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Benzene, 1,2,3,5-tetramethyl-

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Gas Chromatography

Go To: Top, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-5100.1129.0Pérez-Parajón, Santiuste, et al., 200460. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m
CapillaryHP-5120.1137.0Pérez-Parajón, Santiuste, et al., 200460. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m
CapillaryOV-1100.1113.5Zhu, Zhang, et al., 1999Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryCP Sil 280.1121.3Estel, Mohnke, et al., 1995100. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m
CapillaryHP-160.1096.Zhang, Li, et al., 1992N2; Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm
CapillaryHP-160.1096.Zhang, Li, et al., 1992N2; Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm
CapillaryHP-1100.1109.Zhang, Li, et al., 1992N2; Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm
CapillaryHP-1100.1109.Zhang, Li, et al., 1992N2; Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm
CapillaryOV-101100.1109.Matisová, Kovacicová, et al., 1989He; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm
CapillaryOV-101100.1109.Matisová, Rukríglová, et al., 1988H2; Column length: 278. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryOV-101100.1110.Matisová, Rukríglová, et al., 1988H2; Column length: 278. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySE-3070.1099.5Tóth, 1983N2; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySE-3080.1104.Bredael, 1982Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.5 mm
CapillaryOV-101100.1110.Gerasimenko and Nabivach, 1982N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.30 mm
CapillaryOV-101120.1118.Gerasimenko and Nabivach, 1982N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.30 mm
CapillaryOV-101140.1125.Gerasimenko and Nabivach, 1982N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.30 mm
CapillarySqualane86.1108.4Macák, Nabivach, et al., 1982N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane96.1111.4Macák, Nabivach, et al., 1982N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryOV-101100.1110.5Gerasimenko, Kirilenko, et al., 1981N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm
CapillaryOV-101120.1117.5Gerasimenko, Kirilenko, et al., 1981N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm
CapillaryOV-101140.1125.0Gerasimenko, Kirilenko, et al., 1981N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm
PackedSqualane100.1108.Nabivach and Kirilenko, 1980He, Chromaton N-AW-HMDS; Column length: 1. m
CapillarySqualane86.1108.4Nabivach, Bur'yan, et al., 1978Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane96.1111.4Nabivach, Bur'yan, et al., 1978Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane100.1113.Engewald and Wennrich, 1976N2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.23 mm
CapillarySqualane80.1105.05Soják and Rijks, 1976H2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSE-30120.1137.Mitra, Mohan, et al., 1974N2, Chrom W; Column length: 6.1 m
PackedSE-30130.1140.Mitra, Mohan, et al., 1974N2, Chrom W; Column length: 6.1 m
PackedSE-30140.1145.Mitra, Mohan, et al., 1974N2, Chrom W; Column length: 6.1 m
CapillarySE-30130.1139.Mitra, Mohan, et al., 1974, 2H2; Column length: 6.1 m; Column diameter: 3.18 mm
CapillarySE-30140.1144.Mitra, Mohan, et al., 1974, 2H2; Column length: 6.1 m; Column diameter: 3.18 mm
CapillarySE-30150.1149.Mitra, Mohan, et al., 1974, 2H2; Column length: 6.1 m; Column diameter: 3.18 mm
CapillarySE-30160.1150.Mitra, Mohan, et al., 1974, 2H2; Column length: 6.1 m; Column diameter: 3.18 mm
CapillarySE-3065.1097.7Svob and Deur-Siftar, 1974He; Column length: 25.5 m; Column diameter: 0.5 mm
PackedApiezon L100.1151.Brown, Chapman, et al., 1968N2, DCMS-treated Chromosorb W; Column length: 2.3 m
PackedMethyl Silicone130.1123.Antheaume and Guiochon, 1965 

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-51118.1Wang, Fingas, et al., 199430. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 2. min, 6. K/min; Tend: 300. C
CapillaryOV-1011103.Hayes and Pitzer, 1982110. m/0.25 mm/0.20 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 35. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryApiezon L1154.Louis, 1971N2, 1. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 60. C

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPetrocol DH-1001108.8Haagen-Smit Laboratory, 1997He; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.2 mm; Program: 5C(10min) => 5C/min => 50C(48min) => 1.5C/min => 195C(91min)
CapillaryDB-11112.Hoekman, 199360. m/0.32 mm/1.0 «mu»m, He; Program: -40 C for 12 min; -40 - 125 C at 3 deg.min; 125-185 C at 6 deg/min; 185 - 220 C at 20 deg/min; hold 220 C for 2 min

Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryZB-Wax100.1456.3Pérez-Parajón, Santiuste, et al., 200460. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m
CapillaryZB-Wax120.1474.5Pérez-Parajón, Santiuste, et al., 200460. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m
CapillaryCarbowax 20M150.1395.Egazaryants and Maximov, 1998He; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.5 mm
CapillaryPEG-20M70.1416.5Tóth, 1983N2; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm
CapillaryCarbowax 20M100.1410.5Engewald and Wennrich, 1976N2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.23 mm
CapillaryCarbowax 600090.1455.8Svob and Deur-Siftar, 1974He; Column length: 10. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySPB-51133.Engel and Ratel, 200760. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, 40. C @ 2. min, 3. K/min, 230. C @ 10. min
CapillaryPONA1105.Vendeuvre, Bertoncini, et al., 200550. m/0.2 mm/0.5 «mu»m, 2. K/min; Tstart: 50. C
CapillaryPONA1113.Vendeuvre, Bertoncini, et al., 200550. m/0.2 mm/0.5 «mu»m, 5. K/min; Tstart: 50. C
CapillaryPetrocol DH1113.0Censullo, Jones, et al., 200350. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 10. min, 3. K/min, 200. C @ 10. min
CapillaryPetrocol DH1104.26White, Douglas, et al., 1992100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryPetrocol DH1104.97White, Douglas, et al., 1992100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryPetrocol DH1104.White, Hackett, et al., 1992100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillarySPB-11102.Huang, Bruechert, et al., 198760. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 10. min, 2. K/min, 235. C @ 40. min
CapillarySPB-11102.Huang, Bruechert, et al., 198760. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 10. min, 2. K/min, 235. C @ 40. min
CapillaryOV-1011103.Hayes and Pitzer, 1981108. m/0.25 mm/0.2 «mu»m, 1. K/min; Tstart: 35. C; Tend: 200. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryMethyl Silicone1112.85Hassoun, Pilling, et al., 199950. m/0.25 mm/1. «mu»m, He; Program: -50C(2min) => 49.9C/min => 35C(10min) => 3C/min => 200C(2min) => 40C/min => 240C(30min)

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryCP-Wax 52CB1430.Alasalvar, Taylor, et al., 200560. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 35. C @ 4. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 203. C
CapillarySupelcowax-101447.Elmore, Nisyrios, et al., 200560. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 280. C
CapillarySupelcowax-101441.Tanchotikul and Hsieh, 198960. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 175. C @ 20. min
CapillarySupelcowax-101443.Tanchotikul and Hsieh, 198960. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 175. C @ 20. min

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-101100.1110.Tian, 1993Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm
CapillaryOV-101100.1110.Tian, 1993Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm
CapillaryOV-101120.1117.Tian, 1993Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm
CapillaryOV-101120.1118.Tian, 1993Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm
CapillaryE-301100.1122.Bermejo, Moinelo, et al., 1980N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane100.1116.Bermejo, Moinelo, et al., 1980N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane95.41107.Sojak and Vigdergauz, 1978H2
CapillarySqualane110.1116.Papazova and Pankova, 1975N2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane130.1122.Papazova and Pankova, 1975N2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedPolydimethyl siloxane110.1113.Ferrand, 1962 

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane: CP-Sil 5 CB1114.Bramston-Cook, 201360. m/0.25 mm/1.0 «mu»m, Helium, 45. C @ 1.45 min, 3.6 K/min, 210. C @ 2.72 min
CapillaryHP-5 MS1115.Kotowska, Zalikowski, et al., 201230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 35. C @ 5. min, 3. K/min, 300. C @ 15. min
CapillaryPetrocol DH1113.Supelco, 2012100. m/0.25 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Helium, 20. C @ 15. min, 15. K/min, 220. C @ 30. min
CapillaryVF-5 MS1119.Leffingwell and Alford, 201160. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 2. K/min, 260. C @ 28. min; Tstart: 30. C
CapillaryVF-5 MS1121.Leffingwell and Alford, 201160. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 2. K/min, 260. C @ 28. min; Tstart: 30. C
CapillaryPONA1115.Zhang, Ding, et al., 200950. m/0.20 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Nitrogen, 35. C @ 15. min, 2. K/min, 200. C @ 10. min
CapillaryHP-11104.Castel, Fernandez, et al., 200650. m/0.2 mm/0.33 «mu»m, He, 60. C @ 4. min, 2. K/min, 250. C @ 30. min
Capillary5 % Phenyl methyl siloxane1108.Ramírez, Estévez, et al., 20040. m/0.25 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 10. min, 7. K/min, 250. C @ 5. min
CapillaryOV-11103.Orav, Kailas, et al., 19992. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 160. C
CapillaryHP-51127.9Wang and Fingas, 199530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 2. min, 10. K/min, 300. C @ 10. min
CapillaryDB-11116.Ciccioli, Cecinato, et al., 199260. m/0.32 mm/1.2 «mu»m, He, 30. C @ 10. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 240. C
CapillaryCP Sil 5 CB1100.Hartgers, Damste, et al., 199225. m/0.32 mm/0.45 «mu»m, He, 0. C @ 5. min, 3. K/min, 320. C @ 10. min

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-5 MS1123.Kotowska, Zalikowski, et al., 201230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryHP-5MS1137.Vichi, Pizzale, et al., 200530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: 40C(3min) => 4C/min => 75C => 8C/min => 250C
CapillaryPolymethylsiloxane, (PMS-20000)1100.Cornwell and Cordano, 2003Program: not specified
CapillarySE-301107.Xiuhua, Zhang, et al., 1996Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-11104.Ciccioli, Cecinato, et al., 199460. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1011109.Matisová, Juranyiová, et al., 199152. m/0.25 mm/0.38 «mu»m, H2; Program: 70 - 160 C at 1.5 deg/min; 160 - 280 C at 15 deg/min 15 min at 280 C
CapillaryOV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.1106.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified

Normal alkane RI, polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySupelcowax-101422.Vichi, Pizzale, et al., 200530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: 40C(3min) => 4C/min => 75C => 8C/min => 250C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1416.Cornwell and Cordano, 2003Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Gas Chromatography, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Pérez-Parajón, Santiuste, et al., 2004
Pérez-Parajón, J.M.; Santiuste, J.M.; Takács, J.M., Sensitivity of the methylbenzenes and chlorobenzenes retention index to column temperature, stationary phase polarity, and number and chemical nature of substituents, J. Chromatogr. A, 2004, 1048, 2, 223-232, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2004.07.028 . [all data]

Zhu, Zhang, et al., 1999
Zhu, X.; Zhang, L.; Chen, J.; Wang, L.; Che, X., The application quantitative structure-retention relationship of GC to aid MS qualitative analysis, Chin. J. Chromatogr., 1999, 17, 4, 351-353. [all data]

Estel, Mohnke, et al., 1995
Estel, D.; Mohnke; Biermans; Rotzsche, The analysis of C4-C11 hydrocarbons in naphtha and reformate with a new apolar fused silica column, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1995, 18, 7, 403-412, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240180703 . [all data]

Zhang, Li, et al., 1992
Zhang, M.J.; Li, S.D.; Chen, B.J., Compositional studies of high-temperature coal tar by GC/FTIR analysis of light oil fractions, Chromatographia, 1992, 33, 3/4, 138-146, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02275894 . [all data]

Matisová, Kovacicová, et al., 1989
Matisová, E.; Kovacicová, E.; Ha, P.T.; Kolek, E.; Engewald, W., Identification of alkylbenzenes up to C12 by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. II. Retention indices on OV-101 columns and retention-molecular structure correlations, J. Chromatogr., 1989, 475, 2, 113-123, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)89667-9 . [all data]

Matisová, Rukríglová, et al., 1988
Matisová, E.; Rukríglová, M.; Krupcík, J.; Kovacicová, E.; Holotík, S., Identification of alkylbenzenes up to C12 by capillary gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. I. OV-101 as stationary phase, J. Chromatogr., 1988, 455, 301-309, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)82129-4 . [all data]

Tóth, 1983
Tóth, T., Use of capillary gas chromatography in collecting retention and chemical information for the analysis of complex petrochemical mixtures, J. Chromatogr., 1983, 279, 157-165, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)93614-3 . [all data]

Bredael, 1982
Bredael, P., Retention indices of hydrocarbons on SE-30, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1982, 5, 6, 325-328, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240050610 . [all data]

Gerasimenko and Nabivach, 1982
Gerasimenko, V.A.; Nabivach, V.M., Relationship between molecular structure and gas chromatographic retention of alkylbenzenes C8-C1 2 on polydimethylsiloxane, Zh. Anal. Khim., 1982, 37, 110-116. [all data]

Macák, Nabivach, et al., 1982
Macák, J.; Nabivach, V.; Buryan, P.; Sindler, S., Dependence of retention indices of alkylbenzenes on their molecular structure, J. Chromatogr., 1982, 234, 2, 285-302, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)81867-1 . [all data]

Gerasimenko, Kirilenko, et al., 1981
Gerasimenko, V.A.; Kirilenko, A.V.; Nabivach, V.M., Capillary gas chromatography of aromatic compounds found in coal tar fractions, J. Chromatogr., 1981, 208, 1, 9-16, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)87953-4 . [all data]

Nabivach and Kirilenko, 1980
Nabivach, V.M.; Kirilenko, A.V., Relationship between the gas chromatographic behaviour and the molecular structure of hydrocarbon samples and various stationary phases. Part II. Correlation between the retention index, physicochemical properties and molecular structure, Chromatographia, 1980, 13, 2, 93-100, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02263060 . [all data]

Nabivach, Bur'yan, et al., 1978
Nabivach, V.M.; Bur'yan, P.; Matsak, I., Retention indices of aromatic hydrocarbons on a squalane capillary column, Zh. Anal. Khim., 1978, 33, 7, 1108-1113. [all data]

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Engewald, W.; Wennrich, L., Molekülstruktur und Retentionsverhalten. VIII. Zum Retentionsverhalten höherer Alkylbenzole bei der Gas-Verteilungs-Chromatographie, Chromatographia, 1976, 9, 11, 540-547, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02275960 . [all data]

Soják and Rijks, 1976
Soják, L.; Rijks, J.A., Capillary gas chromatography of alkylbenzenes. I. Some problems encountered with the precision of the retention indcies of alkylbenzenes, J. Chromatogr., 1976, 119, 505-521, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)86812-0 . [all data]

Mitra, Mohan, et al., 1974
Mitra, G.D.; Mohan, G.; Sinha, A., Advances in the utilization of the retention index system for characterizing hydrocarbons in complex mixtures by gas chromatography, J. Chromatogr., 1974, 99, 215-230, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)90857-4 . [all data]

Mitra, Mohan, et al., 1974, 2
Mitra, G.D.; Mohan, G.; Sinha, A., Gas chromatographic analysis of complex hydrocarbon mixtures, J. Chromatogr. A, 1974, 91, 633-648, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)97944-0 . [all data]

Svob and Deur-Siftar, 1974
Svob, V.; Deur-Siftar, D., Kovats Retention Indices in the Identification of Alkylbenzene Degradation Products, J. Chromatogr., 1974, 91, 677-689, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)97947-6 . [all data]

Brown, Chapman, et al., 1968
Brown, I.; Chapman, I.L.; Nicholson, G.J., Gas chromatography of polar solutes in electron acceptor stationary phases, Aust. J. Chem., 1968, 21, 5, 1125-1141, https://doi.org/10.1071/CH9681125 . [all data]

Antheaume and Guiochon, 1965
Antheaume, J.; Guiochon, G., Application de la chromatographie en phase gazeuse à l'étude de la composition des fractions moyennes d'un brut pétrolier, Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr., 1965, 2, 298-307. [all data]

Wang, Fingas, et al., 1994
Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.; Li, K., Fractionation of a light crude oil and identification and quantitation of aliphatic, aromatic, and biomarker comopunds by GC-FID and GC-MS, Part II, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 1994, 32, 9, 367-382, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/32.9.367 . [all data]

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Hayes, P.C., Jr.; Pitzer, E.W., Characterizing petroleum- and shale-derived jet fuel distillates via temperature-programmed Kováts indices, J. Chromatogr., 1982, 253, 179-198, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)88376-X . [all data]

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White, Douglas, et al., 1992
White, C.M.; Douglas, L.J.; Hackett, J.P.; Anderson, R.R., Characterization of synthetic gasoline from the chloromethane-zeolite reaction, Energy Fuels, 1992, 6, 1, 76-82, https://doi.org/10.1021/ef00031a012 . [all data]

White, Hackett, et al., 1992
White, C.M.; Hackett, J.; Anderson, R.R.; Kail, S.; Spock, P.S., Linear temperature programmed retention indices of gasoline range hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons on cross-linked polydimethylsiloxane, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1992, 15, 2, 105-120, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240150211 . [all data]

Huang, Bruechert, et al., 1987
Huang, T.-C.; Bruechert, L.J.; Hartman, T.G.; Rosen, R.T.; Ho, C.-T., Effect of lipids and carbohydrates on thermal generation of volatiles from commercial zein, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1987, 35, 6, 985-990, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00078a030 . [all data]

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Hayes, P.C., Jr.; Pitzer, E.W., Kovats indices as a tool in characterizing hydrocarbon fuels in temperature programmed glass capillary gas chromatography. Part 1. Qualitative identification, Inhouse rpt. for Air Force Wright Aeronautical Labs., Air Force Wright Aeronautical Labs., Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, 1981, 75. [all data]

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Notes

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