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Pentane, 2,3,4-trimethyl-

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Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Column type CapillaryCapillaryPackedCapillaryCapillary
Active phase OV-101OV-101C78, Branched paraffinOV-101OV-101
Column length (m) 50.50.3.3  
Carrier gas HeHeHe  
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.25   
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 40.60.130.0.0.
I 747.1750.2765.1743.745.
ReferenceChen, Liang, et al., 2001Chen, Liang, et al., 2001Dallos, Sisak, et al., 2000Skrbic, 1997Skrbic, 1997
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryPackedCapillary
Active phase OV-101OV-101SqualaneC78, Branched paraffinBP-1
Column length (m) 20.20. 3.315.
Carrier gas     N2
Substrate    Chromosorb G HP 
Column diameter (mm) 0.50.5  0.53
Phase thickness (mum)     1.0
Temperature (C) 150.180.25.130.0.
I 765.6771.3749.764.2743.
ReferenceCha and Lee, 1994Cha and Lee, 1994Hilal, Carreira, et al., 1994Reddy, Dutoit, et al., 1992Skrbic and Cvejanov, 1992
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type PackedCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase ApolaneOV-1OV-101OV-101OV-101
Column length (m) 3.7    
Carrier gas      
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm)      
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 130.60.40.60.80.
I 765.752.748.750.754.
ReferenceDutoit, 1991Engewald, Maurer, et al., 1989Laub and Purnell, 1988Laub and Purnell, 1988Laub and Purnell, 1988
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase SqualaneSqualaneOV-101OV-101OV-101
Column length (m) 50.50.100.100.100.
Carrier gas HeHe   
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.220.220.270.270.27
Phase thickness (mum)   0.90.90.9
Temperature (C) 50.70.40.50.60.
I 751.6755.05748.4749.8751.2
ReferenceLunskii and Paizanskaya, 1988Lunskii and Paizanskaya, 1988Boneva and Dimov, 1986Boneva and Dimov, 1986Boneva and Dimov, 1986
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase OV-101OV-101OV-101OV-101OV-101
Column length (m) 100.    
Carrier gas      
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.27    
Phase thickness (mum) 0.9    
Temperature (C) 70.30.40.50.60.
I 752.7747.748.749.750.
ReferenceBoneva and Dimov, 1986Chien, Furio, et al., 1983Chien, Furio, et al., 1983Chien, Furio, et al., 1983Chien, Furio, et al., 1983
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase OV-101OV-101OV-3OV-3OV-3
Column length (m)      
Carrier gas      
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm)      
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 70.80.30.40.50.
I 752.754.748.3749.6751.0
ReferenceChien, Furio, et al., 1983Chien, Furio, et al., 1983Chien, Furio, et al., 1983, 2Chien, Furio, et al., 1983, 2Chien, Furio, et al., 1983, 2
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase OV-3OV-3OV-3DB-1DB-1
Column length (m)    60.60.
Carrier gas      
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm)    0.2640.259
Phase thickness (mum)     1.
Temperature (C) 60.70.80.60.60.
I 752.5754.0755.6751.9751.9
ReferenceChien, Furio, et al., 1983, 2Chien, Furio, et al., 1983, 2Chien, Furio, et al., 1983, 2Lubeck and Sutton, 1983Lubeck and Sutton, 1983
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase OV-101OV-101SF-96OV-1OV-1
Column length (m) 100.55.91.4  
Carrier gas    H2H2
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.270.270.31  
Phase thickness (mum) 0.200.90.20  
Temperature (C) 50.50.50.30.40.
I 750.750.750.748.2749.7
ReferenceJohansen and Ettre, 1982Johansen and Ettre, 1982Johansen and Ettre, 1982Chien, Kopecni, et al., 1981Chien, Kopecni, et al., 1981
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase OV-1OV-1OV-1OV-1SE-30
Column length (m)      
Carrier gas H2H2H2H2H2
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm)      
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 50.60.70.80.30.
I 751.3752.9754.6756.4747.7
ReferenceChien, Kopecni, et al., 1981Chien, Kopecni, et al., 1981Chien, Kopecni, et al., 1981Chien, Kopecni, et al., 1981Chien, Kopecni, et al., 1981
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase SE-30SE-30SE-30SE-30SE-30
Column length (m)      
Carrier gas H2H2H2H2H2
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm)      
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 40.50.60.70.80.
I 748.3749.3750.1751.1752.
ReferenceChien, Kopecni, et al., 1981Chien, Kopecni, et al., 1981Chien, Kopecni, et al., 1981Chien, Kopecni, et al., 1981Chien, Kopecni, et al., 1981
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type PackedPackedPackedPackedCapillary
Active phase TriacontaneSqualaneOV-1SE-30Squalane
Column length (m) 3.3.4.4. 
Carrier gas HeHe   
Substrate Chromosorb W AW (60-80 mesh)Chromosorb W AW (60-80 mesh)Chromosorb W AW DMCS (80-100 mesh)Chromosorb W AW DMCS (80-100 mesh) 
Column diameter (mm)      
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 80.80.80.80.60.
I 755.756.754.754.754.
ReferenceCastello and D'Amato, 1979Castello and D'Amato, 1979Dimov and Papazova, 1979Dimov and Papazova, 1979Chretien and Dubois, 1976
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type PackedCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase ApolaneSqualaneSqualaneOV-101OV-101
Column length (m) 2.4100.100.25.25.
Carrier gas HeN2N2N2N2
Substrate Chromosorb    
Column diameter (mm)  0.250.250.250.25
Phase thickness (mum)    1.391.39
Temperature (C) 70.50.70.50.50.
I 755.5752.755.750.750.
ReferenceRiedo, Fritz, et al., 1976Rijks and Cramers, 1974Rijks and Cramers, 1974Pacáková, Hoch, et al., 1973Pacáková, Hoch, et al., 1973
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase OV-101OV-101Vacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)Vacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)Vacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)
Column length (m) 25.25.   
Carrier gas N2N2   
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.25   
Phase thickness (mum) 1.391.39   
Temperature (C) 60.60.35.45.50.
I 752.752.748.750.751.
ReferencePacáková, Hoch, et al., 1973Pacáková, Hoch, et al., 1973Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryPackedPacked
Active phase Vacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)Vacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)SqualaneSE-30Squalane
Column length (m)   100.  
Carrier gas    N2N2
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm)   0.25  
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 58.68.70.80.25.
I 752.754.752.5754.748.
ReferenceSidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972Dimov and Schopov, 1971Mitra and Saha, 1970Mitra and Saha, 1970
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type PackedCapillaryPackedPackedPacked
Active phase SqualaneSqualaneSqualaneSqualaneSqualane
Column length (m)  91.415.15.15.
Carrier gas N2N2HeHeHe
Substrate   Chromosorb PChromosorb PChromosorb P
Column diameter (mm)  0.250.250.250.25
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 80.40.27.49.67.
I 758.751.749.752.755.
ReferenceMitra and Saha, 1970Matukuma, 1969Hively and Hinton, 1968Hively and Hinton, 1968Hively and Hinton, 1968
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type PackedPackedPackedCapillaryCapillary
Active phase SqualaneSqualaneSqualaneSqualaneSqualane
Column length (m) 15.10.10.100.100.
Carrier gas HeH2H2H2H2
Substrate Chromosorb P    
Column diameter (mm) 0.25  0.250.25
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 86.30.50.30.50.
I 757.750.5753.750.752.
ReferenceHively and Hinton, 1968Tourres, 1967Tourres, 1967Tourres, 1967, 2Tourres, 1967, 2
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryPackedPackedPacked
Active phase SqualaneSqualaneSqualaneSqualane
Column length (m) 100.1.81.81.8
Carrier gas H2   
Substrate  Untreated celiteUntreated celiteUntreated celite
Column diameter (mm) 0.25   
Phase thickness (mum)     
Temperature (C) 70.40.55.70.
I 756.751.754.756.
ReferenceTourres, 1967, 2Evans, 1966Evans, 1966Evans, 1966
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI

References

Go To: Top, Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Chen, Liang, et al., 2001
Chen, J.P.; Liang, X.M.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, L.F., Prediction of GC retention values under various column temperature conditions from temperature programmed data, Chromatographia, 2001, 53, 9/10, 539-547, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02491619 . [all data]

Dallos, Sisak, et al., 2000
Dallos, A.; Sisak, A.; Kulcsár, Z.; Kováts, E., Pair-wise interactions by gas chromatography VII. Interaction free enthalpies of solutes with secondary alcohol groups, J. Chromatogr. A, 2000, 904, 2, 211-242, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00908-0 . [all data]

Skrbic, 1997
Skrbic, B.D., Unified retention concept -- statistical treatment of Kováts retention index, J. Chromatogr. A, 1997, 764, 2, 257-264, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(96)00955-7 . [all data]

Cha and Lee, 1994
Cha, K.-W.; Lee, D.-J., Prediction of retention indices of various compounds in gas-liquid chromatography, J. Korean Chem. Soc., 1994, 38, 2, 108-120, retrieved from http://journal.kcsnet.or.kr/publi/dh/dh94n2/108.pdf. [all data]

Hilal, Carreira, et al., 1994
Hilal, S.H.; Carreira, L.A.; Karickhoff, S.W.; Melton, C.M., Estimation of Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Retention Times from Molecular Structure, J. Chromatogr. A, 1994, 662, 2, 269-280, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(94)80515-6 . [all data]

Reddy, Dutoit, et al., 1992
Reddy, K.S.; Dutoit, J.-Cl.; Kovats, E. sz., Pair-wise interactions by gas chromatography. I. Interaction free enthalpies of solutes with non-associated primary alcohol groups, J. Chromatogr., 1992, 609, 1-2, 229-259, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(92)80167-S . [all data]

Skrbic and Cvejanov, 1992
Skrbic, B.D.; Cvejanov, J.Dj., Unified retention indices of hydrocarbons on BP-1 dimethylsiloxane stationary phase, Chromatographia, 1992, 34, 1/2, 83-84, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02290465 . [all data]

Dutoit, 1991
Dutoit, J., Gas chromatographic retention behaviour of some solutes on structurally similar polar and non-polar stationary phases, J. Chromatogr., 1991, 555, 1-2, 191-204, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)87179-X . [all data]

Engewald, Maurer, et al., 1989
Engewald, W.; Maurer, T.; Schiefke, A., Investigation of isomeric hydrocarbons by gas-solid chromatography on graphitized thermal carbon black, Pure Appl. Chem., 1989, 61, 11, 2001-2004, https://doi.org/10.1351/pac198961112001 . [all data]

Laub and Purnell, 1988
Laub, R.J.; Purnell, J.H., Specific retention volumes, retention indices, and family-plot regressions of aliphatic, alicyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbon solutes with OV-101 poly (dimethylsiloxane) stationary phase, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1988, 11, 9, 649-660, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240110908 . [all data]

Lunskii and Paizanskaya, 1988
Lunskii, M.Kh.; Paizanskaya, I.L., Identification of hydrocarbons C1-C9 of petrol fractions of oils and condensates in the use of capillary columns with dinonylphthalate, Zh. Anal. Khim., 1988, 43, 127-135. [all data]

Boneva and Dimov, 1986
Boneva, S.; Dimov, N., Unified retention index of hydrocarbons separated on dimethylsilicone OV-101, Chromatographia, 1986, 21, 12, 697-700, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02313682 . [all data]

Chien, Furio, et al., 1983
Chien, C.-F.; Furio, D.L.; Kopecni, M.M.; Laub, R.J., Specific Retention Volumes and Retention Indices of Selected Hydrocarbon Solutes with OV-101 and SP-2100 Polydimethylsiloxane Solvents, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1983, 6, 10, 577-580, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240061013 . [all data]

Chien, Furio, et al., 1983, 2
Chien, C.-F.; Furio, D.L.; Kopecni, M.M.; Laub, R.J., Specific retention volumes and retention indices of selected hydrocarbon solutes with OV-3, OV-7, OV-11, OV-17, OV-22, and OV-25 polymethylphenylsiloxane solvents, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1983, 6, 12, 669-679, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240061207 . [all data]

Lubeck and Sutton, 1983
Lubeck, A.J.; Sutton, DL., Kovats retention indices of selected hydrocarbons through C10 on bonded phase fused silica capillaries, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1983, 6, 6, 328-332, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240060612 . [all data]

Johansen and Ettre, 1982
Johansen, N.G.; Ettre, L.S., Retention index values of hydrocarbons on open-tubular columns coated with methylsilicone liquid phases, Chromatographia, 1982, 15, 10, 625-630, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02279488 . [all data]

Chien, Kopecni, et al., 1981
Chien, C.-F.; Kopecni, M.M.; Laub, R.J., Specific Retention Volumes and Retention Indices of Selected Hydrocarbon Solutes with OV-1 and SE-30 Polydimethylsiloxane Solvents, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1981, 4, 10, 539-543, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240041017 . [all data]

Castello and D'Amato, 1979
Castello, G.; D'Amato, G., Use of Linear and Branched-Chain Paraffinic Liquid Phases as Non-Polar Reference Materials in Gas Chromatography, J. Chromatogr., 1979, 175, 1, 27-35, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)86400-6 . [all data]

Dimov and Papazova, 1979
Dimov, N.; Papazova, D., Calculation of retention indices of isoparaffins on different phases, Chromatographia, 1979, 12, 7, 443-447, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02302987 . [all data]

Chretien and Dubois, 1976
Chretien, J.R.; Dubois, J.-E., New Perspectives in the Prediction of Kovats Indices, J. Chromatogr., 1976, 126, 171-189, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)84071-1 . [all data]

Riedo, Fritz, et al., 1976
Riedo, F.; Fritz, D.; Tarján, G.; Kováts, E.Sz., A tailor-made C87 hydrocarbon as a possible non-polar standard stationary phase for gas chromatography, J. Chromatogr., 1976, 126, 63-83, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)84063-2 . [all data]

Rijks and Cramers, 1974
Rijks, J.A.; Cramers, C.A., High precision capillary gas chromatography of hydrocarbons, Chromatographia, 1974, 7, 3, 99-106, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02269819 . [all data]

Pacáková, Hoch, et al., 1973
Pacáková, V.; Hoch, K.; Smolková, E., The Effect of Instrumentation on the Precision of Retention Indexes, Chromatographia, 1973, 6, 7, 320-324, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02269334 . [all data]

Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972
Sidorov, R.I.; Petrova, V.I.; Ivanova, M.P., Qualitative analysis of wide-boiling fraction C5-C10 with capillary chromatography in Processes in chromatographic columns. Vol.17, 1972, 14-25. [all data]

Dimov and Schopov, 1971
Dimov, N.; Schopov, D., Empirische korrektion der physikalisch-chemischen retentionsindexe von kohlenwasserstoffen auf squalan, J. Chromatogr., 1971, 63, 223-228, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)85634-X . [all data]

Mitra and Saha, 1970
Mitra, G.D.; Saha, N.C., Determination of Retention Indices of Saturated Hydrocarbons by Graphical Methods, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 1970, 8, 2, 95-102, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/8.2.95 . [all data]

Matukuma, 1969
Matukuma, A., Retention indices of alkanes through C10 and alkenes through C8 and relation between boiling points and retention data, Gas Chromatogr., Int. Symp. Anal. Instrum. Div Instrum Soc. Amer., 1969, 7, 55-75. [all data]

Hively and Hinton, 1968
Hively, R.A.; Hinton, R.E., Variation of the retention index with temperature on squalane substrates, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1968, 6, 4, 203-217, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/6.4.203 . [all data]

Tourres, 1967
Tourres, D.A., Structural analysis of industrial butene dimers by gas chromatography, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1967, 5, 1, 35-40, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/5.1.35 . [all data]

Tourres, 1967, 2
Tourres, D.A., Structure moléculaire et rétention en chromatographie en phase gazeuse. Influence de la température sur l'indice de rétention d'alcanes isomères, J. Chromatogr., 1967, 30, 357-377, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)84168-0 . [all data]

Evans, 1966
Evans, M.B., Retention indices of solutes on squalane, dinonyl phthalate, and polyethylene glycol 400, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1966, 4, 1, 1-3, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/4.1.1 . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal, References