; Column length: 91.4 m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane27.416.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane49.417.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane67.417.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane86.418.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSE-3070.427.Widmer, 1967Diatoport S; Column length: 7.9 m
PackedSE-3070.427.Widmer, 1967Diatoport S; Column length: 7.9 m

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPetrocol DH-100428.2Haagen-Smit Laboratory, 1997He; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.2 mm; Program: 5C(10min) => 5C/min => 50C(48min) => 1.5C/min => 195C(91min)

Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
PackedCarbowax 20M130.481.Widmer, 1967Diatoport P; Column length: 7.9 m
PackedCarbowax 20M70.468.Widmer, 1967Diatoport P; Column length: 7.9 m
PackedCarbowax 20M70.468.Widmer, 1967Diatoport P; Column length: 7.9 m

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryUltra-1420.Olson, Sinkevitch, et al., 19924. K/min; Tstart: -40. C; Tend: 230. C
CapillaryPetrocol DH416.44White, Douglas, et al., 1992100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryPetrocol DH418.18White, Douglas, et al., 1992100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-5411.Zaikin and Borisov, 2002He; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Program: 30C => 5K/min=120C => 10C/min => 270C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-10140.417.Li and Deng, 1998N2; Column length: 51. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryMethyl Silicone50.417.N/AN2; Column length: 74.6 m; Column diameter: 0.28 mm
PackedMethyl Silicone50.431.Huguet, 1961Nitrogen, Celite C-22; Column length: 2.5 m

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane: CP-Sil 5 CB422.Bramston-Cook, 201360. m/0.25 mm/1.0 «mu»m, Helium, 45. C @ 1.45 min, 3.6 K/min, 210. C @ 2.72 min
CapillaryPetrocol DH426.Supelco, 2012100. m/0.25 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Helium, 20. C @ 15. min, 15. K/min, 220. C @ 30. min
CapillaryPONA416.Zhang, Ding, et al., 200950. m/0.20 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Nitrogen, 35. C @ 15. min, 2. K/min, 200. C @ 10. min
CapillaryOV-101420.Chupalov and Zenkevich, 1996N2, 3. K/min; Column length: 52. m; Column diameter: 0.26 mm; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillarySE-54416.Guan, Li, et al., 199560. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryDB-1416.Ciccioli, Cecinato, et al., 199260. m/0.32 mm/1.2 «mu»m, He, 30. C @ 10. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 240. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane417.Junkes, Castanho, et al., 2003Program: not specified
CapillaryPONA428.Perkin Elmer Instruments, 2002Column length: 100. m; Phase thickness: 0.50 «mu»m; Program: not specified
CapillaryMethyl Silicone421.Spieksma, 1999Program: not specified
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxanes420.Zenkevich, Chupalov, et al., 1996Program: not specified
PackedSE-30427.Robinson and Odell, 1971N2, Chromosorb W; Column length: 6.1 m; Program: 50C910min) => 20C/min => 90(6min) => 10C/min => 150C(hold)
PackedSqualane428.Robinson and Odell, 1971N2, Embacel; Column length: 3.0 m; Program: 25C(5min) => 2C/min => 35 => 4C/min => 95C(hold)

References

Go To: Top, Gas Chromatography, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Aflalaye, Sternberg, et al., 1995
Aflalaye, A.; Sternberg, R.; Raulin, F.; Vidal-Madjar, C., Gas chromatography of Titan's atmosphere. VI. Analysis of low-molecular-mass hydrocarbons and nitriles with BPX5 capillary columns, J. Chromatogr. A, 1995, 708, 2, 283-291, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(95)00410-O . [all data]

Do and Raulin, 1992
Do, L.; Raulin, F., Gas chromatography of Titan's atmosphere. III. Analysis of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons and nitriles with a CP-Sil-5 CB WCOT capillary column, J. Chromatogr., 1992, 591, 1-2, 297-301, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(92)80247-R . [all data]

Papazova, Milina, et al., 1988
Papazova, D.; Milina, R.; Dimov, N., Comparative evaluation of retention of hydrocarbons present in the C5-petroleum fraction of methylsilicone and squalane phases, Chromatographia, 1988, 25, 3, 177-180, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02316441 . [all data]

Lubeck and Sutton, 1984
Lubeck, A.J.; Sutton, D.L., Kovats Retention Indices of Selected Olefins on Bonded Phase Fused Silica Capillaries, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1984, 7, 9, 542-544, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240070913 . [all data]

Nijs and Jacobs, 1981
Nijs, H.H.; Jacobs, P.A., On-Line Single Run Analysis of Effluents from a Fischer-Tropsch Reactor, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 1981, 19, 1, 40-45, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/19.1.40 . [all data]

Bajus, Veselý, et al., 1979
Bajus, M.; Veselý, V.; Leclercq, P.A.; Rijks, J.A., Steam cracking of hydrocarbons. 2. Pyrolysis of methylcyclohexane, Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev., 1979, 18, 2, 135-142, https://doi.org/10.1021/i360070a012 . [all data]

Bajus, Veselý, et al., 1979, 2
Bajus, M.; Veselý, V.; Leclercq, P.A.; Rijks, J.A., Steam cracking of hydrocarbons. 1. Pyrolysis of heptane, Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev., 1979, 18, 1, 30-37, https://doi.org/10.1021/i360069a007 . [all data]

Pacáková and Koslík, 1978
Pacáková, V.; Koslík, V., Capillary reaction gas chromatography. I. Catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons, Chromatographia, 1978, 11, 5, 266-273, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02282952 . [all data]

Chrétien and Dubois, 1977
Chrétien, J.R.; Dubois, J.E., Topological analysis of gas-liquid chromatographic behavior of alkenes, Anal. Chem., 1977, 49, 6, 747-756, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac50014a021 . [all data]

Chretien and Dubois, 1976
Chretien, J.R.; Dubois, J.-E., New Perspectives in the Prediction of Kovats Indices, J. Chromatogr., 1976, 126, 171-189, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)84071-1 . [all data]

Lulova, Leont'eva, et al., 1976
Lulova, N.I.; Leont'eva, S.A.; Timofeeva, A.N., Gas-chromatographic method of determination of individual hydrocarbons in catalytic cracking gasolines in Proceedings of All-Union Research Institute on Oil Processes. Vol.18, All-Union Research Institute on Oil Processes, Moscow, 1976, 30-53. [all data]

Rijks and Cramers, 1974
Rijks, J.A.; Cramers, C.A., High precision capillary gas chromatography of hydrocarbons, Chromatographia, 1974, 7, 3, 99-106, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02269819 . [all data]

Matukuma, 1969
Matukuma, A., Retention indices of alkanes through C10 and alkenes through C8 and relation between boiling points and retention data, Gas Chromatogr., Int. Symp. Anal. Instrum. Div Instrum Soc. Amer., 1969, 7, 55-75. [all data]

Hively and Hinton, 1968
Hively, R.A.; Hinton, R.E., Variation of the retention index with temperature on squalane substrates, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1968, 6, 4, 203-217, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/6.4.203 . [all data]

Widmer, 1967
Widmer, H., Gas chromatographic identification of hydrocarbons using retention indices, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1967, 5, 10, 506-510, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/5.10.506 . [all data]

Haagen-Smit Laboratory, 1997
Haagen-Smit Laboratory, Procedure for the detailed hydrocarbon analysis of gasolines by single column high efficiency (capillary) column gas chromatography, SOP NO. MLD 118, Revision No. 1.1, California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board, El Monte, California, 1997, 22. [all data]

Olson, Sinkevitch, et al., 1992
Olson, K.L.; Sinkevitch, R.M.; Sloane, T.M., Speciation and Quantitation of Hydrocarbons in Gasoline Engine Exhaust, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 1992, 30, 12, 500-508, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/30.12.500 . [all data]

White, Douglas, et al., 1992
White, C.M.; Douglas, L.J.; Hackett, J.P.; Anderson, R.R., Characterization of synthetic gasoline from the chloromethane-zeolite reaction, Energy Fuels, 1992, 6, 1, 76-82, https://doi.org/10.1021/ef00031a012 . [all data]

Zaikin and Borisov, 2002
Zaikin, V.G.; Borisov, R.S., Chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of Fishcer-Tropsch synthesis products, J. Anal. Chem. USSR (Engl. Transl.), 2002, 57, 6, 544-551. [all data]

Li and Deng, 1998
Li, H.; Deng, C., Qualitative analysis of light components of gasoline cracking using Kovats retention indices, J. Instrumental Analysis, 1998, 17, 1, 67-69. [all data]

Huguet, 1961
Huguet, M., Kovats retention indices in the qualitative analysis of light hydrocarbons by gas chromatography, Journees internationales d'etude des methodes de separation immediate et de chromatographie, 1961, 69. [all data]

Bramston-Cook, 2013
Bramston-Cook, R., Kovats indices for C2-C13 hydrocarbons and selected oxygenated/halocarbons with 100 % dimethylpolysiloxane columns, 2013, retrieved from http://lotusinstruments.com/monographs/List .... [all data]

Supelco, 2012
Supelco, CatalogNo. 24160-U, Petrocol DH Columns. Catalog No. 24160-U, 2012, retrieved from http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/etc/medialib/docs/Supelco/Datasheet/1/w97949.Par.0001.File.tmp/w97949.pdf. [all data]

Zhang, Ding, et al., 2009
Zhang, X.; Ding, L.; Sun, Z.; Song, L.; Sun, T., Study on quantitative structure-retention relationships for hydrocarbons in FCC gasoline, Chromatographia, 2009, 70, 3/4, 511-518, https://doi.org/10.1365/s10337-009-1174-0 . [all data]

Chupalov and Zenkevich, 1996
Chupalov, A.A.; Zenkevich, I.G., Chromatographic Characterization of Structural Transformations of Organic Compounds in Diels-Alder Reaction. Aliphatic Dienes and Dienophyls, Zh. Org. Khim., 1996, 32, 6, 675-684. [all data]

Guan, Li, et al., 1995
Guan, Y.; Li, L.; Zhou, L., Live retention database for compound identification in capillary gas chromatography, Chin. J. Chromatogr., 1995, 13, 5, 851-857. [all data]

Ciccioli, Cecinato, et al., 1992
Ciccioli, P.; Cecinato, A.; Brancaleoni, E.; Frattoni, M.; Liberti, A., Use of carbon adsorption traps combined with high resolution gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for the analysis of polar and non-polar C4-C14 hydrocarbons involved in photochemical smog formation, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1992, 15, 2, 75-84, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240150205 . [all data]

Junkes, Castanho, et al., 2003
Junkes, B.S.; Castanho, R.D.M.; Amboni, C.; Yunes, R.A.; Heinzen, V.E.F., Semiempirical Topological Index: A Novel Molecular Descriptor for Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationship Studies, Internet Electronic Journal of Molecular Design, 2003, 2, 1, 33-49. [all data]

Perkin Elmer Instruments, 2002
Perkin Elmer Instruments, Detailed hydrocarbon analysis (DHAX) Model 4015, 2002, retrieved from http://www.perkinelmer.com/instruments. [all data]

Spieksma, 1999
Spieksma, W., Determination of vapor liquid equilibrium from the Kovats retention index on dimethylsilicone using the Wilson mixing tool, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1999, 22, 10, 565-588, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1521-4168(19991001)22:10<565::AID-JHRC565>3.0.CO;2-2 . [all data]

Zenkevich, Chupalov, et al., 1996
Zenkevich, I.G.; Chupalov, A.A.; Herzschuh, R., Correlation of the Increments of Gas Chromatographic Retention Indices with the Differences of Innermolecular Energies of Reagents and Products of Chemical Reactions, Zh. Org. Khim. (Rus.), 1996, 32, 11, 1685-1691. [all data]

Robinson and Odell, 1971
Robinson, P.G.; Odell, A.L., A system of standard retention indices and its uses. The characterisation of stationary phases and the prediction of retention indices, J. Chromatogr., 1971, 57, 1-10, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(71)80001-8 . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas Chromatography, References