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Carbon Tetrachloride

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Gas Chromatography

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
PackedC78, Branched paraffin130.680.5Dallos, Sisak, et al., 2000He; Column length: 3.3 m
CapillaryDB-160.660.Dewulf, Van Langenhove, et al., 199730. m/0.53 mm/5.0 «mu»m, He
PackedC78, Branched paraffin130.680.7Reddy, Dutoit, et al., 1992Chromosorb G HP; Column length: 3.3 m
PackedApolane130.680.Dutoit, 1991Column length: 3.7 m
PackedOV-1100.667.Castello and Gerbino, 1988He, Chromosorb W DMCS; Column length: 3. m
PackedOV-1125.673.Castello and Gerbino, 1988He, Chromosorb W DMCS; Column length: 3. m
PackedOV-175.662.Castello and Gerbino, 1988He, Chromosorb W DMCS; Column length: 3. m
PackedSqualane80.648.Pacáková, Vojtechová, et al., 1988N2, Chezasorb AW-HMDS; Column length: 1.2 m
PackedSE-30150.680.Tiess, 1984Ar, Gas Chrom Q (80-100 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedSE-30100.672.Winskowski, 1983Gaschrom Q; Column length: 2. m
PackedPorapack Q200.628.Goebel, 1982N2
PackedApolane70.663.1Riedo, Fritz, et al., 1976He, Chromosorb; Column length: 2.4 m
PackedSqualane50.647.Vernon, 1971N2
PackedApiezon L100.679.Brown, Chapman, et al., 1968N2, DCMS-treated Chromosorb W; Column length: 2.3 m
PackedDC-200100.669.Rohrschneider, 1966Column length: 4. m
PackedSqualane100.656.Rohrschneider, 1966Column length: 5. m
PackedApiezon L100.682.Rohrschneider, 1966Column length: 5. m
PackedApiezon L130.691.von Kováts, 1958Celite (40:60 Gewichtsverhaltnis)
PackedApiezon L70.671.von Kováts, 1958Celite (40:60 Gewichtsverhaltnis)

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryCBP-1657.Shimadzu, 200325. m/0.2 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 200. C

Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
PackedSP-1000100.900.66Castello and Gerbino, 1988He, Chromosorb W DMCS; Column length: 3. m
PackedSP-1000125.902.2Castello and Gerbino, 1988He, Chromosorb W DMCS; Column length: 3. m
PackedSP-100075.886.54Castello and Gerbino, 1988He, Chromosorb W DMCS; Column length: 3. m
PackedCarbowax 20M75.888.Goebel, 1982N2, Kieselgur (60-100 mesh); Column length: 2. m
PackedCarbowax 20M100.895.Rohrschneider, 1966Column length: 2. m

Kovats' RI, polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryCBP-20868.Shimadzu, 200325. m/0.2 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 200. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-1645.7Helmig, Pollock, et al., 199630. m/0.25 mm/1. «mu»m, 6. K/min; Tstart: -50. C; Tend: 180. C
CapillaryDB-5661.Helmig, Pollock, et al., 199660. m/0.33 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 6. K/min; Tstart: -50. C; Tend: 180. C
CapillarySE-54663.Weber, 198625. m/0.31 mm/0.17 «mu»m, H2, 2. K/min; Tstart: 35. C
CapillaryOV-1652.Schreyen, Dirinck, et al., 19761. K/min; Column length: 183. m; Column diameter: 0.762 mm; Tstart: 0. C; Tend: 230. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySupelcowax-10879.Bianchi, Careri, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 35C(8min) => 4C/min => 60C => 6C/min => 160C => 20C/min => 200C(1min)

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-160.661.Shimadzu, 2003, 260. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He
PackedSynachrom150.611.Dufka, Malinsky, et al., 1971Helium, Synachrom (60-80 mesh); Column length: 1.5 m
PackedSynachrom150.618.Dufka, Malinsky, et al., 1971Helium, Synachrom (60-80 mesh); Column length: 1.5 m
PackedSqualane100.651.Vernon, 1971N2
PackedDC-400150.675.Anderson, 1968Helium, Gas-Pak (60-80 mesh); Column length: 3.0 m

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
PackedSE-30659.MHA, 9999Nitrogen, Chromosorb G AW DMCS (80-100 mesh); Column length: 2. m; Tstart: 100. C; Tend: 300. C
CapillaryHP-5656.Isidorov and Jdanova, 20023. K/min; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryBP-1663.Health Safety Executive, 200050. m/0.22 mm/0.75 «mu»m, He, 5. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillarySE-54661.Huang, Liang, et al., 199636. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 5. K/min; Tstart: 35. C; Tend: 240. C
CapillaryDB-1654.Ciccioli, Cecinato, et al., 199260. m/0.32 mm/1.2 «mu»m, He, 30. C @ 10. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 240. C
CapillaryOV-101645.Misharina, Golovnya, et al., 199150. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 250. C
CapillaryDB-1645.Habu, Flath, et al., 19853. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Tstart: 0. C; Tend: 250. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryMethyl Silicone658.Zenkevich, 2001Program: not specified
CapillarySPB-1661.Flanagan, Streete, et al., 199760. m/0.53 mm/5. «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(6min) => 5C/min => 80C => 10C/min => 200C
CapillaryDB-5664.Sorimachi, Tanabe, et al., 1995He; Column length: 30. m; Program: not specified
CapillaryMethyl Silicone658.Zenkevich, Korolenko, et al., 1995Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-1645.Ciccioli, Cecinato, et al., 199460. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-1645.Ciccioli, Brancaleoni, et al., 199360. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: 3 min at 5 C; 5 - 50 C at 3 deg/min; 50 - 220 C at 5 deg/min
CapillarySPB-1661.Strete, Ruprah, et al., 199260. m/0.53 mm/5.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 40 0C (6 min) 5 0C/min -> 80 0C 10 0C/min -> 200 0C
CapillarySPB-1659.Strete, Ruprah, et al., 199260. m/0.53 mm/5.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryCP Sil 8 CB664.Weller and Wolf, 198940. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 30 0C (1 min) 15 0C/min -> 45 0C 3 0C/min -> 120 0C
CapillaryOV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.646.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.658.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.672.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.673.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1659.Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982Program: not specified
CapillarySE-30649.Heydanek and McGorrin, 1981He; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.5 mm; Program: -10C (8min) => 12C/min => 26C => 3C/min => 170C (30min)

Normal alkane RI, polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax60.908.Shimadzu, 2003, 250. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He

Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax900.Shimadzu, 201230. m/0.32 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Helium, 4. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 260. C
CapillaryDB-Wax900.Shimadzu Corporation, 200330. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 260. C

Normal alkane RI, polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySupelcowax 10864.Soria, Martinez-Castro, et al., 200850. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 45 0C (15 min) 3 0C/min -> 75 0C 5 0C/min -> 180 0C (10 min)
CapillaryPolyethylene Glycol886.Zenkevich, Korolenko, et al., 1995Program: not specified
CapillaryCarbowax 400, Carbowax 20M, Carbowax 1540, Carbowax 4000, Superox 06, PEG 20M, etc.888.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryCarbowax 20M886.Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982Program: not specified
CapillaryPolyethylene Glycol872.MacLeod and Pieris, 1981Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Gas Chromatography, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Dallos, Sisak, et al., 2000
Dallos, A.; Sisak, A.; Kulcsár, Z.; Kováts, E., Pair-wise interactions by gas chromatography VII. Interaction free enthalpies of solutes with secondary alcohol groups, J. Chromatogr. A, 2000, 904, 2, 211-242, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00908-0 . [all data]

Dewulf, Van Langenhove, et al., 1997
Dewulf, J.; Van Langenhove, H.; Everaert, M., Solid-phase microextraction of volatile organic compounds estimation of the sorption equilibrium from the Kováts index, effect of salinity and humic acids and the study of the kinetics by the development of an agitated/static layer model, J. Chromatogr. A, 1997, 761, 1-2, 205-217, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(96)00810-2 . [all data]

Reddy, Dutoit, et al., 1992
Reddy, K.S.; Dutoit, J.-Cl.; Kovats, E. sz., Pair-wise interactions by gas chromatography. I. Interaction free enthalpies of solutes with non-associated primary alcohol groups, J. Chromatogr., 1992, 609, 1-2, 229-259, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(92)80167-S . [all data]

Dutoit, 1991
Dutoit, J., Gas chromatographic retention behaviour of some solutes on structurally similar polar and non-polar stationary phases, J. Chromatogr., 1991, 555, 1-2, 191-204, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)87179-X . [all data]

Castello and Gerbino, 1988
Castello, G.; Gerbino, T.C., Effect of Temperature on the Gas Chromatographic Separation of Halogenated Compounds on Polar and Non-Polar Stationary Phases, J. Chromatogr., 1988, 437, 33-45, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)90369-8 . [all data]

Pacáková, Vojtechová, et al., 1988
Pacáková, V.; Vojtechová, H.; Coufal, P., Reaction gas chromatography: study of the photodecomposition of halogenated hydrocarbons, Chromatographia, 1988, 25, 7, 621-626, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02327659 . [all data]

Tiess, 1984
Tiess, D., Gaschromatographische Retentionsindices von 125 leicht- bis mittelflüchtigen organischen Substanzen toxikologisch-analytischer Relevanz auf SE-30, Wiss. Z. Wilhelm-Pieck-Univ. Rostock Math. Naturwiss. Reihe, 1984, 33, 6-9. [all data]

Winskowski, 1983
Winskowski, J., Gaschromatographische Identifizierung von Stoffen anhand von Indexziffem und unterschiedlichen Detektoren, Chromatographia, 1983, 17, 3, 160-165, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02271041 . [all data]

Goebel, 1982
Goebel, K.-J., Gaschromatographische Identifizierung Niedrig Siedender Substanzen Mittels Retentionsindices und Rechnerhilfe, J. Chromatogr., 1982, 235, 1, 119-127, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)95793-5 . [all data]

Riedo, Fritz, et al., 1976
Riedo, F.; Fritz, D.; Tarján, G.; Kováts, E.Sz., A tailor-made C87 hydrocarbon as a possible non-polar standard stationary phase for gas chromatography, J. Chromatogr., 1976, 126, 63-83, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)84063-2 . [all data]

Vernon, 1971
Vernon, F., An investigation into hydrogen bonding in gas-liquid chromatography, J. Chromatogr., 1971, 63, 249-257, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)85637-5 . [all data]

Brown, Chapman, et al., 1968
Brown, I.; Chapman, I.L.; Nicholson, G.J., Gas chromatography of polar solutes in electron acceptor stationary phases, Aust. J. Chem., 1968, 21, 5, 1125-1141, https://doi.org/10.1071/CH9681125 . [all data]

Rohrschneider, 1966
Rohrschneider, L., Eine methode zur charakterisierung von gaschromatographischen trennflüssigkeiten, J. Chromatogr., 1966, 22, 6-22, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)97064-5 . [all data]

von Kováts, 1958
von Kováts, E., 206. Gas-chromatographische Charakterisierung organischer Verbindungen. Teil 1: Retentionsindices aliphatischer Halogenide, Alkohole, Aldehyde und Ketone, Helv. Chim. Acta, 1958, 41, 7, 1915-1932, https://doi.org/10.1002/hlca.19580410703 . [all data]

Shimadzu, 2003
Shimadzu, Gas chromatography analysis of organic solvents using capillary columns (No. 2), 2003, retrieved from http://www.shimadzu.com/apps/form.cfm. [all data]

Helmig, Pollock, et al., 1996
Helmig, D.; Pollock, W.; Greenberg, J.; Zimmerman, P., Gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis of volatile organic trace gases at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, J. Geophys. Res., 1996, 101, D9, 14697-14710, https://doi.org/10.1029/96JD00212 . [all data]

Weber, 1986
Weber, L., Utilization of the Sadtler standard RI system in micropollution analyses, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1986, 9, 8, 446-451, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240090806 . [all data]

Schreyen, Dirinck, et al., 1976
Schreyen, L.; Dirinck, P.; van Wassenhove, F.; Schamp, N., Analysis of leek volatiles by headspace condensation, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1976, 24, 6, 1147-1152, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60208a023 . [all data]

Bianchi, Careri, et al., 2007
Bianchi, F.; Careri, M.; Mangia, A.; Musci, M., Retention indices in the analysis of food aroma volatile compounds in temperature-programmed gas chromatography: Database creation and evaluation of precision and robustness, J. Sep. Sci., 2007, 39, 4, 563-572, https://doi.org/10.1002/jssc.200600393 . [all data]

Shimadzu, 2003, 2
Shimadzu, Gas chromatography analysis of organic solvents using capillary columns (No. 3), 2003, retrieved from http://www.shimadzu.com/apps/form.cfm. [all data]

Dufka, Malinsky, et al., 1971
Dufka, O.; Malinsky, J.; Vladyka, J., Sorpcni materialy pro plynovou chromatographii - III, Chemicky promysl., 1971, 21/46, 9, 459-463. [all data]

Anderson, 1968
Anderson, D.G., USe of Kovats retention indices and response factors for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of coating solvents, J. Paint Technol., 1968, 40, 527, 549-557. [all data]

MHA, 9999
MHA, Directorate of ForensicScience., Forensic Toxicology, 9999. [all data]

Isidorov and Jdanova, 2002
Isidorov, V.; Jdanova, M., Volatile organic compounds from leaves litter, Chemosphere, 2002, 48, 9, 975-979, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00074-7 . [all data]

Health Safety Executive, 2000
Health Safety Executive, MDHS 96 Volatile organic compounds in air - Laboratory method using pumed solid sorbent tubes, solvent desorption and gas chromatography in Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances (MDHS) guidance, Crown, Colegate, Norwich, 2000, 1-24, retrieved from http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/mdhs/pdfs/mdhs96.pdf. [all data]

Huang, Liang, et al., 1996
Huang, C.; Liang, H.; Han, S., The analysis of organic compounds in waste water by gas extraction/thermal desorption/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Chin. J. Chromatogr., 1996, 14, 6, 421-424. [all data]

Ciccioli, Cecinato, et al., 1992
Ciccioli, P.; Cecinato, A.; Brancaleoni, E.; Frattoni, M.; Liberti, A., Use of carbon adsorption traps combined with high resolution gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for the analysis of polar and non-polar C4-C14 hydrocarbons involved in photochemical smog formation, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1992, 15, 2, 75-84, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240150205 . [all data]

Misharina, Golovnya, et al., 1991
Misharina, T.A.; Golovnya, R.V.; Charnomskii, V.V., Volatile components of boiled shrimp funchalia woodwardi and crab geryon maritae, Zh. Anal. Khim., 1991, 46, 1421-1429. [all data]

Habu, Flath, et al., 1985
Habu, T.; Flath, R.A.; Mon, T.R.; Morton, J.F., Volatile components of Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis), J. Agric. Food Chem., 1985, 33, 2, 249-254, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00062a024 . [all data]

Zenkevich, 2001
Zenkevich, I.G., Comparative Characterization of Conditions for Unambuguous Chromatographic Identification of Organic Compounds, Zh. Anal. Khim., 2001, 56, 9, 915-924. [all data]

Flanagan, Streete, et al., 1997
Flanagan, R.J.; Streete, P.J.; Ramsey, J.D., Volatile Substance Abuse, UNODC Technical Series, No 5, United Nations, Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna International Centre, PO Box 500, A-1400 Vienna, Austria, 1997, 56, retrieved from http://www.odccp.org/pdf/technicalseries1997-01-011.pdf. [all data]

Sorimachi, Tanabe, et al., 1995
Sorimachi, J.; Tanabe, A.; Mitobe, H.; Kuniaki, K.; Masaaki, S., Programmed temperature retention indices for volatile organic compounds on headspace GC/MS analysis, Niigata-ken Eisei Kogai Kenkyusho Nenpo, 1995, 11, 75-79. [all data]

Zenkevich, Korolenko, et al., 1995
Zenkevich, I.G.; Korolenko, L.I.; Khralenkova, N.B., Desorption with solvent vapor as a method of sample preparation in the sorption preconcentration of organic-compounds from the air of a working area and from industrial-waste gases, J. Appl. Chem. USSR (Engl. Transl.), 1995, 50, 10, 937-944. [all data]

Ciccioli, Cecinato, et al., 1994
Ciccioli, P.; Cecinato, A.; Brancaleoni, E.; Brachetti, A.; Frattoni, M.; Sparapani, R., Composition and Distribution of Polar and Non-Polar VOCs in Urban, Rural, Forest and Remote Areas, Eur Commission EUR, 1994, 549-568. [all data]

Ciccioli, Brancaleoni, et al., 1993
Ciccioli, P.; Brancaleoni, E.; Cecinato, A.; Sparapani, R.; Frattoni, M., Identification and determination of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds in forest areas of Northern and Southern Europe and a remote site of the Himalaya region by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. Chromatogr., 1993, 643, 1-2, 55-69, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(93)80541-F . [all data]

Strete, Ruprah, et al., 1992
Strete, P.J.; Ruprah, M.; Ramsey, J.D.; Flanagan, R.J., Detection and identification of volatile substances by headspace capillary gas chromatography to aid the diagnosis of acute poisoning, Analyst, 1992, 117, 7, 1111-1127, https://doi.org/10.1039/an9921701111 . [all data]

Weller and Wolf, 1989
Weller, J.-P.; Wolf, M., Massenspektroskopie und Headspace-GC, Beitr. Gerichtl. Med., 1989, 47, 525-532. [all data]

Waggott and Davies, 1984
Waggott, A.; Davies, I.W., Identification of organic pollutants using linear temperature programmed retention indices (LTPRIs) - Part II, 1984, retrieved from http://dwi.defra.gov.uk/research/completed-research/reports/dwi0383.pdf. [all data]

Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982
Ramsey, J.D.; Flanagan, R.J., Detection and Identification of Volatile Organic Compounds in Blood by Headspace Gas Chromatography as an Aid to the Diagnosis of Solvent Abuse, J. Chromatogr., 1982, 240, 2, 423-444, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)99622-5 . [all data]

Heydanek and McGorrin, 1981
Heydanek, M.G.; McGorrin, R.J., Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy investigations on the flavor chemistry of oat groats, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1981, 29, 5, 950-954, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00107a016 . [all data]

Shimadzu, 2012
Shimadzu, Pharmaceutical Related, Analysis of pharmaceutical residual solvent (observation of separation) (1) - GC, 2012, retrieved from www.shimadzu.ru/applications/Applicationspdf/GC/Pharma/Pharmaceutical residual solvents GC.pdf. [all data]

Shimadzu Corporation, 2003
Shimadzu Corporation, Analysis of pharmaceutical residual solvent (observation of separation), 2003, retrieved from http://www.shimadzu.com.br/analitica/aplicacoes/book/pharm69.pdf. [all data]

Soria, Martinez-Castro, et al., 2008
Soria, A.C.; Martinez-Castro, I.; Sanz, J., Some aspects of dynamic headspace analysis of volatile components in honey, Foog Res. International, 2008, 41, 8, 838-848, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2008.07.010 . [all data]

MacLeod and Pieris, 1981
MacLeod, A.J.; Pieris, N.M., Volatile flavor components of beli fruit (Aegle marmelos) and a processed product, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1981, 29, 6, 1262-1264, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00108a040 . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas Chromatography, References