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2,3-Butanediol

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Condensed phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafliquid-544.8kJ/molCcbBaroody and Carpenter, 1972ALS
Deltafliquid-541.8kJ/molCcbMoureu and Dode, 1937ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacliquid-2461.kJ/molCcbMoureu and Dode, 1937Corresponding «DELTA»fliquid = -541.8 kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS

Constant pressure heat capacity of liquid

Cp,liquid (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
213.0298.2Khokhlovkin and Kalacheva, 1936T = 26 to 140°C.; DH

Phase change data

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Kenneth Kroenlein director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil456.7KN/AAldrich Chemical Company Inc., 1990BS
Tboil455.65KN/AMellan, 1962Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 1. K; TRC
Tboil455.15KN/AWalpole, 1911Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 4. K; TRC
Tboil415.15KN/ASabatier and Mailhe, 1907Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 3. K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus292.15KN/AMellan, 1962Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 2. K; TRC

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
62.5363.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 348. - 457. K.; AC
58.4332.N/AStull, 1947Based on data from 317. - 455. K.; AC
57.9378.N/ASchierholtz and Staples, 1935Based on data from 353. - 403. K.; AC
55.7380.N/ASchierholtz and Staples, 1935Based on data from 303. - 456. K.; AC

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

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Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
317. - 455.6.074392616.746-24.565Stull, 1947Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Reaction thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

2,3-Butanediol, diacetate + 2Water = 2,3-Butanediol + 2Acetic acid

By formula: C8H14O4 + 2H2O = C4H10O2 + 2C2H4O2

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-22.3 ± 2.1kJ/molCmShlechter, Othmer, et al., 1945liquid phase; Heat of formation derived by Cox and Pilcher, 1970

2,3-Butanediol + 2Acetic acid = 2,3-Butanediol, diacetate + 2Water

By formula: C4H10O2 + 2C2H4O2 = C8H14O4 + 2H2O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar22.30kJ/molEqkShlechter, Othmer, et al., 1945liquid phase; Heat of esterification at 338-453 K

Henry's Law data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Rolf Sander

Henry's Law constant (water solution)

kH(T) = H exp(d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) ((1/T) - 1/(298.15 K)))
H = Henry's law constant for solubility in water at 298.15 K (mol/kg*bar)
d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) = Temperature dependence constant (K)

H (mol/kg*bar) d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) (K) Method Reference Comment
>40000. EN/AValue obtained by missing citation using the group contribution method.
<4.0×10+6 EN/AValue obtained by missing citation using the group contribution method.

Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
LL - Sharon G. Lias and Joel F. Liebman
LBLHLM - Sharon G. Lias, John E. Bartmess, Joel F. Liebman, John L. Holmes, Rhoda D. Levin, and W. Gary Mallard

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
C2H4O+10.26C2H4OEIHolmes, Lossing, et al., 1991LL
C2H5O+10.26 ± 0.05CH3CHOHEIHolmes and Lossing, 1984LBLHLM
C2H7O+10.00 ± 0.05C2H3OEISirois, George, et al., 1994LL

IR Spectrum

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compiled by: Coblentz Society, Inc.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Japan AIST/NIMC Database- Spectrum MS-NW-4381
NIST MS number 229493

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


Gas Chromatography

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1494.Nishimura, Yamaguchi, et al., 19892. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1492.Toda, Mihara, et al., 19832. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.23 mm; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1492.Toda, Mihara, et al., 19832. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.23 mm; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1522.Toda, Mihara, et al., 19832. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.23 mm; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1526.Toda, Mihara, et al., 19832. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.23 mm; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 200. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySPB-5789.Engel and Ratel, 200760. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, 40. C @ 2. min, 3. K/min, 230. C @ 10. min
CapillarySPB-5773.Pino, Marbot, et al., 200430. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 60. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 250. C @ 20. min
CapillaryDB-1747.5Sun and Stremple, 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 325. C
CapillaryCP-Sil 8CB-MS769.Bruna, Hierro, et al., 200160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 280. C
CapillaryHP-5MS802.Kim, Shin, et al., 200130. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 200. C @ 20. min
CapillaryHP-5MS819.Kim, Shin, et al., 200130. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 200. C @ 20. min

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-5MS782.Boulanger and Crouzet, 200030. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 60 0C (3 min) 2 K/min -> 220 0C 5 K/min -> 250 0C (15 min)

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax1580.Gurbuz O., Rouseff J.M., et al., 200660. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 7. K/min, 265. C @ 5. min; Tstart: 40. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1545.Gurbuz O., Rouseff J.M., et al., 200630. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 7. K/min, 265. C @ 5. min; Tstart: 40. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1570.Osorio, Alarcon, et al., 200630. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 4. min, 4. K/min, 220. C @ 20. min
CapillaryDB-Wax1556.Malliaa, Fernandez-Garcia, et al., 200560. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 45. C @ 1. min, 5. K/min, 250. C @ 12. min
CapillaryDB-Wax1542.Kim T.H., Kim T.H., et al., 200230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 3. K/min, 200. C @ 20. min
CapillaryDB-Wax1539.Kim, Shin, et al., 200130. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 200. C @ 20. min
CapillaryDB-Wax1543.Kim, Shin, et al., 200130. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 200. C @ 20. min
CapillaryDB-FFAP1547.Charles, Martin, et al., 200030. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, H2, 40. C @ 2. min, 5. K/min; Tend: 240. C
CapillarySupelcowax-101543.Chung, 200060. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min, 195. C @ 90. min; Tstart: 35. C
CapillarySupelcowax-101543.Chung, 199960. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 195. C @ 90. min
CapillaryDB-Wax1541.Shimoda, Wu, et al., 199660. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 230. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1542.Iwaoka, Hagi, et al., 1994He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tend: 200. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax1583.Selli, Canbas, et al., 200630. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, H2; Program: 60C(3min) => 2C/min => 220C => 3C/min => 245C (20min)
CapillaryDB-Wax1583.Selli, Canbas, et al., 2006, 230. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, H2; Program: 60C(3min) => 2C/min => 220C => 3C/min => 245C(20min)
CapillaryDB-Wax1579.Nurgel, Erten, et al., 200230. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, H2; Program: 60C (3min) => 2C/min => 220C => 3C/min => 245C (20min)

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-5795.Piyachaiseth, Jirapakkul, et al., 201160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 35. C @ 1. min, 10. K/min, 220. C @ 15. min
CapillarySPB-5789.Sivadier, Ratel, et al., 200960. m/0.32 mm/1.00 «mu»m, 40. C @ 5. min, 3. K/min, 230. C @ 10. min
CapillaryDB-5806.Ozel, Gogus, et al., 200630. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 60. C @ 0.5 min, 5. K/min, 280. C @ 2. min
CapillaryDB-5 MS803.Schirack, Drake, et al., 200630. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 40. C @ 3. min, 8. K/min, 200. C @ 20. min
CapillaryHP-5MS782.Krist, Stuebiger, et al., 200530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 38. C @ 1. min, 5. K/min, 220. C @ 2. min
CapillaryOV-101824.Zenkevich, 200525. m/0.20 mm/0.10 «mu»m, N2/He, 6. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 250. C
CapillarySPB-5783.Sebastian, Viallon-Fernandez, et al., 200360. m/0.32 mm/1.0 «mu»m, Helium, 3. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 230. C
CapillaryDB-5779.Joffraud, Leroi, et al., 200160. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryRSL-200780.Ngassoum, Jirovetz, et al., 200130. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, H2, 40. C @ 5. min, 6. K/min, 280. C @ 5. min
CapillaryDB-5790.Meynier, Novelli, et al., 199930. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, 40. C @ 5. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryDB-1756.Buttery, Ling, et al., 199730. C @ 25. min, 4. K/min, 200. C @ 20. min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryDB-5779.Kondjoyan, Viallon, et al., 199760. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, 40. C @ 5. min, 3. K/min, 200. C @ 2. min
CapillaryDB-5782.Kondjoyan, Viallon, et al., 199760. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, 40. C @ 5. min, 3. K/min, 200. C @ 2. min
CapillaryDB-1768.Buttery, Stern, et al., 1994He, 30. C @ 25. min, 4. K/min, 200. C @ 20. min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm
CapillaryDB-1746.Hansen, Buttery, et al., 199230. C @ 25. min, 4. K/min, 200. C @ 20. min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm
CapillaryDB-1750.Peppard, 199230. m/0.25 mm/1.0 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min, 250. C @ 30. min; Tstart: 40. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-5767.da Fonseca, Bizerra, et al., 200930. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Hydrogen; Program: 35 0C 4 0C/min -> 180 0C 17 0C/min -> 280 0C (10 min)
CapillaryHP-5787.Ventanas, Estevez, et al., 200850. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 40 0C (10 min) 5 0C/min -> 200 0C 15 0C/min -> 250 0C (10 min)
CapillaryDB-5 MS792.Cajka, Hajslova, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 45 0C (0.75 min) 10 0C/min -> 200 0C 30 0C/min -> 245 0C (1.25 min)
CapillaryHP-5788.Splivallo, Bossi, et al., 2007He; Program: 50C => 3C/min => 200C(10min) => 10C/min => 290C(10min)
CapillaryBP-5793.Helsper, Bücking, et al., 200630. m/0.25 mm/1. «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(2min) => 4C/min => 150C => 8C/min => 250C (15min)
CapillaryHP-5MS793.Alissandrakis, Kibaris, et al., 200530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(3min) => 2C/min => 180C => 10C/min => 250C(5min)
CapillaryBPX-5800.Duflos, Moine, et al., 200560. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(5min) => 5C/min => 100C => 20C/min => 280C (5min)
CapillaryHP-5806.Jordán, Margaría, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: 40C(6min) => 2.5C/min => 150C => 90C/min => 250C
CapillaryHP-5782.Jordán, Goodner, et al., 200230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: not specified
CapillaryHP-5778.Jordán, Goodner, et al., 200230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: not specified
CapillaryHP-5784.Timón, Ventanas, et al., 199850. m/0.32 mm/0.52 «mu»m, He; Program: 35 0C 10 0C/min -> 200 0C (20 min) 5 0C/min -> 230 0C (50 min)
CapillaryDB-5793.Mateo, Aguirrezábal, et al., 199750. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(10min) => 3C/min => 95C => 10C/min => 270C(10min)
CapillaryDB-5786.Mateo and Zumalacárregui, 199650. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 40C (10min) => 3C/min => 95C => 10C/min => 270C (10min)

Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-FFAP1558.Wanakhachornkrai and Lertsiri, 999925. m/0.32 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Helium, 15. K/min; Tstart: 45. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryDB-FFAP1562.Osorio, Carriazo, et al., 201130. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 50. C @ 4. min, 4. K/min, 250. C @ 5. min
CapillaryFFAP1522.Piyachaiseth, Jirapakkul, et al., 201160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 45. C @ 1. min, 5. K/min, 220. C @ 5. min
CapillaryDB-Wax1541.Lan Phi N.T., Nishiyama C., et al., 200660. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 70. C @ 2. min, 2. K/min, 230. C @ 20. min
CapillaryDB-Wax1576.Lan Phi N.T., Nishiyama C., et al., 200660. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 70. C @ 2. min, 2. K/min, 230. C @ 20. min
CapillaryDB-Wax1554.Schirack, Drake, et al., 200630. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 40. C @ 3. min, 8. K/min, 200. C @ 20. min
CapillaryDB-Wax1580.Chida, Sone, et al., 200460. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, 35. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 240. C @ 10. min
CapillaryDB-Wax1542.Lee and Noble, 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 4. min, 4. K/min, 185. C @ 20. min
CapillaryHP-FFAP1558.Wanakhachornkrai and Lertsiri, 200325. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 15. K/min; Tstart: 45. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1523.Wei, Mura, et al., 200160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1566.Franco and Shibamoto, 2000He, 50. C @ 8. min, 3. K/min; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.2 mm; Tend: 180. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1539.Buttery, Orts, et al., 199930. C @ 4. min, 2. K/min, 170. C @ 60. min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm
CapillaryDB-Wax1539.Buttery and Ling, 199830. C @ 4. min, 2. K/min, 170. C @ 30. min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryDB-Wax1526.Pollak and Berger, 199630. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 1. min, 3. K/min, 210. C @ 25. min
CapillaryDB-Wax1517.Christensen and Reineccius, 199530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 20. C @ 1. min, 5. K/min; Tend: 230. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1512.Hatsuko, Kazuko, et al., 1992He, 60. C @ 10. min, 3. K/min; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tend: 240. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1529.Takeoka and Butter, 198960. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 30. C @ 4. min, 2. K/min; Tend: 180. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1536.Takeoka and Butter, 198960. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 30. C @ 4. min, 2. K/min; Tend: 180. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1590.Buttery, Kamm, et al., 19841. K/min, 170. C @ 30. min; Column length: 150. m; Column diameter: 0.64 mm; Tstart: 50. C

Normal alkane RI, polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax1563.Welke, Manfroi, et al., 201230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-Wax1583.Welke, Manfroi, et al., 201230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryHP-Innowax1553.Xiao, Dai, et al., 201160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 40 0C (2 min) 3 0C/min -> 150 0C 5 0C/min -> 220 0C (5 min)
CapillaryPEG 20M1581.Zhang, Zhang, et al., 200830. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 40 0C (3 min) 5 0C/min -> 60 0C 6 0C/min -> 130 0C 10 0C/min -> 230 0C
CapillaryDB-Wax1524.Selli, 200730. m/0.32 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Hydrogen; Program: 60 0C (3 min) 2 0C/min -> 220 0C 3 0C/min -> 245 0C (20 min)
CapillaryPEG-20M1581.Zhang C., Zhang H., et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: 40C(3min) => 5C/min => 60C => 6C/min => 130C => 10C/min => 230C (10min)
CapillarySupelcowax-101550.Kourkoutas, Bosnea, et al., 200660. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 35C(3min) => 5C/min => 110C => 10C/min => 240C (10min)
CapillaryDB-Wax1528.Krings, Zelena, et al., 200630. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 45C(5min) => 5C/min => 150C => 10C/min => 240C (10min)
CapillaryHP-Innowax1577.Piasenzotto, Gracco, et al., 200330. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He; Program: 50C(4min) => 10C/min => 230C(10min) => 10C/min => 250C
CapillaryDB-Wax1521.Hatsuko, Kazuko, et al., 1992He; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Program: not specified
CapillarySupelcowax-101583.Miranda-Lopez, Libbey, et al., 199230. m/0.53 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: 80C(5min) => 5C/min => 155C => 4C/min => 240C(30min)

References

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Baroody and Carpenter, 1972
Baroody, E.E.; Carpenter, G.A., Heats of formation of propellant compounds (U), Rpt. Naval Ordnance Systems Command Task No. 331-003/067-1/UR2402-001 for Naval Ordance Station, Indian Head, MD, 1972, 1-9. [all data]

Moureu and Dode, 1937
Moureu, H.; Dode, M., Chaleurs de formation de l'oxyde d'ethylene, de l'ethanediol et de quelques homologues, Bull. Soc. Chim. France, 1937, 4, 637-647. [all data]

Khokhlovkin and Kalacheva, 1936
Khokhlovkin, M.A.; Kalacheva, A.V., The specific heat of 2,3-butanediol, Sintet. Kauchuk 5, 1936, No.1, 25-27. [all data]

Aldrich Chemical Company Inc., 1990
Aldrich Chemical Company Inc., Catalog Handbook of Fine Chemicals, Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc., Milwaukee WI, 1990, 1. [all data]

Mellan, 1962
Mellan, I., Polyhydric Alcohols, Spartan Books: Washington, DC, 1962. [all data]

Walpole, 1911
Walpole, G.S., Proc. R. Soc. London, B, 1911, 83, 272. [all data]

Sabatier and Mailhe, 1907
Sabatier, P.; Mailhe, A., The Direct Hydrogenation of Methyl Diketones, C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci., 1907, 144, 1086. [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Stull, 1947
Stull, Daniel R., Vapor Pressure of Pure Substances. Organic and Inorganic Compounds, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1947, 39, 4, 517-540, https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50448a022 . [all data]

Schierholtz and Staples, 1935
Schierholtz, O.J.; Staples, M.L., Vapor Pressures of Certain Glycols, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1935, 57, 12, 2709-2711, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01315a106 . [all data]

Shlechter, Othmer, et al., 1945
Shlechter, N.; Othmer, D.F.; Marshak, S., Esterification of 2,3-butylene glycol with acetic acid, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1945, 37, 900-905. [all data]

Cox and Pilcher, 1970
Cox, J.D.; Pilcher, G., Thermochemistry of Organic and Organometallic Compounds, Academic Press, New York, 1970, 1-636. [all data]

Holmes, Lossing, et al., 1991
Holmes, J.L.; Lossing, F.P.; Mayer, P.M., Heats of formation of oxygen-containing organic free radicals from appearance energy measurements, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1991, 113, 9723. [all data]

Holmes and Lossing, 1984
Holmes, J.L.; Lossing, F.P., Heats of formation of organic radicals from appearance energies, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes, 1984, 58, 113. [all data]

Sirois, George, et al., 1994
Sirois, M.; George, M.; Holmes, J.L., Neutral counterparts of the C2H7O+ isomers, Org. Mass Spectrom., 1994, 29, 11. [all data]

Nishimura, Yamaguchi, et al., 1989
Nishimura, O.; Yamaguchi, K.; Mihara, S.; Shibamoto, T., Volatile Constituents of Guava Fruits (Psidium guajava L.) and Canned Puree, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1989, 37, 1, 139-142, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00085a033 . [all data]

Toda, Mihara, et al., 1983
Toda, H.; Mihara, S.; Umano, K.; Shibamoto, T., Photochemical studies on jasmin oil, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1983, 31, 3, 554-558, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00117a022 . [all data]

Engel and Ratel, 2007
Engel, E.; Ratel, J., Correction of the data generated by mass spectrometry analyses of biological tissues: Application to food authentication, J. Chromatogr. A, 2007, 1154, 1-2, 331-341, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2007.02.012 . [all data]

Pino, Marbot, et al., 2004
Pino, J.A.; Marbot, R.; Rosado, A.; Vázquez, C., Volatile constituents of Malay rose apple [Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. Perry], Flavour Fragr. J., 2004, 19, 1, 32-35, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1269 . [all data]

Sun and Stremple, 2003
Sun, G.; Stremple, P., Retention index characterization of flavor, fragrance, and many other compounds on DB-1 and DB-XLB, 2003, retrieved from http://www.chem.agilent.com/cag/cabu/pdf/b-0279.pdf. [all data]

Bruna, Hierro, et al., 2001
Bruna, J.M.; Hierro, E.M.; de la Hoz, L.; Mottram, D.S.; Fernández, M.; Ordóñez, J.A., The contribution of Penicillium aurantiogriseum to the volatile composition and sensory quality of dry fermented sausages, Meat Sci., 2001, 59, 1, 97-107, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(01)00058-4 . [all data]

Kim, Shin, et al., 2001
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Boulanger and Crouzet, 2000
Boulanger, R.; Crouzet, J., Free and bound flavour components of Amazonian fruits: 2. cupuacu volatile compounds, Flavour Fragr. J., 2000, 15, 4, 251-257, https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-1026(200007/08)15:4<251::AID-FFJ905>3.0.CO;2-2 . [all data]

Gurbuz O., Rouseff J.M., et al., 2006
Gurbuz O.; Rouseff J.M.; Rouseff R.L., Comparison of aroma volatiles in commercial Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines using gas chromatography - Olfactometry and gas chromatography - Mass spectrometry, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54, 11, 3990-3996, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf053278p . [all data]

Osorio, Alarcon, et al., 2006
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Malliaa, Fernandez-Garcia, et al., 2005
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Kim T.H., Kim T.H., et al., 2002
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Charles, Martin, et al., 2000
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Chung, 2000
Chung, H.Y., Volatile flavor components in red fermented soybean (Glycine max) curds, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2000, 48, 5, 1803-1809, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf991272s . [all data]

Chung, 1999
Chung, H.Y., Volatile components in fermented soybean (Glycine max) curds, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1999, 47, 7, 2690-2696, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf981166a . [all data]

Shimoda, Wu, et al., 1996
Shimoda, M.; Wu, Y.; Osajima, Y., Aroma compounds from aqueous solution of Haze (Rhus succedanea) honey determined by adsorptive column chromatography, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1996, 44, 12, 3913-3918, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9601168 . [all data]

Iwaoka, Hagi, et al., 1994
Iwaoka, W.; Hagi, Y.; Umano, K.; Shibamoto, T., Volatile chemicals identified in fresh and cooked breadfruit, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1994, 42, 4, 975-976, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00040a026 . [all data]

Selli, Canbas, et al., 2006
Selli, S.; Canbas, A.; Cabaroglu, T.; Erten, H.; Gunata, Z., Aroma components of cv. Muscat of Bornova wines and influence of skin contact treatment, Food Chem., 2006, 94, 3, 319-326, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.11.019 . [all data]

Selli, Canbas, et al., 2006, 2
Selli, S.; Canbas, A.; Cabaroglu, T.; Erten, H.; Lepoutre, J.-P.; Gunata, Z., Effect of skin contact on the free and bound aroma compounds of the white wine of Vitis vinifera L. cv Narince, Food Control, 2006, 17, 1, 75-82, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2004.09.005 . [all data]

Nurgel, Erten, et al., 2002
Nurgel, C.; Erten, H.; Canbas, A.; Cabaroglu, T.; Selli, S., Contribution by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts to fermentation and flavour compounds in wines from cv. Kalecik karasi grape, J. Inst. Brew., 2002, 108, 1, 68-72, https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2050-0416.2002.tb00126.x . [all data]

Piyachaiseth, Jirapakkul, et al., 2011
Piyachaiseth, T.; Jirapakkul, W.; Chaiseri, S., Aroma compounds of flash-fried rice, Kasetsart J. (Nat. Sci.), 2011, 45, 717-729. [all data]

Sivadier, Ratel, et al., 2009
Sivadier, G.; Ratel, J.; Engel, E., Latency and persistence of diet volatile biomarkers in lamb fats, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2009, 57, 2, 645-652, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf802467q . [all data]

Ozel, Gogus, et al., 2006
Ozel, M.Z.; Gogus, F.; Lewis, A.C., Comparison of direct thermal desorption with water distillation and superheated water extraction for the analysis of volatile components of Rosa damascena Mill. using GCxGC-TOF/MS, Anal. Chim. Acta., 2006, 566, 2, 172-177, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2006.03.014 . [all data]

Schirack, Drake, et al., 2006
Schirack, A.V.; Drake, M.A.; Sander, T.H.; Sandeep, K.P., Characterization of aroma-active compounds in microwave blanched peanuts, J. Food Sci., 2006, 71, 9, c513-c520, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00173.x . [all data]

Krist, Stuebiger, et al., 2005
Krist, S.; Stuebiger, G.; Unterweger, H.; Bandion, F.; Buchbauer, G., Analysis of volatile compounds and triglycerides of seed oils extracted from different poppy varieties (Papaver somniferum L.), J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53, 21, 8310-8316, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0580869 . [all data]

Zenkevich, 2005
Zenkevich, I.G., Experimentally measured retention indices., 2005. [all data]

Sebastian, Viallon-Fernandez, et al., 2003
Sebastian, I.; Viallon-Fernandez, C.; Berge, P.; Berdague, J.-L., Analysis of the volatile fraction of lamb fat tissue: influence of the type of feeding, Sciences des Aliments, 2003, 23, 4, 497-511, https://doi.org/10.3166/sda.23.497-511 . [all data]

Joffraud, Leroi, et al., 2001
Joffraud, J.J.; Leroi, F.; Roy, C.; Berdagué, J.L., Characterisation of volatile compounds produced by bacteria isolated from the spoilage flora of cold-smoked salmon, Int. J. Food Microbiol., 2001, 66, 3, 175-184, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(00)00532-8 . [all data]

Ngassoum, Jirovetz, et al., 2001
Ngassoum, M.B.; Jirovetz, L.; Buchbauer, G., SPME/GC/MS analysis of headspace aroma compounds of the Cameroonian fruit Tetrapleura tetraptera (Thonn.) Taub., Eur. Food Res. Technol., 2001, 213, 1, 18-21, https://doi.org/10.1007/s002170100330 . [all data]

Meynier, Novelli, et al., 1999
Meynier, A.; Novelli, E.; Chissolinim, R.; Zanardi, E.; Gandemer, G., Volatile compounds of commercial Milano salami, Meat Sci., 1999, 51, 2, 175-183, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(98)00122-3 . [all data]

Buttery, Ling, et al., 1997
Buttery, R.G.; Ling, L.C.; Stern, D.J., Studies on popcorn aroma and flavor volatiles, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1997, 45, 3, 837-843, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9604807 . [all data]

Kondjoyan, Viallon, et al., 1997
Kondjoyan, N.; Viallon, C.; Berdagué, J.L.; Daridan, D.; Simon, M.-N.; Legault, C., Analyse comparative de la fraction volatile de jambons secs de porcs Gascon et Large-White x Landrace Français, J. Rech. C.N.R.S., 1997, 29, 405-410, retrieved from http://www.rennes.inra.fr/srp/jrp/1997/97txtQualite/Q9704.pdf. [all data]

Buttery, Stern, et al., 1994
Buttery, R.G.; Stern, D.J.; Ling, L.C., Studies on flavor volatiles of some sweet corn products, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1994, 42, 3, 791-795, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00039a038 . [all data]

Hansen, Buttery, et al., 1992
Hansen, M.; Buttery, R.G.; Stern, D.J.; Cantwell, M.I.; Ling, L.C., Broccoli storage under low-oxygen atmosphere: Identification of higher boiling volatiles, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1992, 40, 5, 850-852, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00017a029 . [all data]

Peppard, 1992
Peppard, T.L., Volatile flavor constituents of Monstera deliciosa, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1992, 40, 2, 257-262, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00014a018 . [all data]

da Fonseca, Bizerra, et al., 2009
da Fonseca, A.M.; Bizerra, A.M.C.; de Souza, J.S.N.; Monte, F.J.Q.; de Oliveira M.C.F.; de Mattos, M.C.; Cordell, G.A.; Braz-Filho, R.; Lemos, T.L.G., Constituents and antioxidant activity of two varieties of coconut water (Cocos nucifera L.), Braz. J. Pharmacognosy, 2009, 19, 1B, 193-198. [all data]

Ventanas, Estevez, et al., 2008
Ventanas, S.; Estevez, M.; Andres, A.I.; Ruiz, J., Analysis of volatile compounds of Iberian dry-cured loins with different intramuscular fat contents using SPME-DED, Meat Sci., 2008, 79, 1, 172-180, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.08.011 . [all data]

Cajka, Hajslova, et al., 2007
Cajka, T.; Hajslova, J.; Cochran, J.; Holadova, K.; Klimankova, E., Solid phase microextraction - comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography - time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the analysis of honey volatiles, J. Sep. Sci., 2007, 30, 4, 534-546, https://doi.org/10.1002/jssc.200600413 . [all data]

Splivallo, Bossi, et al., 2007
Splivallo, R.; Bossi, S.; Maffei, M.; Bonfante, P., Discrimination of truffle fruiting body versus mycelial aromas by stir bar sorptive extraction, Phytochemistry, 2007, 68, 20, 2584-2598, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.03.030 . [all data]

Helsper, Bücking, et al., 2006
Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Bücking, M.; Muresan, S.; Blaas, J.; Wietsma, W.A., Identification of the volatile component(s) causing the characteristic foxy odor in various cultivars of Fritillaria imperialis L. (Liliaceae), J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54, 14, 5087-5091, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0605594 . [all data]

Alissandrakis, Kibaris, et al., 2005
Alissandrakis, E.; Kibaris, A.C.; Tarantilis, P.A.; Harizanis, P.C.; Polissiou, M., Flavour compounds of Greek cotton honey, J. Sci. Food Agric., 2005, 85, 9, 1444-1452, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2124 . [all data]

Duflos, Moine, et al., 2005
Duflos, G.; Moine, F.; Coin, V.M.; Malle, P., Determination of volatile compounds in whiting (Merlangius merlangus) using headspace-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 2005, 43, 6, 304-312, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/43.6.304 . [all data]

Jordán, Margaría, et al., 2003
Jordán, M.J.; Margaría, C.A.; Shaw, P.E.; Goodner, K.L., Volatile components and aroma active compounds in aqueous essence and fresh pink guava fruid puree (Psidium guajava L.) by GC-MS and multidimensional GC/GC-O, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2003, 51, 5, 1421-1426, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf020765l . [all data]

Jordán, Goodner, et al., 2002
Jordán, M.J.; Goodner, K.L.; Shaw, P.E., Characterization of the aromatic profile in aqueous essence and fruit juice of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims F. Flavicarpa degner) by GC-MS and GC/O, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50, 6, 1523-1528, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf011077p . [all data]

Timón, Ventanas, et al., 1998
Timón, M.L.; Ventanas, J.; Martín, L.; Tejeda, J.F.; García, C., Volatile compounds in supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of Iberian ham, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1998, 46, 12, 5143-5150, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf980652v . [all data]

Mateo, Aguirrezábal, et al., 1997
Mateo, J.; Aguirrezábal, M.; Domínguez, C.; Zumalacárregui, J.M., Volatile compounds in Spanish paprika, J. Food Comp. Anal., 1997, 10, 3, 225-232, https://doi.org/10.1006/jfca.1997.0535 . [all data]

Mateo and Zumalacárregui, 1996
Mateo, J.; Zumalacárregui, J.M., Volatile compounds in chorizo and their changes during ripening, Meat Sci., 1996, 44, 4, 255-273, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(96)00028-9 . [all data]

Wanakhachornkrai and Lertsiri, 9999
Wanakhachornkrai, P.; Lertsiri, S., Comparison of determination method for volatile compounds in Thai soy sauce, Analytical, Nutritional and Clinical Methods, 9999, 1-11. [all data]

Osorio, Carriazo, et al., 2011
Osorio, C.; Carriazo, J.G.; Barbosa, H., Thermal and structural study of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) powders obtained by two dehydration methods, Quim. Nova, 2011, 34, 4, 636-640, https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-40422011000400016 . [all data]

Lan Phi N.T., Nishiyama C., et al., 2006
Lan Phi N.T.; Nishiyama C.; Choi H.-S.; Sawamura M., Evaluation of aroma characteristic compounds of Citrus natsudaidai Hayata (Natsudaidai) cold-pressed peel oil, Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 2006, 70, 8, 1832-1838, https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.50705 . [all data]

Chida, Sone, et al., 2004
Chida, M.; Sone, Y.; Tamura, H., Aroma characteristics of stored tobacco cut leaves analyzed by a high vacuum distillation and canister system, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52, 26, 7918-7924, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf049223p . [all data]

Lee and Noble, 2003
Lee, S.-J.; Noble, A.C., Characterization of odor-active compounds in Californian Chardonnay wines using GC-olfactometry and GC-mass spectrometry, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2003, 51, 27, 8036-8044, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf034747v . [all data]

Wanakhachornkrai and Lertsiri, 2003
Wanakhachornkrai, P.; Lertsiri, S., Analytical, nutritional, and clinical methods. Comparison of determination method for volatile compounds in Thai soy sauce, Food Chem., 2003, 83, 4, 619-629, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00256-5 . [all data]

Wei, Mura, et al., 2001
Wei, A.; Mura, K.; Shibamoto, T., Antioxidative activity of volatile chemicals extracted from beer, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001, 49, 8, 4097-4101, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf010325e . [all data]

Franco and Shibamoto, 2000
Franco, M.R.B.; Shibamoto, T., Volatile composition of some Brazilian fruits: umbu-caja (Spondias citherea), camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia), araca-boi (Eugenia stipitata), and cupuacu (Theobroma grandiflorum), J. Agric. Food Chem., 2000, 48, 4, 1263-1265, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9900074 . [all data]

Buttery, Orts, et al., 1999
Buttery, R.G.; Orts, W.J.; Takeoka, G.R.; Nam, Y., Volatile flavor components of rice cakes, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1999, 47, 10, 4353-4356, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf990140w . [all data]

Buttery and Ling, 1998
Buttery, R.G.; Ling, L.C., Additional studies on flavor components of corn tortilla chips, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1998, 46, 7, 2764-2769, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf980125b . [all data]

Pollak and Berger, 1996
Pollak, F.C.; Berger, R.G., Geosmin and Related Volatiles in Bioreactor-Cultured Streptomyces citreus CBS 109.60, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 1996, 62, 4, 1295-1299. [all data]

Christensen and Reineccius, 1995
Christensen, K.R.; Reineccius, G.A., Aroma extract dilution analysis of aged cheddar cheese, J. Food Sci., 1995, 60, 2, 218-220, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1995.tb05641.x . [all data]

Hatsuko, Kazuko, et al., 1992
Hatsuko, S.; Kazuko, H.; Masayoshi, K.; Yoshiaki, I., Improvement of quality of likorine extract by heat treatment, J. Food Sci. Technol., 1992, 39, 11, 976-983, https://doi.org/10.3136/nskkk1962.39.976 . [all data]

Takeoka and Butter, 1989
Takeoka, G.; Butter, R.G., Volatile constituents of pineapple (Ananas Comosus [L.] Merr.) in Flavor Chemistry. Trends and Developments, Teranishi,R.; Buttery,R.G.; Shahidi,F., ed(s)., American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1989, 223-237. [all data]

Buttery, Kamm, et al., 1984
Buttery, R.G.; Kamm, J.A.; Ling, L.C., Volatile components of red clover leaves, flowers, and seed pods: possible insect attractants, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1984, 32, 2, 254-256, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00122a019 . [all data]

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Xiao, Dai, et al., 2011
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Zhang, Zhang, et al., 2008
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Selli, 2007
Selli, S., Volatile constituents of orange obtained from moro oranges (Citrus Sinensis L. Osbeck), J. Food Quality, 2007, 30, 3, 330-341, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4557.2007.00124.x . [all data]

Zhang C., Zhang H., et al., 2007
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Kourkoutas, Bosnea, et al., 2006
Kourkoutas, Y.; Bosnea, L.; Taboukos, S.; Baras, C.; Lambrou, D.; Kanellaki, M., Probiotic Cheese Production Using Lactobacillus casei Cells Immobilized on Fruit Pieces, J. Dairy Sci., 2006, 89, 5, 1439-1451, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72212-3 . [all data]

Krings, Zelena, et al., 2006
Krings, U.; Zelena, K.; Wu, S.; Berger, R.G., Thin-layer high-vacuum distillation to isolate volatile flavour compounds of cocoa powder, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 2006, 223, 5, 675-681, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-006-0252-x . [all data]

Piasenzotto, Gracco, et al., 2003
Piasenzotto, L.; Gracco, L.; Conte, L., Solid phase microextraction (SPME) applied to honey quality control, J. Sci. Food Agric., 2003, 83, 10, 1037-1044, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1502 . [all data]

Miranda-Lopez, Libbey, et al., 1992
Miranda-Lopez, R.; Libbey, L.M.; Watson, B.T.; McDaniel, M.R., Odor analysis of Pinot noir wines from grapes of different maturities by a gas chromatography-olfactometry technique (Osme), J. Food Sci., 1992, 57, 4, 985-993, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1992.tb14339.x . [all data]


Notes

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