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Pentane, 2,2,3-trimethyl-

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Gas Chromatography

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillarySqualane100.739.Heinzen, Soares, et al., 1999 
CapillaryOV-1010.730.Skrbic, 1997 
PackedSqualane78.5741.4Zhang and Lu, 1996 
CapillarySqualane25.733.Hilal, Carreira, et al., 1994 
CapillaryOV-160.736.Engewald, Maurer, et al., 1989 
CapillarySqualane50.736.Lunskii and Paizanskaya, 1988He; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm
CapillarySqualane70.739.1Lunskii and Paizanskaya, 1988He; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm
CapillaryNonpolar45.737.Stoyanov and Dimov, 1987 
CapillaryNonpolar52.5738.Stoyanov and Dimov, 1987 
CapillaryNonpolar60.739.Stoyanov and Dimov, 1987 
CapillaryOV-10140.733.4Boneva and Dimov, 1986100. m/0.27 mm/0.9 «mu»m
CapillaryOV-10150.734.3Boneva and Dimov, 1986100. m/0.27 mm/0.9 «mu»m
CapillaryOV-10160.735.1Boneva and Dimov, 1986100. m/0.27 mm/0.9 «mu»m
CapillaryOV-10170.735.9Boneva and Dimov, 1986100. m/0.27 mm/0.9 «mu»m
CapillaryDB-160.736.Lubeck and Sutton, 1983Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.264 mm
CapillaryDB-160.736.Lubeck and Sutton, 198360. m/0.259 mm/1. «mu»m
CapillaryOV-10150.734.Johansen and Ettre, 1982100. m/0.27 mm/0.20 «mu»m
CapillaryOV-10150.734.Johansen and Ettre, 198255. m/0.27 mm/0.9 «mu»m
CapillarySF-9650.734.Johansen and Ettre, 198291.4 m/0.31 mm/0.20 «mu»m
PackedTriacontane80.741.Castello and D'Amato, 1979He, Chromosorb W AW (60-80 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedSqualane80.742.Castello and D'Amato, 1979He, Chromosorb W AW (60-80 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedSE-3080.738.Dimov and Papazova, 1979Chromosorb W AW DMCS (80-100 mesh); Column length: 4. m
CapillarySqualane60.739.Chretien and Dubois, 1976 
CapillarySqualane50.737.Rijks and Cramers, 1974N2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane70.740.Rijks and Cramers, 1974N2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryOV-10150.734.Pacáková, Hoch, et al., 197325. m/0.25 mm/1.39 «mu»m, N2
CapillaryOV-10160.736.Pacáková, Hoch, et al., 197325. m/0.25 mm/1.39 «mu»m, N2
CapillaryVacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)35.732.Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972 
CapillaryVacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)45.734.Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972 
CapillaryVacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)50.734.Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972 
CapillaryVacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)58.736.Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972 
CapillaryVacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)68.738.Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972 
CapillarySqualane70.737.3Dimov and Schopov, 1971Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane70.740.Cramers, Rijks, et al., 1970Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane70.740.Cramers, Rijks, et al., 1970Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane70.740.Cramers, Rijks, et al., 1970Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSE-3080.739.Mitra and Saha, 1970N2
PackedSqualane25.734.Mitra and Saha, 1970N2
PackedSqualane80.742.Mitra and Saha, 1970N2
CapillarySqualane40.736.Matukuma, 1969N2; Column length: 91.4 m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane27.733.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane49.737.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane67.740.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane86.743.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane30.734.Tourres, 1967H2; Column length: 10. m
PackedSqualane50.737.Tourres, 1967H2; Column length: 10. m
CapillarySqualane30.735.Tourres, 1967, 2H2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane50.737.Tourres, 1967, 2H2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane70.741.Tourres, 1967, 2H2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane40.736.Evans, 1966Untreated celite; Column length: 1.8 m
PackedSqualane55.739.Evans, 1966Untreated celite; Column length: 1.8 m
PackedSqualane70.741.Evans, 1966Untreated celite; Column length: 1.8 m
PackedSqualane26.728.Zulaïca and Guiochon, 1966Column length: 10. m

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryApiezon L737.Louis, 1971N2, 1. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 60. C

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPetrocol DH-100730.8Haagen-Smit Laboratory, 1997He; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.2 mm; Program: 5C(10min) => 5C/min => 50C(48min) => 1.5C/min => 195C(91min)

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPetrocol DH732.Censullo, Jones, et al., 200350. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 10. min, 3. K/min, 200. C @ 10. min
CapillaryPONA726.9Martos, Saraullo, et al., 199750. m/0.2 mm/0.5 «mu»m, 35. C @ 0.5 min, 1. K/min, 220. C @ 8. min
CapillaryPONA726.9Martos, Saraullo, et al., 199750. m/0.2 mm/0.5 «mu»m, 35. C @ 0.5 min, 1. K/min, 220. C @ 8. min
CapillaryUltra-1733.Olson, Sinkevitch, et al., 19924. K/min; Tstart: -40. C; Tend: 230. C
CapillaryPetrocol DH730.White, Hackett, et al., 1992100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryUltra-1727.92Haynes and Pitzer, 198550. m/0.22 mm/0.33 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: -30. C; Tend: 240. C
CapillaryUltra-1729.78Haynes and Pitzer, 198550. m/0.22 mm/0.33 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min; Tstart: -30. C; Tend: 240. C
CapillaryUltra-1730.95Haynes and Pitzer, 198550. m/0.22 mm/0.33 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: -30. C; Tend: 240. C
CapillaryUltra-2728.57Haynes and Pitzer, 198550. m/0.22 mm/0.33 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: -30. C; Tend: 240. C
CapillaryUltra-2730.36Haynes and Pitzer, 198550. m/0.22 mm/0.33 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min; Tstart: -30. C; Tend: 240. C
CapillaryUltra-2731.52Haynes and Pitzer, 198550. m/0.22 mm/0.33 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: -30. C; Tend: 240. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryMethyl Silicone50.737.N/AN2; Column length: 74.6 m; Column diameter: 0.28 mm
CapillarySqualane100.745.Dimov N., 1976 
CapillarySqualane70.740.Dimov N., 1976 
CapillarySqualane86.732.Vigdergauz and Martynov, 1971He; Column length: 150. m; Column diameter: 0.35 mm

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane: CP-Sil 5 CB734.Bramston-Cook, 201360. m/0.25 mm/1.0 «mu»m, Helium, 45. C @ 1.45 min, 3.6 K/min, 210. C @ 2.72 min
CapillaryPetrocol DH732.Supelco, 2012100. m/0.25 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Helium, 20. C @ 15. min, 15. K/min, 220. C @ 30. min
CapillaryOV-101732.Orav, Kailas, et al., 199950. m/0.20 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Helium, 30. C @ 6. min, 1. K/min; Tend: 100. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryMethyl Silicone737.Feng and Mu, 2007Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-101739.Du and Liang, 2003Program: not specified
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane739.Junkes, Castanho, et al., 2003Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-101730.Skrbic and Cvejanov, 1993Program: not specified
CapillarySqualane734.Petrov, 1984Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Gas Chromatography, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Heinzen, Soares, et al., 1999
Heinzen, V.E.F.; Soares, M.F.; Yunes, R.A., Semi-empirical topological method for the prediction of the chromatographic retention of cis- and trans-alkene isomers and alkanes, J. Chromatogr. A, 1999, 849, 2, 495-506, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(99)00530-0 . [all data]

Skrbic, 1997
Skrbic, B.D., Unified retention concept -- statistical treatment of Kováts retention index, J. Chromatogr. A, 1997, 764, 2, 257-264, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(96)00955-7 . [all data]

Zhang and Lu, 1996
Zhang, X.; Lu, P., Unified equation between Kováts indices on different stationary phases for select types of compounds, J. Chromatogr. A, 1996, 731, 1-2, 187-199, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(95)01213-3 . [all data]

Hilal, Carreira, et al., 1994
Hilal, S.H.; Carreira, L.A.; Karickhoff, S.W.; Melton, C.M., Estimation of Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Retention Times from Molecular Structure, J. Chromatogr. A, 1994, 662, 2, 269-280, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(94)80515-6 . [all data]

Engewald, Maurer, et al., 1989
Engewald, W.; Maurer, T.; Schiefke, A., Investigation of isomeric hydrocarbons by gas-solid chromatography on graphitized thermal carbon black, Pure Appl. Chem., 1989, 61, 11, 2001-2004, https://doi.org/10.1351/pac198961112001 . [all data]

Lunskii and Paizanskaya, 1988
Lunskii, M.Kh.; Paizanskaya, I.L., Identification of hydrocarbons C1-C9 of petrol fractions of oils and condensates in the use of capillary columns with dinonylphthalate, Zh. Anal. Khim., 1988, 43, 127-135. [all data]

Stoyanov and Dimov, 1987
Stoyanov, E.; Dimov, N., Precalculation of the optimum column temperature for gas chromatographic separation of petroleum fractions, Anal. Chim. Acta., 1987, 201, 207-216, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(00)85338-6 . [all data]

Boneva and Dimov, 1986
Boneva, S.; Dimov, N., Unified retention index of hydrocarbons separated on dimethylsilicone OV-101, Chromatographia, 1986, 21, 12, 697-700, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02313682 . [all data]

Lubeck and Sutton, 1983
Lubeck, A.J.; Sutton, DL., Kovats retention indices of selected hydrocarbons through C10 on bonded phase fused silica capillaries, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1983, 6, 6, 328-332, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240060612 . [all data]

Johansen and Ettre, 1982
Johansen, N.G.; Ettre, L.S., Retention index values of hydrocarbons on open-tubular columns coated with methylsilicone liquid phases, Chromatographia, 1982, 15, 10, 625-630, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02279488 . [all data]

Castello and D'Amato, 1979
Castello, G.; D'Amato, G., Use of Linear and Branched-Chain Paraffinic Liquid Phases as Non-Polar Reference Materials in Gas Chromatography, J. Chromatogr., 1979, 175, 1, 27-35, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)86400-6 . [all data]

Dimov and Papazova, 1979
Dimov, N.; Papazova, D., Calculation of retention indices of isoparaffins on different phases, Chromatographia, 1979, 12, 7, 443-447, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02302987 . [all data]

Chretien and Dubois, 1976
Chretien, J.R.; Dubois, J.-E., New Perspectives in the Prediction of Kovats Indices, J. Chromatogr., 1976, 126, 171-189, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)84071-1 . [all data]

Rijks and Cramers, 1974
Rijks, J.A.; Cramers, C.A., High precision capillary gas chromatography of hydrocarbons, Chromatographia, 1974, 7, 3, 99-106, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02269819 . [all data]

Pacáková, Hoch, et al., 1973
Pacáková, V.; Hoch, K.; Smolková, E., The Effect of Instrumentation on the Precision of Retention Indexes, Chromatographia, 1973, 6, 7, 320-324, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02269334 . [all data]

Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972
Sidorov, R.I.; Petrova, V.I.; Ivanova, M.P., Qualitative analysis of wide-boiling fraction C5-C10 with capillary chromatography in Processes in chromatographic columns. Vol.17, 1972, 14-25. [all data]

Dimov and Schopov, 1971
Dimov, N.; Schopov, D., Empirische korrektion der physikalisch-chemischen retentionsindexe von kohlenwasserstoffen auf squalan, J. Chromatogr., 1971, 63, 223-228, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)85634-X . [all data]

Cramers, Rijks, et al., 1970
Cramers, C.A.; Rijks, J.A.; Pacáková, V.; de Andrade, I.R., The application of precision gas chromatography to the identification of types of hydrocarbons, J. Chromatogr., 1970, 51, 13-21, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)96835-9 . [all data]

Mitra and Saha, 1970
Mitra, G.D.; Saha, N.C., Determination of Retention Indices of Saturated Hydrocarbons by Graphical Methods, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 1970, 8, 2, 95-102, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/8.2.95 . [all data]

Matukuma, 1969
Matukuma, A., Retention indices of alkanes through C10 and alkenes through C8 and relation between boiling points and retention data, Gas Chromatogr., Int. Symp. Anal. Instrum. Div Instrum Soc. Amer., 1969, 7, 55-75. [all data]

Hively and Hinton, 1968
Hively, R.A.; Hinton, R.E., Variation of the retention index with temperature on squalane substrates, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1968, 6, 4, 203-217, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/6.4.203 . [all data]

Tourres, 1967
Tourres, D.A., Structural analysis of industrial butene dimers by gas chromatography, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1967, 5, 1, 35-40, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/5.1.35 . [all data]

Tourres, 1967, 2
Tourres, D.A., Structure moléculaire et rétention en chromatographie en phase gazeuse. Influence de la température sur l'indice de rétention d'alcanes isomères, J. Chromatogr., 1967, 30, 357-377, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)84168-0 . [all data]

Evans, 1966
Evans, M.B., Retention indices of solutes on squalane, dinonyl phthalate, and polyethylene glycol 400, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1966, 4, 1, 1-3, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/4.1.1 . [all data]

Zulaïca and Guiochon, 1966
Zulaïca, J.; Guiochon, G., Analyse des hauts polymères par chromatographie en phase gazeuse de leurs produits de pyrolyse. II. Application à quelques hydrocarbures macromoléculaires purs, Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr., 1966, 4, 1351-1363. [all data]

Louis, 1971
Louis, R., Kovats-index-tafeln zur gaschromatographischen analyse von kohlenwasserstoffgemischen, Erdoel Kohle Erdgas Petrochem., 1971, 24, 2, 88-94. [all data]

Haagen-Smit Laboratory, 1997
Haagen-Smit Laboratory, Procedure for the detailed hydrocarbon analysis of gasolines by single column high efficiency (capillary) column gas chromatography, SOP NO. MLD 118, Revision No. 1.1, California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board, El Monte, California, 1997, 22. [all data]

Censullo, Jones, et al., 2003
Censullo, A.C.; Jones, D.R.; Wills, M.T., Speciation of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in solventborne aerosol coatings by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography, J. Coat. Technol., 2003, 75, 936, 47-53, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02697922 . [all data]

Martos, Saraullo, et al., 1997
Martos, P.A.; Saraullo, A.; Pawliszyn, J., Estimation of air/coating distribution coefficients for solid phase microextraction using retention indexes from linear temperature-programmed capillary gas chromatography. Application to the sampling and analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons in air, Anal. Chem., 1997, 69, 3, 402-408, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac960633p . [all data]

Olson, Sinkevitch, et al., 1992
Olson, K.L.; Sinkevitch, R.M.; Sloane, T.M., Speciation and Quantitation of Hydrocarbons in Gasoline Engine Exhaust, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 1992, 30, 12, 500-508, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/30.12.500 . [all data]

White, Hackett, et al., 1992
White, C.M.; Hackett, J.; Anderson, R.R.; Kail, S.; Spock, P.S., Linear temperature programmed retention indices of gasoline range hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons on cross-linked polydimethylsiloxane, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1992, 15, 2, 105-120, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240150211 . [all data]

Haynes and Pitzer, 1985
Haynes, P.C., Jr.; Pitzer, E.W., Disengaging solutes in shale- and petroleum-derived jet fuels by altering GC programmed temperature rates, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1985, 8, 5, 230-242, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240080504 . [all data]

Dimov N., 1976
Dimov N., Quantitative gas chromatographic analysis and determination of solute properties. An exact equation for the calculation of the retention indices of isoalkanes on Squalane, J. Chromatogr., 1976, 119, 109-118, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)86775-8 . [all data]

Vigdergauz and Martynov, 1971
Vigdergauz, M.S.; Martynov, A.A., Some applications of the gas chromatographic linear retention indices, Chromatographia, 1971, 4, 10, 463-467, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02268816 . [all data]

Bramston-Cook, 2013
Bramston-Cook, R., Kovats indices for C2-C13 hydrocarbons and selected oxygenated/halocarbons with 100 % dimethylpolysiloxane columns, 2013, retrieved from http://lotusinstruments.com/monographs/List .... [all data]

Supelco, 2012
Supelco, CatalogNo. 24160-U, Petrocol DH Columns. Catalog No. 24160-U, 2012, retrieved from http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/etc/medialib/docs/Supelco/Datasheet/1/w97949.Par.0001.File.tmp/w97949.pdf. [all data]

Orav, Kailas, et al., 1999
Orav, A.; Kailas, T.; Muurisepp, M.; Kann, J., Composition of the oil from waste tires. 1. Fraction boiling at yp to 160 0C, Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci. Chem., 1999, 48, 1, 30-39. [all data]

Feng and Mu, 2007
Feng, H.; Mu, L.-L., Quantitative structure-retention relationships for alkane and its derivatives based on electrotopological state index and molecular shape index, Chem. Ind. Engineering (Chinese), 2007, 24, 2, 161-168. [all data]

Du and Liang, 2003
Du, Y.; Liang, Y., Data mining for seeking accurate quantitative relationship between molecular structure and GC retention indices of alkanes by projection pursuit, Comput. Biol. Chem., 2003, 27, 3, 339-353, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1476-9271(02)00081-6 . [all data]

Junkes, Castanho, et al., 2003
Junkes, B.S.; Castanho, R.D.M.; Amboni, C.; Yunes, R.A.; Heinzen, V.E.F., Semiempirical Topological Index: A Novel Molecular Descriptor for Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationship Studies, Internet Electronic Journal of Molecular Design, 2003, 2, 1, 33-49. [all data]

Skrbic and Cvejanov, 1993
Skrbic, B.D.; Cvejanov, J.Dj., Correlation of unified retention indices for OV-101 and squalane, Chromatographia, 1993, 35, 1/2, 109-110, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02278566 . [all data]

Petrov, 1984
Petrov, A.A., Hydrocarbons of petroleum, Nauka (publishing house), Moscow, 1984, 263. [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas Chromatography, References