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Pentane, 2,2,4-trimethyl-

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Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

Go To: Top, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase HP-1HP-1HP-1HP-1HP-1
Column length (m) 30.30.30.30.30.
Carrier gas      
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.250.250.250.25
Phase thickness (mum) 0.250.250.250.250.25
Temperature (C) 0.10.20.30.40.
I 692.7689.1694.691.1689.9
ReferenceWang, Liu, et al., 2005Wang, Liu, et al., 2005Wang, Liu, et al., 2005Wang, Liu, et al., 2005Wang, Liu, et al., 2005
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryPackedCapillaryPacked
Active phase HP-1HP-1PMS-1000Methyl SiliconeC78, Branched paraffin
Column length (m) 30.30.2.15.3.3
Carrier gas   N2HeHe
Substrate   Chromaton N-AW-DMCS  
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.25 0.24 
Phase thickness (mum) 0.250.25   
Temperature (C) 50.60.90.150.130.
I 690.2690.6693.700.694.9
ReferenceWang, Liu, et al., 2005Wang, Liu, et al., 2005Arutyunov, Kudryashov, et al., 2004Berezkin, Korolev, et al., 2002Dallos, Sisak, et al., 2000
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryPackedCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase SqualaneSqualaneOV-101OV-101Squalane
Column length (m)   20.20. 
Carrier gas      
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm)   0.50.5 
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 100.78.5150.180.25.
I 691.693.5697.7703.1687.
ReferenceHeinzen, Soares, et al., 1999Zhang and Lu, 1996Cha and Lee, 1994Cha and Lee, 1994Hilal, Carreira, et al., 1994
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type PackedPackedCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase C78, Branched paraffinApolaneOV-1OV-101OV-101
Column length (m) 3.33.7   
Carrier gas      
Substrate Chromosorb G HP    
Column diameter (mm)      
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 130.130.60.40.60.
I 694.1694.691.689.691.
ReferenceReddy, Dutoit, et al., 1992Dutoit, 1991Engewald, Maurer, et al., 1989Laub and Purnell, 1988Laub and Purnell, 1988
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryPackedCapillary
Active phase OV-101SqualaneSqualaneSqualaneNonpolar
Column length (m)  50.50.  
Carrier gas  HeHeH2 
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm)  0.220.22  
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 80.50.70.80.45.
I 694.689.9692.2693.690.
ReferenceLaub and Purnell, 1988Lunskii and Paizanskaya, 1988Lunskii and Paizanskaya, 1988Fernández-Sánchez, García-Domínguez, et al., 1987Stoyanov and Dimov, 1987
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase NonpolarNonpolarNonpolarNonpolarNonpolar
Column length (m)      
Carrier gas      
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm)      
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 52.555.60.60.65.
I 690.691.691.691.692.
ReferenceStoyanov and Dimov, 1987Stoyanov and Dimov, 1987Stoyanov and Dimov, 1987Stoyanov and Dimov, 1987Stoyanov and Dimov, 1987
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type PackedCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase SE-30OV-101OV-101OV-101OV-101
Column length (m) 3.    
Carrier gas Ar    
Substrate Gas Chrom Q (80-100 mesh)    
Column diameter (mm)      
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 150.30.40.50.60.
I 695.688.689.690.691.
ReferenceTiess, 1984Chien, Furio, et al., 1983Chien, Furio, et al., 1983Chien, Furio, et al., 1983Chien, Furio, et al., 1983
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase OV-101OV-101OV-3OV-3OV-3
Column length (m)      
Carrier gas      
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm)      
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 70.80.30.40.50.
I 692.694.686.6687.5688.6
ReferenceChien, Furio, et al., 1983Chien, Furio, et al., 1983Chien, Furio, et al., 1983, 2Chien, Furio, et al., 1983, 2Chien, Furio, et al., 1983, 2
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase OV-3OV-3OV-3DB-1DB-1
Column length (m)    60.60.
Carrier gas      
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm)    0.2640.259
Phase thickness (mum)     1.
Temperature (C) 60.70.80.60.60.
I 689.6690.7691.9691.4691.3
ReferenceChien, Furio, et al., 1983, 2Chien, Furio, et al., 1983, 2Chien, Furio, et al., 1983, 2Lubeck and Sutton, 1983Lubeck and Sutton, 1983
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryPackedPacked
Active phase OV-101OV-101SF-96SqualaneTriacontane
Column length (m) 100.55.91.41.3.
Carrier gas    HeHe
Substrate    Chromaton N-AW-HMDSChromosorb W AW (60-80 mesh)
Column diameter (mm) 0.270.270.31  
Phase thickness (mum) 0.200.90.20  
Temperature (C) 50.50.50.100.80.
I 689.690.690.696.691.
ReferenceJohansen and Ettre, 1982Johansen and Ettre, 1982Johansen and Ettre, 1982Nabivach and Kirilenko, 1980Castello and D'Amato, 1979
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type PackedPackedCapillaryPackedCapillary
Active phase SqualaneSE-30SqualaneApolaneSqualane
Column length (m) 3.4. 2.4100.
Carrier gas He  HeN2
Substrate Chromosorb W AW (60-80 mesh)Chromosorb W AW DMCS (80-100 mesh) Chromosorb 
Column diameter (mm)     0.25
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 80.80.60.70.50.
I 694.693.691.688.6690.
ReferenceCastello and D'Amato, 1979Dimov and Papazova, 1979Chretien and Dubois, 1976Riedo, Fritz, et al., 1976Rijks and Cramers, 1974
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase SqualaneVacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)Vacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)Vacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)Vacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)
Column length (m) 100.    
Carrier gas N2    
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.25    
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 70.35.45.50.58.
I 692.684.686.686.687.
ReferenceRijks and Cramers, 1974Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryPackedPackedPacked
Active phase Vacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)SqualaneSE-30SqualaneSqualane
Column length (m)  100.6.13.0 
Carrier gas   N2N2N2
Substrate   Chromosorb WEmbacel 
Column diameter (mm)  0.25   
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 68.70.75.100.25.
I 688.690.3695.699.687.
ReferenceSidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972Dimov and Schopov, 1971Robinson and Odell, 1971Robinson and Odell, 1971Mitra and Saha, 1970
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type PackedCapillaryPackedPackedPacked
Active phase SqualaneSqualaneApiezon LSqualaneSqualane
Column length (m)  91.42.315.15.
Carrier gas N2N2N2HeHe
Substrate   DCMS-treated Chromosorb WChromosorb PChromosorb P
Column diameter (mm)  0.25 0.250.25
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 80.40.100.27.49.
I 694.689.689.688.690.
ReferenceMitra and Saha, 1970Matukuma, 1969Brown, Chapman, et al., 1968Hively and Hinton, 1968Hively and Hinton, 1968
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type PackedPackedPackedPackedCapillary
Active phase SqualaneSqualaneSqualaneSqualaneSqualane
Column length (m) 15.15.10.10.100.
Carrier gas HeHeH2H2H2
Substrate Chromosorb PChromosorb P   
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.25  0.25
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 67.86.30.50.30.
I 692.694.688.690.688.
ReferenceHively and Hinton, 1968Hively and Hinton, 1968Tourres, 1967Tourres, 1967Tourres, 1967, 2
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryPackedPackedPacked
Active phase SqualaneSqualaneSqualaneSqualaneSqualane
Column length (m) 100.100.1.81.81.8
Carrier gas H2H2   
Substrate   Untreated celiteUntreated celiteUntreated celite
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.25   
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 50.70.100.22.30.
I 690.692.696.687.689.
ReferenceTourres, 1967, 2Tourres, 1967, 2Evans, 1966Evans, 1966Evans, 1966
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type PackedPackedPackedPackedPacked
Active phase SqualaneSqualaneSqualaneSqualaneSqualane
Column length (m) 1.81.81.81.81.8
Carrier gas      
Substrate Untreated celiteUntreated celiteUntreated celiteUntreated celiteUntreated celite
Column diameter (mm)      
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 40.55.60.70.80.
I 689.692.691.693.694.
ReferenceEvans, 1966Evans, 1966Evans, 1966Evans, 1966Evans, 1966
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type PackedPackedPacked
Active phase SqualaneApiezon LApiezon L
Column length (m) 10.2.252.25
Carrier gas    
Substrate  CeliteCelite
Column diameter (mm)    
Phase thickness (mum)    
Temperature (C) 26.130.70.
I 687.694.690.
ReferenceZulaïca and Guiochon, 1966Wehrli and Kováts, 1959Wehrli and Kováts, 1959
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI

References

Go To: Top, Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Wang, Liu, et al., 2005
Wang, Y.; Liu, J.; Li, N.; Shi, G.; Jiang, G.; Ma, W., Preliminary study of the retention behavior for different compounds using cryogenic chromatography at different initial temperatures, Microchem. J., 2005, 81, 2, 184-190, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2005.02.003 . [all data]

Arutyunov, Kudryashov, et al., 2004
Arutyunov, Y.I.; Kudryashov, S.Y.; Onuchak, L.A., Analysis of Mixtures Containing Unknown Components by Gas Chromatography: Determination of Molecular Mass, J. Anal. Chem. USSR (Engl. Transl.), 2004, 59, 4, 358-365. [all data]

Berezkin, Korolev, et al., 2002
Berezkin, V.G.; Korolev, A.A.; Malyukova, I.V.; Popova, T.P.; Shiryaeva, V.E.; Khotimskii, V.S., Poly[1-(trimethylsilyl)-1-propine] as chromatographic adsorbent and prospects of its application in packed and capillary columns, J. Chromatogr. A, 2002, 960, 1-2, 151-158, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(02)00333-3 . [all data]

Dallos, Sisak, et al., 2000
Dallos, A.; Sisak, A.; Kulcsár, Z.; Kováts, E., Pair-wise interactions by gas chromatography VII. Interaction free enthalpies of solutes with secondary alcohol groups, J. Chromatogr. A, 2000, 904, 2, 211-242, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00908-0 . [all data]

Heinzen, Soares, et al., 1999
Heinzen, V.E.F.; Soares, M.F.; Yunes, R.A., Semi-empirical topological method for the prediction of the chromatographic retention of cis- and trans-alkene isomers and alkanes, J. Chromatogr. A, 1999, 849, 2, 495-506, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(99)00530-0 . [all data]

Zhang and Lu, 1996
Zhang, X.; Lu, P., Unified equation between Kováts indices on different stationary phases for select types of compounds, J. Chromatogr. A, 1996, 731, 1-2, 187-199, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(95)01213-3 . [all data]

Cha and Lee, 1994
Cha, K.-W.; Lee, D.-J., Prediction of retention indices of various compounds in gas-liquid chromatography, J. Korean Chem. Soc., 1994, 38, 2, 108-120, retrieved from http://journal.kcsnet.or.kr/publi/dh/dh94n2/108.pdf. [all data]

Hilal, Carreira, et al., 1994
Hilal, S.H.; Carreira, L.A.; Karickhoff, S.W.; Melton, C.M., Estimation of Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Retention Times from Molecular Structure, J. Chromatogr. A, 1994, 662, 2, 269-280, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(94)80515-6 . [all data]

Reddy, Dutoit, et al., 1992
Reddy, K.S.; Dutoit, J.-Cl.; Kovats, E. sz., Pair-wise interactions by gas chromatography. I. Interaction free enthalpies of solutes with non-associated primary alcohol groups, J. Chromatogr., 1992, 609, 1-2, 229-259, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(92)80167-S . [all data]

Dutoit, 1991
Dutoit, J., Gas chromatographic retention behaviour of some solutes on structurally similar polar and non-polar stationary phases, J. Chromatogr., 1991, 555, 1-2, 191-204, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)87179-X . [all data]

Engewald, Maurer, et al., 1989
Engewald, W.; Maurer, T.; Schiefke, A., Investigation of isomeric hydrocarbons by gas-solid chromatography on graphitized thermal carbon black, Pure Appl. Chem., 1989, 61, 11, 2001-2004, https://doi.org/10.1351/pac198961112001 . [all data]

Laub and Purnell, 1988
Laub, R.J.; Purnell, J.H., Specific retention volumes, retention indices, and family-plot regressions of aliphatic, alicyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbon solutes with OV-101 poly (dimethylsiloxane) stationary phase, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1988, 11, 9, 649-660, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240110908 . [all data]

Lunskii and Paizanskaya, 1988
Lunskii, M.Kh.; Paizanskaya, I.L., Identification of hydrocarbons C1-C9 of petrol fractions of oils and condensates in the use of capillary columns with dinonylphthalate, Zh. Anal. Khim., 1988, 43, 127-135. [all data]

Fernández-Sánchez, García-Domínguez, et al., 1987
Fernández-Sánchez, E.; García-Domínguez, J.A.; García-Muñoz, J.; Menéndez, V.; Molera, M.J., Prediction of gas chromatographic retention indices on binary mixed stationary phases, An. Quim., 1987, 83, 56-58. [all data]

Stoyanov and Dimov, 1987
Stoyanov, E.; Dimov, N., Precalculation of the optimum column temperature for gas chromatographic separation of petroleum fractions, Anal. Chim. Acta., 1987, 201, 207-216, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(00)85338-6 . [all data]

Tiess, 1984
Tiess, D., Gaschromatographische Retentionsindices von 125 leicht- bis mittelflüchtigen organischen Substanzen toxikologisch-analytischer Relevanz auf SE-30, Wiss. Z. Wilhelm-Pieck-Univ. Rostock Math. Naturwiss. Reihe, 1984, 33, 6-9. [all data]

Chien, Furio, et al., 1983
Chien, C.-F.; Furio, D.L.; Kopecni, M.M.; Laub, R.J., Specific Retention Volumes and Retention Indices of Selected Hydrocarbon Solutes with OV-101 and SP-2100 Polydimethylsiloxane Solvents, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1983, 6, 10, 577-580, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240061013 . [all data]

Chien, Furio, et al., 1983, 2
Chien, C.-F.; Furio, D.L.; Kopecni, M.M.; Laub, R.J., Specific retention volumes and retention indices of selected hydrocarbon solutes with OV-3, OV-7, OV-11, OV-17, OV-22, and OV-25 polymethylphenylsiloxane solvents, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1983, 6, 12, 669-679, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240061207 . [all data]

Lubeck and Sutton, 1983
Lubeck, A.J.; Sutton, DL., Kovats retention indices of selected hydrocarbons through C10 on bonded phase fused silica capillaries, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1983, 6, 6, 328-332, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240060612 . [all data]

Johansen and Ettre, 1982
Johansen, N.G.; Ettre, L.S., Retention index values of hydrocarbons on open-tubular columns coated with methylsilicone liquid phases, Chromatographia, 1982, 15, 10, 625-630, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02279488 . [all data]

Nabivach and Kirilenko, 1980
Nabivach, V.M.; Kirilenko, A.V., Relationship between the gas chromatographic behaviour and the molecular structure of hydrocarbon samples and various stationary phases. Part II. Correlation between the retention index, physicochemical properties and molecular structure, Chromatographia, 1980, 13, 2, 93-100, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02263060 . [all data]

Castello and D'Amato, 1979
Castello, G.; D'Amato, G., Use of Linear and Branched-Chain Paraffinic Liquid Phases as Non-Polar Reference Materials in Gas Chromatography, J. Chromatogr., 1979, 175, 1, 27-35, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)86400-6 . [all data]

Dimov and Papazova, 1979
Dimov, N.; Papazova, D., Calculation of retention indices of isoparaffins on different phases, Chromatographia, 1979, 12, 7, 443-447, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02302987 . [all data]

Chretien and Dubois, 1976
Chretien, J.R.; Dubois, J.-E., New Perspectives in the Prediction of Kovats Indices, J. Chromatogr., 1976, 126, 171-189, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)84071-1 . [all data]

Riedo, Fritz, et al., 1976
Riedo, F.; Fritz, D.; Tarján, G.; Kováts, E.Sz., A tailor-made C87 hydrocarbon as a possible non-polar standard stationary phase for gas chromatography, J. Chromatogr., 1976, 126, 63-83, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)84063-2 . [all data]

Rijks and Cramers, 1974
Rijks, J.A.; Cramers, C.A., High precision capillary gas chromatography of hydrocarbons, Chromatographia, 1974, 7, 3, 99-106, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02269819 . [all data]

Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972
Sidorov, R.I.; Petrova, V.I.; Ivanova, M.P., Qualitative analysis of wide-boiling fraction C5-C10 with capillary chromatography in Processes in chromatographic columns. Vol.17, 1972, 14-25. [all data]

Dimov and Schopov, 1971
Dimov, N.; Schopov, D., Empirische korrektion der physikalisch-chemischen retentionsindexe von kohlenwasserstoffen auf squalan, J. Chromatogr., 1971, 63, 223-228, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)85634-X . [all data]

Robinson and Odell, 1971
Robinson, P.G.; Odell, A.L., A system of standard retention indices and its uses. The characterisation of stationary phases and the prediction of retention indices, J. Chromatogr., 1971, 57, 1-10, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(71)80001-8 . [all data]

Mitra and Saha, 1970
Mitra, G.D.; Saha, N.C., Determination of Retention Indices of Saturated Hydrocarbons by Graphical Methods, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 1970, 8, 2, 95-102, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/8.2.95 . [all data]

Matukuma, 1969
Matukuma, A., Retention indices of alkanes through C10 and alkenes through C8 and relation between boiling points and retention data, Gas Chromatogr., Int. Symp. Anal. Instrum. Div Instrum Soc. Amer., 1969, 7, 55-75. [all data]

Brown, Chapman, et al., 1968
Brown, I.; Chapman, I.L.; Nicholson, G.J., Gas chromatography of polar solutes in electron acceptor stationary phases, Aust. J. Chem., 1968, 21, 5, 1125-1141, https://doi.org/10.1071/CH9681125 . [all data]

Hively and Hinton, 1968
Hively, R.A.; Hinton, R.E., Variation of the retention index with temperature on squalane substrates, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1968, 6, 4, 203-217, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/6.4.203 . [all data]

Tourres, 1967
Tourres, D.A., Structural analysis of industrial butene dimers by gas chromatography, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1967, 5, 1, 35-40, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/5.1.35 . [all data]

Tourres, 1967, 2
Tourres, D.A., Structure moléculaire et rétention en chromatographie en phase gazeuse. Influence de la température sur l'indice de rétention d'alcanes isomères, J. Chromatogr., 1967, 30, 357-377, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)84168-0 . [all data]

Evans, 1966
Evans, M.B., Retention indices of solutes on squalane, dinonyl phthalate, and polyethylene glycol 400, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1966, 4, 1, 1-3, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/4.1.1 . [all data]

Zulaïca and Guiochon, 1966
Zulaïca, J.; Guiochon, G., Analyse des hauts polymères par chromatographie en phase gazeuse de leurs produits de pyrolyse. II. Application à quelques hydrocarbures macromoléculaires purs, Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr., 1966, 4, 1351-1363. [all data]

Wehrli and Kováts, 1959
Wehrli, A.; Kováts, E., Gas-chromatographische Charakterisierung ogranischer Verbindungen. Teil 3: Berechnung der Retentionsindices aliphatischer, alicyclischer und aromatischer Verbindungen, Helv. Chim. Acta, 1959, 7, 7, 2709-2736, https://doi.org/10.1002/hlca.19590420745 . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal, References