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2-Butene, (Z)-

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
GT - Glushko Thermocenter, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas-7.7 ± 1.3kJ/molCmProsen, Maron, et al., 1951ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacgas-2709.8 ± 1.2kJ/molCmProsen, Maron, et al., 1951Corresponding «DELTA»fgas = -7.57 kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS

Constant pressure heat capacity of gas

Cp,gas (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
45.0150.Thermodynamics Research Center, 1997p=1 bar. The difference between recommended values and obtained by [ Aston J.D., 1946] is inside the range of uncertainties of these two statistical calculations. The values of S and Cp calculated by [ Scott R.B., 1944] and [ Kilpatrick J.E., 1946] are little lower than recommended ones.; GT
51.23100.
55.45150.
61.73200.
74.89273.15
80.15298.15
80.55300.
102.73400.
123.64500.
141.91600.
157.66700.
171.27800.
183.06900.
193.301000.
202.181100.
209.901200.
216.591300.
222.411400.
227.481500.
237.551750.
244.852000.
250.262250.
254.332500.
257.452750.
259.873000.

Constant pressure heat capacity of gas

Cp,gas (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
70.8 ± 1.6250.Scott R.B., 1944Please also see Kistiakowsky G.B., 1940.; GT
71.1 ± 1.6255.
71.7 ± 1.7260.
72.3 ± 1.7265.
72.9 ± 1.7270.
73.9 ± 1.7275.
74.7 ± 1.7280.
75.9 ± 1.8285.
77.2 ± 1.8290.
78.5 ± 1.8295.
81.13 ± 0.16298.58
79.9 ± 1.8300.
88.24 ± 0.18332.85
96.27 ± 0.19371.24

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
liquid220.J/mol*KN/AChao, Hall, et al., 1983 
liquid219.91J/mol*KN/AScott, Ferguson, et al., 1944 
liquid212.88J/mol*KN/ATodd and Parks, 1936Extrapolation below 90 K, 48.95 J/mol*K.

Constant pressure heat capacity of liquid

Cp,liquid (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
127.298.15Chao, Hall, et al., 1983T = 5 to 367 K.
130.00299.8Schlinger and Sage, 1952T = 80 to 200°F.
126.15298.15Scott, Ferguson, et al., 1944T = 15 to 300 K.
118.87266.6Todd and Parks, 1936T = 93 to 267 K. Value is unsmoothed experimental datum.

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Kenneth Kroenlein director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil276.84 ± 0.08KAVGN/AAverage of 7 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus133.85KN/AKistiakowsky, Ruhoff, et al., 1935Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.5 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple134.26KN/AChao, Hall, et al., 1983, 2Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.02 K; TRC
Ttriple134.26KN/AScott, Ferguson, et al., 1944Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.02 K; TRC
Ttriple133.8KN/ATodd and Parks, 1936, 2Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.2 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc435.5 ± 0.1KN/ATsonopoulos and Ambrose, 1996 
Tc435.6KN/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
Tc435.55KN/AAmbrose, Cox, et al., 1960Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.3 K; Visual, PRT, IPTS-48; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Pc42.1 ± 0.5barN/ATsonopoulos and Ambrose, 1996 
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Vc0.2338l/molN/ATsonopoulos and Ambrose, 1996 
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
rhoc4.28 ± 0.05mol/lN/ATsonopoulos and Ambrose, 1996 
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap22.7kJ/molN/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
Deltavap22.1kJ/molN/AReid, 1972AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
23.34276.9N/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
24.4275.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 221. - 290. K.; AC
24.0291.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 276. - 325. K.; AC
23.6339.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 324. - 386. K.; AC
23.6398.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 383. - 431. K.; AC
22.5246.CScott, Ferguson, et al., 1944, 2AC
22.47246.CScott, Ferguson, et al., 1944ALS
24.31276.73VKistiakowsky, Ruhoff, et al., 1935, 2At 355 °K; ALS
25.3252.N/AHopkins, 1921Based on data from 195. - 267. K. See also Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984.; AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

ΔvapH = A exp(-βTr) (1 − Tr)β
    ΔvapH = Enthalpy of vaporization (at saturation pressure) (kJ/mol)
    Tr = reduced temperature (T / Tc)

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Temperature (K) A (kJ/mol) beta Tc (K) Reference Comment
246. - 292.36.370.2696435.6Majer and Svoboda, 1985 

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

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Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
203.06 - 295.913.98744957.06-36.504Scott, Ferguson, et al., 1944Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
7.309134.26Chao, Hall, et al., 1983DH
7.3092134.26Scott, Ferguson, et al., 1944DH
7.31134.3Domalski and Hearing, 1996AC
7.318133.8Todd and Parks, 1936DH

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
54.4134.26Chao, Hall, et al., 1983DH
54.44134.26Scott, Ferguson, et al., 1944DH
54.69133.8Todd and Parks, 1936DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Reaction thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

2-Butene, (Z)- = 2-Butene, (E)-

By formula: C4H8 = C4H8

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-4. ± 2.kJ/molAVGN/AAverage of 7 values; Individual data points

Hydrogen bromide + 2-Butene, (Z)- = Butane, 2-bromo-

By formula: HBr + C4H8 = C4H9Br

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-77.07 ± 0.50kJ/molCmLacher, Billings, et al., 1952gas phase; Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -76.8 ± 6.6 kJ/mol; Heat of Hydrobromination at 373 K

Hydrogen + 2-Butene, (Z)- = Butane

By formula: H2 + C4H8 = C4H10

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-118.5 ± 0.42kJ/molChydKistiakowsky, Ruhoff, et al., 1935, 2gas phase; Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -119.54 ± 0.079 kJ/mol; At 355 °K

1-Butene = 2-Butene, (Z)-

By formula: C4H8 = C4H8

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-10.6 ± 2.1kJ/molEqkHappel, Hnatow, et al., 1971gas phase
Deltar-8.16kJ/molCisoLevanova and Andreevskii, 1964gas phase; At 420.3 K

2-Butene, (Z)- + Bromine = Erythro-2,3-dibromobutane

By formula: C4H8 + Br2 = C4H8Br2

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-126.3 ± 0.84kJ/molCmConn, Kistiakowsky, et al., 1938gas phase; At 355 °K

Butane, 2-chloro- = 2-Butene, (Z)- + Hydrogen chloride

By formula: C4H9Cl = C4H8 + HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar67.15kJ/molEqkLevanova and Andreevskii, 1964gas phase; At 420 K

Henry's Law data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Rolf Sander

Henry's Law constant (water solution)

kH(T) = H exp(d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) ((1/T) - 1/(298.15 K)))
H = Henry's law constant for solubility in water at 298.15 K (mol/kg*bar)
d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) = Temperature dependence constant (K)

H (mol/kg*bar) d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) (K) Method Reference Comment
0.0043 XN/AValue given here as quoted by missing citation.

Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
LBLHLM - Sharon G. Lias, John E. Bartmess, Joel F. Liebman, John L. Holmes, Rhoda D. Levin, and W. Gary Mallard
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron

View reactions leading to C4H8+ (ion structure unspecified)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)9.11 ± 0.01eVN/AN/AL

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
9.13PITraeger, 1986LBLHLM
9.13PITraeger, 1984LBLHLM
9.11 ± 0.02PIWood and Taylor, 1979LLK
9.108 ± 0.008EQLias and Ausloos, 1978LLK
9.12 ± 0.02PEBieri, Burger, et al., 1977LLK
9.124 ± 0.005PEMasclet, Grosjean, et al., 1973LLK
9.10EILossing, 1972LLK
9.07PEFrost and Sandhu, 1971LLK
9.119SMcDiarmid, 1969RDSH
9.12PEDewar and Worley, 1969RDSH
9.13 ± 0.01PIWatanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962RDSH
9.13PIBralsford, Harris, et al., 1960RDSH
9.32 ± 0.01PEKrause, Taylor, et al., 1978Vertical value; LLK
9.20PEWiberg, Ellison, et al., 1976Vertical value; LLK
9.11 ± 0.03PEHeilbronner, Hoshi, et al., 1976Vertical value; LLK
9.36PEKimura, Katsumata, et al., 1975Vertical value; LLK
9.4PEWhite, Carlson, et al., 1974Vertical value; LLK
9.29PERobin, Taylor, et al., 1973Vertical value; LLK

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
C2H4+11.7 ± 0.25?EIMeisels, Park, et al., 1970RDSH
C2H5+12.25C2H3EIOmura, 1961RDSH
C3H3+13.75?EIOmura, 1961RDSH
C3H5+11.25CH3PITraeger, 1984LBLHLM
C3H5+11.33CH3EILossing, 1971LLK
C4H7+11.19HPITraeger, 1986LBLHLM
C4H7+11.32HEILossing, 1972LLK

IR Spectrum

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Coblentz Society, Inc.

Gas Phase Spectrum

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IR spectrum
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Notice: Except where noted, spectra from this collection were measured on dispersive instruments, often in carefully selected solvents, and hence may differ in detail from measurements on FTIR instruments or in other chemical environments. More information on the manner in which spectra in this collection were collected can be found here.

Notice: Concentration information is not available for this spectrum and, therefore, molar absorptivity values cannot be derived.

Additional Data

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Owner Copyright (C) 1987 by the Coblentz Society
Collection (C) 2018 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin DOW CHEMICAL COMPANY
Source reference COBLENTZ NO. 8864
Date 1964
Name(s) (2Z)-2-butene
State GAS (150 mmHg, N2 ADDED, TOTAL PRESSURE 600 mmHg)
Instrument DOW KBr FOREPRISM-GRATING
Instrument parameters GRATING CHANGED AT 5.0, 7.5, 15.0 MICRON
Path length 5 CM
Resolution 2
Sampling procedure TRANSMISSION
Data processing DIGITIZED BY COBLENTZ SOCIETY (BATCH II) FROM HARD COPY

This IR spectrum is from the Coblentz Society's evaluated infrared reference spectra collection.


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
NIST MS number 18914

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Prosen, Maron, et al., 1951
Prosen, E.J.; Maron, F.W.; Rossini, F.D., Heats of combustion, formation, and insomerization of ten C4 hydrocarbons, J. Res. NBS, 1951, 46, 106-112. [all data]

Thermodynamics Research Center, 1997
Thermodynamics Research Center, Selected Values of Properties of Chemical Compounds., Thermodynamics Research Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 1997. [all data]

Aston J.D., 1946
Aston J.D., Thermodynamic properties of gaseous 1,3-butadiene and normal butenes above 25 C. Equilibria in the system 1,3-butadiene, n-butenes, and n-butane, J. Chem. Phys., 1946, 14, 67-79. [all data]

Scott R.B., 1944
Scott R.B., Thermodynamic properties of cis-2-butene from 15 to 1500 K, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand., 1944, 33, 1-20. [all data]

Kilpatrick J.E., 1946
Kilpatrick J.E., Heat content, free energy function, entropy, and heat capacity of ethylene, propylene, and the four butenes to 1500 K, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand, 1946, 37, 163-171. [all data]

Kistiakowsky G.B., 1940
Kistiakowsky G.B., Gaseous heat capacities. III, J. Chem. Phys., 1940, 8, 618-622. [all data]

Chao, Hall, et al., 1983
Chao, J.; Hall, K.R.; Yao, J.M., Thermodynamic properties of simple alkenes, Thermochim. Acta, 1983, 64(3), 285-303. [all data]

Scott, Ferguson, et al., 1944
Scott, R.B.; Ferguson, W.J.; Brickwedde, F.G., Thermodynamic properties of cis-2-butene from 15° to 1,500 K, J. Res. NBS, 1944, 33, 1-20. [all data]

Todd and Parks, 1936
Todd, S.S.; Parks, G.S., Thermal data on organic compounds. XV. Some heat capacity, entropy and free energy data for the isomeric butenes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1936, 58, 134-137. [all data]

Schlinger and Sage, 1952
Schlinger, W.G.; Sage, B.H., Isobaric heat capacities at bubble point. cis-2-butene, isopropylbenzene, and n-decane, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1952, 44, 2454-2456. [all data]

Kistiakowsky, Ruhoff, et al., 1935
Kistiakowsky, G.B.; Ruhoff, J.R.; Smith, H.A.; Vaughan, W.E., Heats of Organic Reactions II. Hydrogenation of Some Simpler Olefinic Hydrocarbons, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1935, 57, 876-82. [all data]

Chao, Hall, et al., 1983, 2
Chao, J.; Hall, K.R.; Yao, J.M., Thermodynamic Properties of Simple Alkenes, Thermochim. Acta, 1983, 64, 285. [all data]

Todd and Parks, 1936, 2
Todd, S.S.; Parks, G.S., Thermal Data on Organic Compounds XV. Some Heat Capacity, Entropy and Free Energy Data for the Isomeric Butenes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1936, 58, 134. [all data]

Tsonopoulos and Ambrose, 1996
Tsonopoulos, C.; Ambrose, D., Vapor-Liquid Critical Properties of Elements and Compounds. 6. Unsaturated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1996, 41, 645-656. [all data]

Majer and Svoboda, 1985
Majer, V.; Svoboda, V., Enthalpies of Vaporization of Organic Compounds: A Critical Review and Data Compilation, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1985, 300. [all data]

Ambrose, Cox, et al., 1960
Ambrose, D.; Cox, J.D.; Townsend, R., The critical temperatures of forty organic compounds, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1960, 56, 1452. [all data]

Reid, 1972
Reid, Robert C., Handbook on vapor pressure and heats of vaporization of hydrocarbons and related compounds, R. C. Wilhort and B. J. Zwolinski, Texas A Research Foundation. College Station, Texas(1971). 329 pages.$10.00, AIChE J., 1972, 18, 6, 1278-1278, https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690180637 . [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Scott, Ferguson, et al., 1944, 2
Scott, R.B.; Ferguson, W.J.; Brickwedde, F.G., Thermodynamic properties of cis-2-butene from 15 degrees to 1,500 degrees K, J. RES. NATL. BUR. STAN., 1944, 33, 1, 1-17, https://doi.org/10.6028/jres.033.001 . [all data]

Kistiakowsky, Ruhoff, et al., 1935, 2
Kistiakowsky, G.B.; Ruhoff, J.R.; Smith, H.A.; Vaughan, W.E., Heats of organic reactions. II. Hydrogenation of some simpler olefinic hydrocarbons, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1935, 57, 876-882. [all data]

Hopkins, 1921
Hopkins, O.P., THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY AND TRADE OF ENGLAND., J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 1921, 13, 3, 189-197, https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50135a007 . [all data]

Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984
Boublik, T.; Fried, V.; Hala, E., The Vapour Pressures of Pure Substances: Selected Values of the Temperature Dependence of the Vapour Pressures of Some Pure Substances in the Normal and Low Pressure Region, 2nd ed., Elsevier, New York, 1984, 972. [all data]

Domalski and Hearing, 1996
Domalski, Eugene S.; Hearing, Elizabeth D., Heat Capacities and Entropies of Organic Compounds in the Condensed Phase. Volume III, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1996, 25, 1, 1, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555985 . [all data]

Lacher, Billings, et al., 1952
Lacher, J.R.; Billings, T.J.; Campion, D.E., Vapor phase heats of hydrobromination of the isomeric butenes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1952, 74, 5291-52. [all data]

Cox and Pilcher, 1970
Cox, J.D.; Pilcher, G., Thermochemistry of Organic and Organometallic Compounds, Academic Press, New York, 1970, 1-636. [all data]

Happel, Hnatow, et al., 1971
Happel, J.; Hnatow, M.A.; Mezaki, R., Isomerization equilibrium constants of n-butenes, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1971, 16, 206-209. [all data]

Levanova and Andreevskii, 1964
Levanova, S.V.; Andreevskii, D.N., The equilibrium of 2-chlorobutane dehydrochlorination, Neftekhimiya, 1964, 4, 329-336. [all data]

Conn, Kistiakowsky, et al., 1938
Conn, J.B.; Kistiakowsky, G.B.; Smith, E.A., Heats of organic reactions. VII. Addition of halogens to olefins, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1938, 60, 2764-2771. [all data]

Traeger, 1986
Traeger, J.C., Heat of formation for the 1-methylallyl cation by photoionization mass spectrometry, J. Phys. Chem., 1986, 90, 4114. [all data]

Traeger, 1984
Traeger, J.C., A study of the allyl cation thermochemistry by photoionization mass spectrometry, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes, 1984, 58, 259. [all data]

Wood and Taylor, 1979
Wood, K.V.; Taylor, J.W., A photoionization mass spectrometric study of autoionization in ethylene and trans-2-butene, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 1979, 30, 307. [all data]

Lias and Ausloos, 1978
Lias, S.G.; Ausloos, P.J., eIonization energies of organic compounds by equilibrium measurements, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1978, 100, 6027. [all data]

Bieri, Burger, et al., 1977
Bieri, G.; Burger, F.; Heilbronner, E.; Maier, J.P., Valence ionization enrgies of hydrocarbons, Helv. Chim. Acta, 1977, 60, 2213. [all data]

Masclet, Grosjean, et al., 1973
Masclet, P.; Grosjean, D.; Mouvier, G., Alkene ionization potentials. Part I. Quantitative determination of alkyl group structural effects, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1973, 2, 225. [all data]

Lossing, 1972
Lossing, F.P., Free radicals by mass spectrometry. XLV. Ionization potentials and heats of formation of C3H3, C3H5, and C4H7 radicals and ions, Can. J. Chem., 1972, 50, 3973. [all data]

Frost and Sandhu, 1971
Frost, D.C.; Sandhu, J.S., Ionization potentials of ethylene and some methyl-substituted ethylenes as determined by photoelectron spectroscopy, Indian J. Chem., 1971, 9, 1105. [all data]

McDiarmid, 1969
McDiarmid, R., Rydberg progressions in cis- and trans-butene, J. Chem. Phys., 1969, 50, 2328. [all data]

Dewar and Worley, 1969
Dewar, M.J.S.; Worley, S.D., Photoelectron spectra of molecules. I. Ionization potentials of some organic molecules and their interpretation, J. Chem. Phys., 1969, 50, 654. [all data]

Watanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962
Watanabe, K.; Nakayama, T.; Mottl, J., Ionization potentials of some molecules, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer, 1962, 2, 369. [all data]

Bralsford, Harris, et al., 1960
Bralsford, R.; Harris, P.V.; Price, W.C., The effect of fluorine on the electronic spectra and ionization potentials of molecules, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), 1960, A258, 459. [all data]

Krause, Taylor, et al., 1978
Krause, D.A.; Taylor, J.W.; Fenske, R.F., An analysis of the effects of alkyl substituents on the ionization potentials of n-alkenes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1978, 100, 718. [all data]

Wiberg, Ellison, et al., 1976
Wiberg, K.B.; Ellison, G.B.; Wendoloski, J.J.; Brundle, C.R.; Kuebler, N.A., Electronic states of organic molecules. 3. Photoelectron spectra of cycloalkenes and methylenecycloalkanes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1976, 98, 7179. [all data]

Heilbronner, Hoshi, et al., 1976
Heilbronner, E.; Hoshi, T.; von Rosenberg, J.L.; Hafner, K., Alkyl-induced, natural hypsochromic shifts of the 2A<--2X and 2B<--2X transitions of azulene and naphthalene radical cations, Nouv. J. Chim., 1976, 1, 105. [all data]

Kimura, Katsumata, et al., 1975
Kimura, K.; Katsumata, S.; Yamazaki, T.; Wakabayashi, H., UV photoelectron spectra and sum rule consideration; out-of-plane orbitals of unsaturated compounds with planar-skeleton structure, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1975, 6, 41. [all data]

White, Carlson, et al., 1974
White, R.M.; Carlson, T.A.; Spears, D.P., Angular distribution of the photoelectron spectra for ethylene, propylene, butene and butadiene, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1974, 3, 59. [all data]

Robin, Taylor, et al., 1973
Robin, M.B.; Taylor, G.N.; Kuebler, N.A.; Bach, R.D., Planarity of the carbon skeleton in various alkylated olefins, J. Org. Chem., 1973, 38, 1049. [all data]

Meisels, Park, et al., 1970
Meisels, G.G.; Park, J.Y.; Giessner, B.G., Ionization and dissociation of C4H8 isomers, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1970, 92, 254. [all data]

Omura, 1961
Omura, I., Mass spectra at low ionizing voltage and bond dissociation energies of molecular ions from hydrocarbons, Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan, 1961, 34, 1227. [all data]

Lossing, 1971
Lossing, F.P., Free radicals by mass spectrometry. XLIII. Ionization potentials and ionic heats of formation for vinyl, allyl, and benzyl radicals, Can. J. Chem., 1971, 49, 357. [all data]


Notes

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