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Pyridine, 4-ethyl-

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Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Kenneth Kroenlein director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil441.5KN/AWeast and Grasselli, 1989BS
Tboil441.4KN/APetro and Smyth, 1957Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.3 K; TRC
Tboil438.4KN/ACox, 1954Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.3 K; TRC
Tboil438.15KN/AHackmann, Wibaut, et al., 1943Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 1.5 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus182.65KN/ABrown and Murphey, 1951Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.5 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap46.3 ± 0.7kJ/molCMorais, Miranda, et al., 2003AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
45.3348.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 333. - 372. K. See also Kkykj and Repas, 1973.; AC

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Henry's Law data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Rolf Sander

Henry's Law constant (water solution)

kH(T) = H exp(d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) ((1/T) - 1/(298.15 K)))
H = Henry's law constant for solubility in water at 298.15 K (mol/kg*bar)
d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) = Temperature dependence constant (K)

H (mol/kg*bar) d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) (K) Method Reference
120.6300.MN/A

Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated by: Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias

View reactions leading to C7H9N+ (ion structure unspecified)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)951.1kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998 
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity919.2kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998 

IR Spectrum

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Gas Phase Spectrum

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IR spectrum
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Notice: Concentration information is not available for this spectrum and, therefore, molar absorptivity values cannot be derived.

Additional Data

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Owner NIST Standard Reference Data Program
Collection (C) 2018 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Sadtler Research Labs Under US-EPA Contract
State gas

This IR spectrum is from the NIST/EPA Gas-Phase Infrared Database .


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Japan AIST/NIMC Database- Spectrum MS-NW-2669
NIST MS number 227862

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


UV/Visible spectrum

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Victor Talrose, Eugeny B. Stern, Antonina A. Goncharova, Natalia A. Messineva, Natalia V. Trusova, Margarita V. Efimkina

Spectrum

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UVVis spectrum
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Additional Data

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Source Coleman and Fuoss, 1955
Owner INEP CP RAS, NIST OSRD
Collection (C) 2007 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin INSTITUTE OF ENERGY PROBLEMS OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, RAS
Source reference RAS UV No. 944
Instrument Beckman DU
Melting point -90.5
Boiling point 168.3

Gas Chromatography

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
PackedC78, Branched paraffin130.941.1Dallos, Sisak, et al., 2000He; Column length: 3.3 m
PackedC78, Branched paraffin130.941.1Reddy, Dutoit, et al., 1992Chromosorb G HP; Column length: 3.3 m
PackedApolane130.943.Dutoit, 1991Column length: 3.7 m
PackedApiezon L130.971.Shatts, Avots, et al., 1977He, Chromosorb W AW-DMCS; Column length: 2.4 m
PackedApolane70.921.4Riedo, Fritz, et al., 1976He, Chromosorb; Column length: 2.4 m
PackedApiezon L100.958.Zhuravleva, Kapustin, et al., 1976N2 or He, Chromosorb G, AW; Column length: 2.7 m
PackedApiezon L110.964.Bark and Wheatstone, 1974N2, Chromosorb W AW-DCMS; Column length: 2. m
PackedApiezon L130.970.Bark and Wheatstone, 1974N2, Chromosorb W AW-DCMS; Column length: 2. m
PackedApiezon L150.982.Bark and Wheatstone, 1974N2, Chromosorb W AW-DCMS; Column length: 2. m

Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
PackedCarbowax 20M100.1390.Bark and Wheatstone, 1974N2, Chromosorb W AW-DCMS; Column length: 2. m
PackedCarbowax 20M110.1399.Bark and Wheatstone, 1974N2, Chromosorb W AW-DCMS; Column length: 2. m
PackedCarbowax 20M90.1384.Bark and Wheatstone, 1974N2, Chromosorb W AW-DCMS; Column length: 2. m

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Petro943.5Lu, Zhao, et al., 200450. m/0.2 mm/0.5 «mu»m, 2. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryOV-1934.3Gautzsch and Zinn, 19968. K/min; Tstart: 35. C; Tend: 300. C
CapillaryDB-5968.Premecz and Ford, 1987He, 60. C @ 10. min, 10. K/min, 280. C @ 3. min; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm
CapillaryDB-5954.Rostad and Pereira, 198630. m/0.26 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 4. min, 6. K/min, 300. C @ 20. min

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-3511386.Bonvehí, 200550. m/0.32 mm/0.2 «mu»m, He, 5. K/min; Tstart: 60. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryOV-3511386.Bonvehi and Coll, 200350. m/0.32 mm/0.2 «mu»m, He, 5. K/min; Tstart: 60. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryCAM1378.Premecz and Ford, 1987He, 60. C @ 5. min, 5. K/min, 240. C @ 21. min; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.24 mm

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1387.Baltes and Bochmann, 1987Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm; Program: not specified

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySE-30980.Li, Gao, et al., 2000Program: not specified

Normal alkane RI, polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax1380.Kim. J.H., Ahn, et al., 200460. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 60 0C (3 min) 2 0C/min -> 150 0C 4 0C/min -> 200 0C
CapillaryCarbowax1386.Baltes and Bochmann, 1987, 2Program: not specified
CapillaryCarbowax1387.Baltes and Bochmann, 1987, 2Program: not specified
CapillaryCarbowax1388.Baltes and Bochmann, 1987, 2Program: not specified
CapillaryCarbowax1389.Baltes and Bochmann, 1987, 2Program: not specified

Lee's RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-5151.78Rostad and Pereira, 198630. m/0.26 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 4. min, 6. K/min, 300. C @ 20. min

References

Go To: Top, Phase change data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Weast and Grasselli, 1989
CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds, 2nd Editon, Weast,R.C and Grasselli, J.G., ed(s)., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1989, 1. [all data]

Petro and Smyth, 1957
Petro, A.J.; Smyth, C.P., Microwave absorption and molecular structure in liquids. XX. dielectric relaxation times and molecular shapes of some substituted benzenes and pyridines, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1957, 79, 6142. [all data]

Cox, 1954
Cox, J.D., Phase relationships in the pyridine series. part IV. the miscibility of the ethylpyridines and dimethylpyridines with water, J. Chem. Soc., 1954, 1954, 3183-3187. [all data]

Hackmann, Wibaut, et al., 1943
Hackmann, J.Th.; Wibaut, J.P.; Gitsels, H.P.L., Basic N compounds from cracked distillates of California petroleum, Recl. Trav. Chim. Pays-Bas, 1943, 62, 229. [all data]

Brown and Murphey, 1951
Brown, H.C.; Murphey, W.A., A convenient synthesis of the monoalkylpyridines; a new prototropic reaction of 3-picoline, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1951, 73, 3308. [all data]

Morais, Miranda, et al., 2003
Morais, Victor M.F.; Miranda, Margarida S.; Matos, M. Agostinha R., Thermochemical study of the ethylpyridine and ethylpyrazine isomers, Org. Biomol. Chem., 2003, 1, 23, 4329-712, https://doi.org/10.1039/b308097h . [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Kkykj and Repas, 1973
Kkykj, J.; Repas, M., Petrochemia, 1973, 13, 179. [all data]

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556018 . [all data]

Coleman and Fuoss, 1955
Coleman, B.D.; Fuoss, R.M., Quaternization kinetics. I. Some pyridine derivatives in tetramethylene sulfone, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1955, 77, 5472-5476. [all data]

Dallos, Sisak, et al., 2000
Dallos, A.; Sisak, A.; Kulcsár, Z.; Kováts, E., Pair-wise interactions by gas chromatography VII. Interaction free enthalpies of solutes with secondary alcohol groups, J. Chromatogr. A, 2000, 904, 2, 211-242, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00908-0 . [all data]

Reddy, Dutoit, et al., 1992
Reddy, K.S.; Dutoit, J.-Cl.; Kovats, E. sz., Pair-wise interactions by gas chromatography. I. Interaction free enthalpies of solutes with non-associated primary alcohol groups, J. Chromatogr., 1992, 609, 1-2, 229-259, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(92)80167-S . [all data]

Dutoit, 1991
Dutoit, J., Gas chromatographic retention behaviour of some solutes on structurally similar polar and non-polar stationary phases, J. Chromatogr., 1991, 555, 1-2, 191-204, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)87179-X . [all data]

Shatts, Avots, et al., 1977
Shatts, V.D.; Avots, A.A.; Belikov, V.A., Retention indices of alkylpyridines, Zh. Anal. Khim., 1977, 32, 4, 631-638. [all data]

Riedo, Fritz, et al., 1976
Riedo, F.; Fritz, D.; Tarján, G.; Kováts, E.Sz., A tailor-made C87 hydrocarbon as a possible non-polar standard stationary phase for gas chromatography, J. Chromatogr., 1976, 126, 63-83, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)84063-2 . [all data]

Zhuravleva, Kapustin, et al., 1976
Zhuravleva, I.L.; Kapustin, Yu.P.; Golovnya, P.B., Retention indices of some isoaliphatic and heterocyclic nitrogenous bases, Zh. Anal. Khim., 1976, 31, 1378-1380. [all data]

Bark and Wheatstone, 1974
Bark, L.S.; Wheatstone, K.C., Studies in the relationship between molecular structure and chromatographic behaviour. Gas chromatographic study of monoalkylpyridines, J. Chromatogr., 1974, 92, 2, 281-289, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)85738-6 . [all data]

Lu, Zhao, et al., 2004
Lu, X.; Zhao, M.; Kong, H.; Cai, J.; Wu, J.; Wu, M.; Hua, R.; Liu, J.; Xu, G., Characterization of cigarette smoke condensates by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC/TOFMS) Part 2: Basic fraction, J. Sep. Sci., 2004, 27, 1-2, 101-109, https://doi.org/10.1002/jssc.200301659 . [all data]

Gautzsch and Zinn, 1996
Gautzsch, R.; Zinn, P., Use of incremental models to estimate the retention indexes of aromatic compounds, Chromatographia, 1996, 43, 3/4, 163-176, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02292946 . [all data]

Premecz and Ford, 1987
Premecz, J.E.; Ford, M.E., Gas chromatographic separation of substituted pyridines, J. Chromatogr., 1987, 388, 23-35, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)94463-2 . [all data]

Rostad and Pereira, 1986
Rostad, C.E.; Pereira, W.E., Kovats and Lee retention indices determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for organic compounds of environmental interest, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1986, 9, 6, 328-334, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240090603 . [all data]

Bonvehí, 2005
Bonvehí, J.S., Investigation of aromatic compounds in roasted cocoa powder, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 2005, 221, 1-2, 19-29, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-005-1147-y . [all data]

Bonvehi and Coll, 2003
Bonvehi, J.S.; Coll, F.V., Flavour index and aroma profiles of fresh and processed honeys, J. Sci. Food Agric., 2003, 83, 4, 275-282, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1308 . [all data]

Baltes and Bochmann, 1987
Baltes, W.; Bochmann, G., Model reactions on roast aroma formation. 1. Reaction of serine and threonine with sucrose under the conditions of coffee roasting and identification of new coffee aroma compounds, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1987, 35, 3, 340-346, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00075a015 . [all data]

Li, Gao, et al., 2000
Li, R.; Gao, S.-G.; Xiang, B.-R., Using improved BP neural network in predicting GC retention indices, Computers appl. chem. (Chinese), 2000, 17, 1-2, 113-114. [all data]

Kim. J.H., Ahn, et al., 2004
Kim. J.H.; Ahn, H.J.; Yook, H.S.; Kim, K.S.; Rhee, M.S.; Ryu, G.H.; Byun, M.W., Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce, Radiation Phys. Chem., 2004, 69, 2, 179-187, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-806X(03)00400-6 . [all data]

Baltes and Bochmann, 1987, 2
Baltes, W.; Bochmann, G., Model reactions on roast aroma formations, V. Mass spectrometric identification of pyrifines, oxazoles, and carbocyclic compounds from the reaction of serine and threonine with sucrose under the conditions of coffee roasting, Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch., 1987, 185, 1, 5-9, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01083331 . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Phase change data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, References