Home Symbol which looks like a small house Up Solid circle with an upward pointer in it

NOTICE: Due to scheduled maintenance at our Gaithersburg campus, this site will not be available from 5:00 pm EDT (21:00 UTC) on Friday October 25 until 5:00 pm (21:00 UTC) on Sunday October 27. We apologize for any inconvenience this outage may cause.

Benzene, 1,2,3,5-tetramethyl-

Data at NIST subscription sites:

NIST subscription sites provide data under the NIST Standard Reference Data Program, but require an annual fee to access. The purpose of the fee is to recover costs associated with the development of data collections included in such sites. Your institution may already be a subscriber. Follow the links above to find out more about the data in these sites and their terms of usage.


Gas phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
GT - Glushko Thermocenter, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas-43.2 ± 1.3kJ/molCcbDraeger, 1985Unpublished measurement of W.D.Good; ALS
Deltafgas-44.4 ± 1.2kJ/molN/AGood, 1975Value computed using «DELTA»fHliquid° value of -96.4±1.2 kj/mol from Good, 1975 and «DELTA»vapH° value of 52.0±0.17 kj/mol from missing citation.; DRB
Deltafgas-46.5 ± 3.0kJ/molN/AProsen, Johnson, et al., 1946Value computed using «DELTA»fHliquid° value of -98.5±3 kj/mol from Prosen, Johnson, et al., 1946 and «DELTA»vapH° value of 52.0±0.17 kj/mol from missing citation.; DRB

Constant pressure heat capacity of gas

Cp,gas (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
135.0200.Draeger, 1985There is an appreciable difference between values of S(T) and Cp(T) for tetra-, penta-, and hexamethylbenzene from earlier statistical thermodynamics calculation [ Hastings S.H., 1957] and those obtained by [ Draeger, 1985] (up to 5, 9, and 16 J/mol*K, respectively). Results [ Draeger, 1985] are more reliable and they agree with experimental data for hexamethylbenzene.; GT
168.8273.15
180.7 ± 0.4298.15
181.6300.
229.3400.
273.0500.
310.6600.
342.6700.
369.8800.
393.0900.
413.01000.
430.11100.
444.91200.
457.71300.
468.71400.
478.31500.

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafliquid-96.4 ± 1.2kJ/molCcbGood, 1975ALS
Deltafliquid-98.5 ± 3.0kJ/molCcbProsen, Johnson, et al., 1946ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacliquid-5839.6 ± 1.1kJ/molCcbGood, 1975Corresponding «DELTA»fliquid = -96.36 kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS
Deltacliquid-5837.5 ± 3.0kJ/molCcbProsen, Johnson, et al., 1946Corresponding «DELTA»fliquid = -98.41 kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS
Deltacliquid-5815.3 ± 5.9kJ/molCcbBanse and Parks, 1933Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -5811.20 kJ/mol; Corresponding «DELTA»fliquid = -120.6 kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
liquid310.0J/mol*KN/AHuffman, Parks, et al., 1931Extrapolation below 90 K, 80.54 J/mol*K.; DH

Constant pressure heat capacity of liquid

Cp,liquid (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
240.2297.1Huffman, Parks, et al., 1931T = 92 to 297 K. Value is unsmoothed experimental datum.; DH

Phase change data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Chris Muzny, director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil471. ± 2.KAVGN/AAverage of 19 out of 20 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus249.3 ± 0.5KAVGN/AAverage of 12 out of 13 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple248.6KN/AHuffman, Parks, et al., 1931, 2Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.3 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap53.2kJ/molN/ARu«7825»icka, Zábranský, et al., 1994AC
Deltavap51.98 ± 0.17kJ/molCSabbah, Tabet, et al., 1994ALS
Deltavap52.0 ± 0.2kJ/molCSabbah, Tabet, et al., 1994AC
Deltavap55.8kJ/molN/AReid, 1972AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
50.0363.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 348. - 502. K.; AC
58.9329.N/AStull, 1947Based on data from 314. - 471. K.; AC

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

View plot Requires a JavaScript / HTML 5 canvas capable browser.

Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
313.8 - 471.13.717681334.012-111.909Stull, 1947Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
12.93248.6Domalski and Hearing, 1996AC

Enthalpy of phase transition

DeltaHtrs (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
12.937248.6crystaline, IliquidHuffman, Parks, et al., 1931Value includes heat effect for solid transition below melting point.; DH

Entropy of phase transition

DeltaStrs (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
52.0248.6crystaline, IliquidHuffman, Parks, et al., 1931Value; DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Gas phase ion energetics data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
LBLHLM - Sharon G. Lias, John E. Bartmess, Joel F. Liebman, John L. Holmes, Rhoda D. Levin, and W. Gary Mallard
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron
B - John E. Bartmess

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)845.6kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity816.5kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Electron affinity determinations

EA (eV) Method Reference Comment
<0.108 ± 0.013ECDWojnarovits and Foldiak, 1981EA is an upper limit: Chen and Wentworth, 1989. G3MP2B3 calculations indicate an EA of ca. -0.1 eV, anion unbound.; B

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
8.47 ± 0.05EIMeyer and Harrison, 1964RDSH
8.07PEHowell, Goncalves, et al., 1984Vertical value; LBLHLM
8.3 ± 0.03PEKlessinger, 1972Vertical value; LLK

IR Spectrum

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compiled by: Coblentz Society, Inc.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

Notice: This spectrum may be better viewed with a Javascript and HTML 5 enabled browser.

Mass spectrum
For Zoom
1.) Enter the desired X axis range (e.g., 100, 200)
2.) Check here for automatic Y scaling
3.) Press here to zoom

Additional Data

View image of digitized spectrum (can be printed in landscape orientation).

View spectrum image in SVG format.

Download spectrum in JCAMP-DX format.

Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Japan AIST/NIMC Database- Spectrum MS-NW-3981
NIST MS number 232299

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


UV/Visible spectrum

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Victor Talrose, Alexander N. Yermakov, Alexy A. Usov, Antonina A. Goncharova, Axlexander N. Leskin, Natalia A. Messineva, Natalia V. Trusova, Margarita V. Efimkina

Spectrum

Notice: This spectrum may be better viewed with a Javascript and HTML 5 enabled browser.

UVVis spectrum
For Zoom
1.) Enter the desired X axis range (e.g., 100, 200)
2.) Check here for automatic Y scaling
3.) Press here to zoom

Additional Data

View image of digitized spectrum (can be printed in landscape orientation).

View spectrum image in SVG format.

Download spectrum in JCAMP-DX format.

Source Kusakov, et al., 1963
Owner INEP CP RAS, NIST OSRD
Collection (C) 2007 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin INSTITUTE OF ENERGY PROBLEMS OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, RAS
Source reference RAS UV No. 20045
Instrument unknown
Melting point - 23.7
Boiling point 198

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Draeger, 1985
Draeger, J.A., The methylbenzenes II. Fundamental vibrational shifts, statistical thermodynamic functions, and properties of formation, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1985, 17, 263-275. [all data]

Good, 1975
Good, W.D., The standard enthalpies of combustion and formation of n-butylbenzene, the dimethylethylbenzenes, and the tetramethylbenzenes in the condensed state, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1975, 7, 49-59. [all data]

Prosen, Johnson, et al., 1946
Prosen, E.J.; Johnson, W.H.; Rossini, F.D., Heats of combustion and formation at 25°C of the alkylbenzenes through C10H14, and of the higher normal monoalkylbenzenes, J. Res. NBS, 1946, 36, 455-461. [all data]

Hastings S.H., 1957
Hastings S.H., Thermodynamic properties of selected methylbenzenes from 0 to 1000 K, J. Phys. Chem., 1957, 61, 730-735. [all data]

Banse and Parks, 1933
Banse, H.; Parks, G.S., Thermal data on organic compounds. XII. The heats of combustion of nine hydrocarbons, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1933, 55, 3223-3227. [all data]

Cox and Pilcher, 1970
Cox, J.D.; Pilcher, G., Thermochemistry of Organic and Organometallic Compounds, Academic Press, New York, 1970, 1-636. [all data]

Huffman, Parks, et al., 1931
Huffman, H.M.; Parks, G.S.; Barmore, M., Thermal data on organic compounds. X. Further studies on the heat capacities, entropies and free energies of hydrocarbons, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1931, 53, 3876-3888. [all data]

Huffman, Parks, et al., 1931, 2
Huffman, H.M.; Parks, G.S.; Barmore, M., Thermal Data on Organic Compounds X. Further Studies on the Heat Capacities, Entropies, and Free Energies of Hydrocarbons, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1931, 53, 3876-88. [all data]

Ru«7825»icka, Zábranský, et al., 1994
Ru«7825»icka, Vlastimil; Zábranský, Milan; Ru«7825»icka, Kvetoslav; Majer, Vladimír, Vapor pressures for a group of high-boiling alkylbenzenes under environmental conditions, Thermochimica Acta, 1994, 245, 121-144, https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-6031(94)85073-9 . [all data]

Sabbah, Tabet, et al., 1994
Sabbah, R.; Tabet, D.; Belaadi, S., Enthalpie de sublimation ou vaporisation de quelques derives methyles du benzene, Thermochim. Acta, 1994, 247, 193-199. [all data]

Reid, 1972
Reid, Robert C., Handbook on vapor pressure and heats of vaporization of hydrocarbons and related compounds, R. C. Wilhort and B. J. Zwolinski, Texas A Research Foundation. College Station, Texas(1971). 329 pages.$10.00, AIChE J., 1972, 18, 6, 1278-1278, https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690180637 . [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Stull, 1947
Stull, Daniel R., Vapor Pressure of Pure Substances. Organic and Inorganic Compounds, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1947, 39, 4, 517-540, https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50448a022 . [all data]

Domalski and Hearing, 1996
Domalski, Eugene S.; Hearing, Elizabeth D., Heat Capacities and Entropies of Organic Compounds in the Condensed Phase. Volume III, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1996, 25, 1, 1, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555985 . [all data]

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556018 . [all data]

Wojnarovits and Foldiak, 1981
Wojnarovits, L.; Foldiak, G., Electron capture detection of aromatic hydrocarbons, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 1981, 206, 511. [all data]

Chen and Wentworth, 1989
Chen, E.C.M.; Wentworth, W.E., Experimental Determination of Electron Affinities of Organic Molecules, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 1989, 171, 271. [all data]

Meyer and Harrison, 1964
Meyer, F.; Harrison, A.G., Ionization potentials of methyl-substituted benzenes and cyclopentadienes, Can. J. Chem., 1964, 42, 2256. [all data]

Howell, Goncalves, et al., 1984
Howell, J.O.; Goncalves, J.M.; Amatore, C.; Klasinc, L.; Wightman, R.M.; Kochi, J.K., Electron transfer from aromatic hydrocarbons and their «pi»-complexes with metals. Comparison of the standard oxidation potentials and vertical ionization potentials, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1984, 106, 3968. [all data]

Klessinger, 1972
Klessinger, M., Ionization potentials of substituted benzenes, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 1972, 11, 525. [all data]

Kusakov, et al., 1963
Kusakov, M.M., et al., Ultraviolet Absorption Spectra of Aromatic Hydrocarbons, 1963, 94. [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References