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2-Butene, (Z)-

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Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
LBLHLM - Sharon G. Lias, John E. Bartmess, Joel F. Liebman, John L. Holmes, Rhoda D. Levin, and W. Gary Mallard
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron

View reactions leading to C4H8+ (ion structure unspecified)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)9.11 ± 0.01eVN/AN/AL

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
9.13PITraeger, 1986LBLHLM
9.13PITraeger, 1984LBLHLM
9.11 ± 0.02PIWood and Taylor, 1979LLK
9.108 ± 0.008EQLias and Ausloos, 1978LLK
9.12 ± 0.02PEBieri, Burger, et al., 1977LLK
9.124 ± 0.005PEMasclet, Grosjean, et al., 1973LLK
9.10EILossing, 1972LLK
9.07PEFrost and Sandhu, 1971LLK
9.119SMcDiarmid, 1969RDSH
9.12PEDewar and Worley, 1969RDSH
9.13 ± 0.01PIWatanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962RDSH
9.13PIBralsford, Harris, et al., 1960RDSH
9.32 ± 0.01PEKrause, Taylor, et al., 1978Vertical value; LLK
9.20PEWiberg, Ellison, et al., 1976Vertical value; LLK
9.11 ± 0.03PEHeilbronner, Hoshi, et al., 1976Vertical value; LLK
9.36PEKimura, Katsumata, et al., 1975Vertical value; LLK
9.4PEWhite, Carlson, et al., 1974Vertical value; LLK
9.29PERobin, Taylor, et al., 1973Vertical value; LLK

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
C2H4+11.7 ± 0.25?EIMeisels, Park, et al., 1970RDSH
C2H5+12.25C2H3EIOmura, 1961RDSH
C3H3+13.75?EIOmura, 1961RDSH
C3H5+11.25CH3PITraeger, 1984LBLHLM
C3H5+11.33CH3EILossing, 1971LLK
C4H7+11.19HPITraeger, 1986LBLHLM
C4H7+11.32HEILossing, 1972LLK


Go To: Top, Gas phase ion energetics data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Traeger, 1986
Traeger, J.C., Heat of formation for the 1-methylallyl cation by photoionization mass spectrometry, J. Phys. Chem., 1986, 90, 4114. [all data]

Traeger, 1984
Traeger, J.C., A study of the allyl cation thermochemistry by photoionization mass spectrometry, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes, 1984, 58, 259. [all data]

Wood and Taylor, 1979
Wood, K.V.; Taylor, J.W., A photoionization mass spectrometric study of autoionization in ethylene and trans-2-butene, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 1979, 30, 307. [all data]

Lias and Ausloos, 1978
Lias, S.G.; Ausloos, P.J., eIonization energies of organic compounds by equilibrium measurements, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1978, 100, 6027. [all data]

Bieri, Burger, et al., 1977
Bieri, G.; Burger, F.; Heilbronner, E.; Maier, J.P., Valence ionization enrgies of hydrocarbons, Helv. Chim. Acta, 1977, 60, 2213. [all data]

Masclet, Grosjean, et al., 1973
Masclet, P.; Grosjean, D.; Mouvier, G., Alkene ionization potentials. Part I. Quantitative determination of alkyl group structural effects, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1973, 2, 225. [all data]

Lossing, 1972
Lossing, F.P., Free radicals by mass spectrometry. XLV. Ionization potentials and heats of formation of C3H3, C3H5, and C4H7 radicals and ions, Can. J. Chem., 1972, 50, 3973. [all data]

Frost and Sandhu, 1971
Frost, D.C.; Sandhu, J.S., Ionization potentials of ethylene and some methyl-substituted ethylenes as determined by photoelectron spectroscopy, Indian J. Chem., 1971, 9, 1105. [all data]

McDiarmid, 1969
McDiarmid, R., Rydberg progressions in cis- and trans-butene, J. Chem. Phys., 1969, 50, 2328. [all data]

Dewar and Worley, 1969
Dewar, M.J.S.; Worley, S.D., Photoelectron spectra of molecules. I. Ionization potentials of some organic molecules and their interpretation, J. Chem. Phys., 1969, 50, 654. [all data]

Watanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962
Watanabe, K.; Nakayama, T.; Mottl, J., Ionization potentials of some molecules, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer, 1962, 2, 369. [all data]

Bralsford, Harris, et al., 1960
Bralsford, R.; Harris, P.V.; Price, W.C., The effect of fluorine on the electronic spectra and ionization potentials of molecules, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), 1960, A258, 459. [all data]

Krause, Taylor, et al., 1978
Krause, D.A.; Taylor, J.W.; Fenske, R.F., An analysis of the effects of alkyl substituents on the ionization potentials of n-alkenes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1978, 100, 718. [all data]

Wiberg, Ellison, et al., 1976
Wiberg, K.B.; Ellison, G.B.; Wendoloski, J.J.; Brundle, C.R.; Kuebler, N.A., Electronic states of organic molecules. 3. Photoelectron spectra of cycloalkenes and methylenecycloalkanes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1976, 98, 7179. [all data]

Heilbronner, Hoshi, et al., 1976
Heilbronner, E.; Hoshi, T.; von Rosenberg, J.L.; Hafner, K., Alkyl-induced, natural hypsochromic shifts of the 2A<--2X and 2B<--2X transitions of azulene and naphthalene radical cations, Nouv. J. Chim., 1976, 1, 105. [all data]

Kimura, Katsumata, et al., 1975
Kimura, K.; Katsumata, S.; Yamazaki, T.; Wakabayashi, H., UV photoelectron spectra and sum rule consideration; out-of-plane orbitals of unsaturated compounds with planar-skeleton structure, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1975, 6, 41. [all data]

White, Carlson, et al., 1974
White, R.M.; Carlson, T.A.; Spears, D.P., Angular distribution of the photoelectron spectra for ethylene, propylene, butene and butadiene, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1974, 3, 59. [all data]

Robin, Taylor, et al., 1973
Robin, M.B.; Taylor, G.N.; Kuebler, N.A.; Bach, R.D., Planarity of the carbon skeleton in various alkylated olefins, J. Org. Chem., 1973, 38, 1049. [all data]

Meisels, Park, et al., 1970
Meisels, G.G.; Park, J.Y.; Giessner, B.G., Ionization and dissociation of C4H8 isomers, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1970, 92, 254. [all data]

Omura, 1961
Omura, I., Mass spectra at low ionizing voltage and bond dissociation energies of molecular ions from hydrocarbons, Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan, 1961, 34, 1227. [all data]

Lossing, 1971
Lossing, F.P., Free radicals by mass spectrometry. XLIII. Ionization potentials and ionic heats of formation for vinyl, allyl, and benzyl radicals, Can. J. Chem., 1971, 49, 357. [all data]


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