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4,4'-Bipyridine

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas293.1 ± 3.6kJ/molCcbRibeiro da Silva, Morais, et al., 1995 

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafsolid186.8 ± 2.2kJ/molCcbRibeiro da Silva, Morais, et al., 1995 
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacsolid-5265.2 ± 1.8kJ/molCcbRibeiro da Silva, Morais, et al., 1995 

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil578.2KN/AWeast and Grasselli, 1989BS
Tboil578.KN/ABuckingham and Donaghy, 1982BS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap71.1 ± 2.6kJ/molCGCLipkind and Chickos, 2009See also Lipkind, Hanshaw, et al., 2009.; AC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltasub106.3 ± 2.8kJ/molCRibeiro da Silva, Morais, et al., 1995ALS
Deltasub106.3kJ/molN/ARibeiro da Silva, Morais, et al., 1995DRB
Deltasub106.3 ± 2.8kJ/molCRibeiro da Silva, Morais, et al., 1995AC

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
16.1377.5DSCLipkind, Hanshaw, et al., 2009AC

Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
MM - Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner)
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi

Gas basicity at 298K

Gas basicity (review) (kJ/mol) Reference Comment
900. ± 10.Shen and Brodbelt, 1998Triglyme; 18-Crown-6. From PT bracketing at nominal 300 K, but ion energies are undefined. Reference GBS readjusted to Hunter and Lias, 1998; MM

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
9.10 ± 0.02PEMaier and Turner, 1972LLK

IR Spectrum

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Coblentz Society, Inc.

Condensed Phase Spectrum

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IR spectrum
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Notice: Except where noted, spectra from this collection were measured on dispersive instruments, often in carefully selected solvents, and hence may differ in detail from measurements on FTIR instruments or in other chemical environments. More information on the manner in which spectra in this collection were collected can be found here.

Notice: Concentration information is not available for this spectrum and, therefore, molar absorptivity values cannot be derived.

Additional Data

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Owner COBLENTZ SOC.
Collection (C) 2018 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin DOW CHEMICAL COMPANY
Source reference COBLENTZ NO. 07029
Date 1965/06/04
State SOLID (SPLIT MULL), FLUOROLUBE FOR 3800-1330 CM-1, NUJOL FOR 1330-450 CM-1
Instrument DOW KBr FOREPRISM-GRATING
Instrument parameters BLAZED AT 3.5, 12.0, 20.0 MICRON AND CHANGED AT 5.0, 7.5, 14.9 MICRON
Resolution 2
Sampling procedure TRANSMISSION
Data processing DIGITIZED BY COBLENTZ SOCIETY (BATCH I) FROM HARD COPY

This IR spectrum is from the Coblentz Society's evaluated infrared reference spectra collection.


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Japan AIST/NIMC Database- Spectrum MS-NW-8794
NIST MS number 228653

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


UV/Visible spectrum

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Victor Talrose, Alexander N. Yermakov, Alexy A. Usov, Antonina A. Goncharova, Axlexander N. Leskin, Natalia A. Messineva, Natalia V. Trusova, Margarita V. Efimkina

Spectrum

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UVVis spectrum
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Additional Data

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Source Coleman and Fuoss, 1955
Owner INEP CP RAS, NIST OSRD
Collection (C) 2007 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin INSTITUTE OF ENERGY PROBLEMS OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, RAS
Source reference RAS UV No. 12373
Instrument Beckman DU
Melting point 111
Boiling point 305

Gas Chromatography

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
PackedSE-301507.Ramsey, Lee, et al., 1980He, Chromosorb G HP (80-100 mesh); Column length: 1.5 m; Program: not specified

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryCAM2453.Premecz and Ford, 1987He, 60. C @ 5. min, 5. K/min, 240. C @ 21. min; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.24 mm

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
OtherMethyl Silicone1507.Ardrey and Moffat, 1981Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Ribeiro da Silva, Morais, et al., 1995
Ribeiro da Silva, M.A.V.; Morais, V.M.F.; Matos, M.A.R.; Rio, C.M.A., Thermochemical and theoretical studies of some bipyridines, J. Org. Chem., 1995, 60, 5291-5294. [all data]

Weast and Grasselli, 1989
CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds, 2nd Editon, Weast,R.C and Grasselli, J.G., ed(s)., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1989, 1. [all data]

Buckingham and Donaghy, 1982
Buckingham, J.; Donaghy, S.M., Dictionary of Organic Compounds: Fifth Edition, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1982, 1. [all data]

Lipkind and Chickos, 2009
Lipkind, D.; Chickos, J.S., , Abstract from 38th Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, May 13-16, Chicago, IL, 2009, GLRM-275. [all data]

Lipkind, Hanshaw, et al., 2009
Lipkind, Dmitri; Hanshaw, William; Chickos, James S., Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties. Subcooled Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Polyaromatic Heterocycles and Related Compounds, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 2009, 54, 10, 2930-2943, https://doi.org/10.1021/je900034d . [all data]

Shen and Brodbelt, 1998
Shen, J.; Brodbelt, J., Evaluation of proton-binding capabilities of polyether and pyridyl ligands, J. Mass Spectrom., 1998, 33, 118. [all data]

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556018 . [all data]

Maier and Turner, 1972
Maier, J.P.; Turner, D.W., Steric inhibition of resonance studied by molecular photoelectron spectroscopy. Part I. Biphenyls, Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc., 1972, 54, 149. [all data]

Coleman and Fuoss, 1955
Coleman, B.D.; Fuoss, R.M., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1955, 77, 5472. [all data]

Ramsey, Lee, et al., 1980
Ramsey, J.D.; Lee, T.D.; Osselton, M.D.; Moffat, A.C., Gas-liquid chromatographic retention indices of 296 non-drug substances on SE-30 or OV-1 likely to be encountered in toxicological analyses, J. Chromatogr., 1980, 184, 2, 185-206, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)85641-1 . [all data]

Premecz and Ford, 1987
Premecz, J.E.; Ford, M.E., Gas chromatographic separation of substituted pyridines, J. Chromatogr., 1987, 388, 23-35, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)94463-2 . [all data]

Ardrey and Moffat, 1981
Ardrey, R.E.; Moffat, A.C., Gas-liquid chromatographic retention indices of 1318 substances of toxicological interest on SE-30 or OV-1 stationary phase, J. Chromatogr., 1981, 220, 3, 195-252, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)81925-1 . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, References