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Alanine

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas-414.7 ± 4.2kJ/molCcrNgauv, Sabbah, et al., 1977 

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafsolid-560. ± 1.7kJ/molCcbContineanu and Marchidan, 1984ALS
Deltafsolid-559.48kJ/molCcrNgauv, Sabbah, et al., 1977ALS
Deltafsolid-562.7kJ/molCcbHutchens, Cole, et al., 1963Heat of combustion is not reported; ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacsolid-1621. ± 1.7kJ/molCcbContineanu and Marchidan, 1984ALS
Deltacsolid-1621.45 ± 0.48kJ/molCcrNgauv, Sabbah, et al., 1977ALS
Deltacsolid-1577. ± 2.kJ/molCcbTsuzuki, Harper, et al., 1958ALS
Deltacsolid-1634.1kJ/molCcbLemoult, 1904ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
solid,1 bar129.21J/mol*KN/AHutchens, Cole, et al., 1960DH
solid,1 bar118.8J/mol*KN/ADaurel, Delhaes, et al., 1975DH

Constant pressure heat capacity of solid

Cp,solid (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
115.298.Badelin, Kulikov, et al., 1990T = 298, 313, 333, 348 K.; DH
115.2298.Kulikov, Kozlov, et al., 1989T = 298 to 348 K.; DH
122.26298.15Hutchens, Cole, et al., 1960T = 11 to 305 K.; DH

Phase change data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltasub144.8 ± 4.2kJ/molCNgauv, Sabbah, et al., 1977ALS
Deltasub144.8 ± 4.2kJ/molN/ANguon Ngauv, Sabbah, et al., 1977AC

Enthalpy of sublimation

DeltasubH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
133. ± 1.414.TE,MEde Kruif, Voogd, et al., 1979AC
132.4 ± 1.3433.CNguon Ngauv, Sabbah, et al., 1977Based on data from 413. - 450. K.; AC
138. ± 0.8455.VSvec and Clyde, 1965ALS

Reaction thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
RCD - Robert C. Dunbar

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

C3H6NO2- + Hydrogen cation = Alanine

By formula: C3H6NO2- + H+ = C3H7NO2

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1430. ± 7.9kJ/molCIDCJones, Bernier, et al., 2007gas phase; B
Deltar1425. ± 8.8kJ/molG+TSLocke and McIver, 1983gas phase; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1401. ± 8.4kJ/molH-TSJones, Bernier, et al., 2007gas phase; B
Deltar1396. ± 8.4kJ/molIMRELocke and McIver, 1983gas phase; B

Sodium ion (1+) + Alanine = (Sodium ion (1+) bullet Alanine)

By formula: Na+ + C3H7NO2 = (Na+ bullet C3H7NO2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar169. ± 13.kJ/molIMREGapeev and Dunbar, 2003Anchor glycine=38.5+-2.0; RCD
Deltar167.kJ/molCIDCKish, Ohanessian, et al., 2003Anchor alanine=39.89; RCD

Gas phase ion energetics data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Ion clustering data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
MM - Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner)
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)8.88eVN/AN/AL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)901.6kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity867.7kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Proton affinity at 298K

Proton affinity (kJ/mol) Reference Comment
894.5 ± 0.4Bouchoux and Salpin, 2003T = 298K; MM
902. ± 4.Hahn and Wesdemiotis, 2003MM

Gas basicity at 298K

Gas basicity (review) (kJ/mol) Reference Comment
865.4 ± 0.4Bouchoux and Salpin, 2003T = 298K; MM
864.0 ± 6.3Cassady, Carr, et al., 1995T = 298K; GB> dimethylformamide, ~= 3-methylaniline, < 3-fluropyridine; MM
863.6 ± 6.7Wu and Lebrilla, 1995T = 300K; MM

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
8.88PEKlasinc, 1976LLK
8.8PEDebies and Rabalais, 1974LLK
9.63CTSSlifkin and Allison, 1967RDSH

De-protonation reactions

C3H6NO2- + Hydrogen cation = Alanine

By formula: C3H6NO2- + H+ = C3H7NO2

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1430. ± 7.9kJ/molCIDCJones, Bernier, et al., 2007gas phase; B
Deltar1425. ± 8.8kJ/molG+TSLocke and McIver, 1983gas phase; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1401. ± 8.4kJ/molH-TSJones, Bernier, et al., 2007gas phase; B
Deltar1396. ± 8.4kJ/molIMRELocke and McIver, 1983gas phase; B

Ion clustering data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Robert C. Dunbar

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. Searches may be limited to ion clustering reactions. A general reaction search form is also available.

Clustering reactions

Sodium ion (1+) + Alanine = (Sodium ion (1+) bullet Alanine)

By formula: Na+ + C3H7NO2 = (Na+ bullet C3H7NO2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar169. ± 13.kJ/molIMREGapeev and Dunbar, 2003Anchor glycine=38.5+-2.0
Deltar167.kJ/molCIDCKish, Ohanessian, et al., 2003Anchor alanine=39.89

Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Japan AIST/NIMC Database- Spectrum MS-NW- 301
NIST MS number 228084

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


UV/Visible spectrum

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Victor Talrose, Alexander N. Yermakov, Alexy A. Usov, Antonina A. Goncharova, Axlexander N. Leskin, Natalia A. Messineva, Natalia V. Trusova, Margarita V. Efimkina

Spectrum

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UVVis spectrum
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Additional Data

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Source Abu-Eittah, et al., 1988
Owner INEP CP RAS, NIST OSRD
Collection (C) 2007 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin INSTITUTE OF ENERGY PROBLEMS OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, RAS
Source reference RAS UV No. 17326
Instrument unknown
Melting point 300 dec.

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Ngauv, Sabbah, et al., 1977
Ngauv, S.N.; Sabbah, R.; Laffitte, M., Thermodynamique de composes azotes. III. Etude thermochimique de la glycine et de la l-«alpha»-alanine, Thermochim. Acta, 1977, 20, 371-380. [all data]

Contineanu and Marchidan, 1984
Contineanu, I.; Marchidan, D.I., The enthalpies of combustion and formation of D-alanine, L-alanine, DL-alanine, and «beta»-alanine, Rev. Roum. Chim., 1984, 29, 43-48. [all data]

Hutchens, Cole, et al., 1963
Hutchens, J.O.; Cole, A.G.; Stout, J.W., Heat capacities from 11 to 305°K., entropies, and free energies of formation of L-valine, L-isoleucine, and L-leucine, J. Phys. Chem., 1963, 67, 1128-1130. [all data]

Tsuzuki, Harper, et al., 1958
Tsuzuki, T.; Harper, D.O.; Hunt, H., Heats of combustion. VII. The heats of combustion of some amino acids, J. Phys. Chem., 1958, 62, 1594-1595. [all data]

Lemoult, 1904
Lemoult, M.P., Remarques sur une serie recenie de determinations calorimetriques, Compt. Rend., 1904, 663-635. [all data]

Hutchens, Cole, et al., 1960
Hutchens, J.O.; Cole, A.G.; Stout, J.W., Heat capacities from 11 to 305K. and entropies of L-alanine and glycine, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1960, 82, 4813-4815. [all data]

Daurel, Delhaes, et al., 1975
Daurel, M.; Delhaes, P.; Dupart, E., Variations thermiques, entre 1 et 300K, de la chaleur specifique de la L-alanine, tri(L-alanine) et de la poly(L-alanine), Biopolymers, 1975, 14, 801-823. [all data]

Badelin, Kulikov, et al., 1990
Badelin, V.G.; Kulikov, O.V.; Batagin, V.S.; Udzig, E.; Zielenkiewicz, A.; Zielenkiewicz, W.; Krestov, G.A., Physico-chemical properties of peptides and their solutions, Thermochim. Acta, 1990, 169, 81-93. [all data]

Kulikov, Kozlov, et al., 1989
Kulikov, O.V.; Kozlov, V.A.; Malenkina, L.I.; Badelin, V.G., Heat capacities of amino acids and peptides and excess characteristics ot their aqueous solutions, Sbornik Nauch. Trud., Termodin. Rast. neelect., Ivanovo, Inst. nevod. rast., 1989, Akad. [all data]

Nguon Ngauv, Sabbah, et al., 1977
Nguon Ngauv, Song; Sabbah, Raphael; Laffitie, Marc, Thermodynamique de composes azotes III. Etude Thermochimique de la glycine et de la l-«alpha»-alanine, Thermochimica Acta, 1977, 20, 3, 371-380, https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-6031(77)85091-0 . [all data]

de Kruif, Voogd, et al., 1979
de Kruif, C.G.; Voogd, J.; Offringa, J.C.A., Enthalpies of sublimation and vapour pressures of 14 amino acids and peptides, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 1979, 11, 7, 651-656, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9614(79)90030-2 . [all data]

Svec and Clyde, 1965
Svec, H.J.; Clyde, D.D., Vapor pressures of some «alpha»-amino acids, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1965, 10, 151. [all data]

Jones, Bernier, et al., 2007
Jones, C.M.; Bernier, M.; Carson, E.; Colyer, K.E.; Metz, R.; Pawlow, A.; Wischow, E.D.; Webb, I.; Andriole, E.J.; Poutsma, J.C., Gas-phase Acities of the 20 Protein Amino Acids, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 2007, 267, 1-3, 54-62, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijms.2007.02.018 . [all data]

Locke and McIver, 1983
Locke, M.J.; McIver, R.T., Jr., Effect of Solvation on the Acid/Base Properties of Glycine, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1983, 105, 4226. [all data]

Gapeev and Dunbar, 2003
Gapeev, A.; Dunbar, R.C., Na+ Affinities of Gas-Phase Amino Acids by Ligand Exchange Equilibrium, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 2003, 228, 2-3, 825, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1387-3806(03)00242-2 . [all data]

Kish, Ohanessian, et al., 2003
Kish, M.M.; Ohanessian, G.; Wesdemiotis, C., The Na+ affinities of a-amino acids: side-chain substituent effects, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 2003, 227, 3, 509, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1387-3806(03)00082-4 . [all data]

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556018 . [all data]

Bouchoux and Salpin, 2003
Bouchoux, G.; Salpin, J.Y., Gas-phase basicity of glycine, alanine, proline, serine, lysine, histidine and some of their peptides by the thermokinetic method, European J. Mass Spectrometry, 2003, 9, 391-402. [all data]

Hahn and Wesdemiotis, 2003
Hahn, I.S.; Wesdemiotis, C., Protonation Thermochemistry of beta-Alanine. An Evaluation of Proton Affinities and Entropies Determined by the Extended Kinetic Method, Int. J. Mass Spectrometry, 2003, 222, 465. [all data]

Cassady, Carr, et al., 1995
Cassady, C.J.; Carr, S.R.; Zhang, K.; Chung-Phillips, C., Experimental and Ab Intio Studies of Protonations of Alanine and Samll Peptides of Alanine and Glycine, J. Org. Chem., 1995, 60, 1704. [all data]

Wu and Lebrilla, 1995
Wu, J.; Lebrilla, C.B., Intrinsic Basicity of Oligomeric Peptides that Contain Glycine, Alanine, and Valine - The Effects of the Alkyl Side Chain on Proton Transfer Reactions, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 1995, 6, 91. [all data]

Klasinc, 1976
Klasinc, L., Application of photoelectron spectroscopy to biologically active molecules and their constituent parts, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1976, 8, 161. [all data]

Debies and Rabalais, 1974
Debies, T.P.; Rabalais, J.W., Electronic structure of amino acids and ureas, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1974, 3, 315. [all data]

Slifkin and Allison, 1967
Slifkin, M.A.; Allison, A.C., Measurement of ionization potentials from contact charge transfer spectra, Nature, 1967, 215, 949. [all data]

Abu-Eittah, et al., 1988
Abu-Eittah, R., et al., Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan., 1988, 61, 2609. [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References