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2,3-Butanedione

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas-326.8kJ/molCcbNicholson, Szwarc, et al., 1954 

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafliquid-365.5kJ/molCcbNicholson, Szwarc, et al., 1954 
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacliquid-2066.1 ± 0.79kJ/molCcbNicholson, Szwarc, et al., 1954Corresponding «DELTA»fliquid = -365.4 kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections)

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Kenneth Kroenlein director
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil361.2KN/AWeast and Grasselli, 1989BS
Tboil361.15KN/AOthmer, 1943Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 1. K; TRC
Tboil361.15KN/ASabatier and Mailhe, 1909Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 2. K; TRC
Tboil360.15KN/ASabatier and Mailhe, 1907Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 2. K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap38.7 ± 0.92kJ/molVNicholson, Szwarc, et al., 1954ALS

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
38.5288.A,IStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 273. - 348. K. See also Neely and Hall, 1972.; AC
39.6 ± 0.2283.N/ANicholson, Szwarc, et al., 1954, 2Based on data from 273. - 293. K.; AC

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

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Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
273.16 - 348.163.53918927.108-98.949Neely and Hall, 1972Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Henry's Law data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Rolf Sander

Henry's Law constant (water solution)

kH(T) = H exp(d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) ((1/T) - 1/(298.15 K)))
H = Henry's law constant for solubility in water at 298.15 K (mol/kg*bar)
d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) = Temperature dependence constant (K)

H (mol/kg*bar) d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) (K) Method Reference Comment
74.5700.MN/A 
57. MN/A 
190. XN/AValue given here as quoted by missing citation.

Gas phase ion energetics data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Henry's Law data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
LBLHLM - Sharon G. Lias, John E. Bartmess, Joel F. Liebman, John L. Holmes, Rhoda D. Levin, and W. Gary Mallard
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron
B - John E. Bartmess

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)801.9kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity770.1kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Electron affinity determinations

EA (eV) Method Reference Comment
0.69 ± 0.10TDEqKebarle and Chowdhury, 1987B
1.10002ESCompton, Christophorou, et al., 1966B

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
9.30PITraeger, McLouglin, et al., 1982LBLHLM
9.23 ± 0.03PIWatanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962RDSH
9.25 ± 0.03PIWatanabe, 1957RDSH
9.57 ± 0.05PEVerheijdt and Cerfontain, 1982Vertical value; LBLHLM
9.56PEKimura, Katsumata, et al., 1981Vertical value; LLK
9.6PEVon Niessen, Bieri, et al., 1980Vertical value; LLK
9.47PEKobayashi, 1978Vertical value; LLK
9.55PEMcGlynn and Meeks, 1975Vertical value; LLK
9.57PEKelder, Cerfontain, et al., 1974Vertical value; LLK
9.72PEArnett, Newkome, et al., 1974Vertical value; LLK
9.55PECowan, Gleiter, et al., 1971Vertical value; LLK

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
CH3+14.1C2H3O+COEIBurgers, Holmes, et al., 1983LBLHLM
C2H3O+10.0 ± 0.1CH3COEIBurgers, Holmes, et al., 1983LBLHLM
C2H3O+9.88C2H3OPITraeger, McLouglin, et al., 1982LBLHLM
C2H3O+9.88CH3COPIMurad and Inghram, 1964RDSH
C2H3CO+9.88 ± 0.19CH3COEIHolmes and Lossing, 1984LBLHLM

IR Spectrum

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), References, Notes

Data compiled by: Coblentz Society, Inc.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, 1998.
NIST MS number 290913

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Nicholson, Szwarc, et al., 1954
Nicholson, G.R.; Szwarc, M.; Taylor, J.W., The heats of formation of diacetyl and of benzyl methyl ketone in the vapour phase, J. Chem. Soc., 1954, 2767-2769. [all data]

Weast and Grasselli, 1989
CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds, 2nd Editon, Weast,R.C and Grasselli, J.G., ed(s)., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1989, 1. [all data]

Othmer, 1943
Othmer, D.F., Composition of vapors from boiling binary solutions, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1943, 35, 614-20. [all data]

Sabatier and Mailhe, 1909
Sabatier, P.; Mailhe, A., New Applications of the General Method of Hydrogenation with Various Metals, Ann. Chim. Phys., 1909, 16, 70. [all data]

Sabatier and Mailhe, 1907
Sabatier, P.; Mailhe, A., The Direct Hydrogenation of Methyl Diketones, C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci., 1907, 144, 1086. [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Neely and Hall, 1972
Neely, William C.; Hall, Terry D., Vapor pressure of biacetyl, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1972, 17, 3, 294-295, https://doi.org/10.1021/je60054a010 . [all data]

Nicholson, Szwarc, et al., 1954, 2
Nicholson, G.R.; Szwarc, M.; Taylor, J. Watson, The heats of formation of diacetyl and of benzyl methyl ketone in the vapour phase, J. Chem. Soc., 1954, 2767, https://doi.org/10.1039/jr9540002767 . [all data]

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556018 . [all data]

Kebarle and Chowdhury, 1987
Kebarle, P.; Chowdhury, S., Electron affinities and electron transfer reactions, Chem. Rev., 1987, 87, 513. [all data]

Compton, Christophorou, et al., 1966
Compton, R.N.; Christophorou, L.G.; Hurst, G.S.; Reinhardt, P.W., Nondissociative Electron Capture in Complex Molecules and Negative Ion Lifetimes, J. Chem. Phys., 1966, 45, 12, 4634, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1727547 . [all data]

Traeger, McLouglin, et al., 1982
Traeger, J.C.; McLouglin, R.G.; Nicholson, A.J.C., Heat of formation for acetyl cation in the gas phase, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1982, 104, 5318. [all data]

Watanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962
Watanabe, K.; Nakayama, T.; Mottl, J., Ionization potentials of some molecules, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer, 1962, 2, 369. [all data]

Watanabe, 1957
Watanabe, K., Ionization potentials of some molecules, J. Chem. Phys., 1957, 26, 542. [all data]

Verheijdt and Cerfontain, 1982
Verheijdt, P.L.; Cerfontain, H., Dipole moments, spectroscopy, and ground and excited state conformations of cycloalkane-1,2-diones, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 2, 1982, 1541. [all data]

Kimura, Katsumata, et al., 1981
Kimura, K.; Katsumata, S.; Achiba, Y.; Yamazaki, T.; Iwata, S., Ionization energies, Ab initio assignments, and valence electronic structure for 200 molecules in Handbook of HeI Photoelectron Spectra of Fundamental Organic Compounds, Japan Scientific Soc. Press, Tokyo, 1981. [all data]

Von Niessen, Bieri, et al., 1980
Von Niessen, W.; Bieri, G.; Asbrink, L., 30.4 nm He(II) photoelectron spectra of organic molecules. Part III. Oxo-compounds (C,H,O), J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 175. [all data]

Kobayashi, 1978
Kobayashi, T., A new rule for photoelectron angular distributions of molecules, Phys. Lett. A, 1978, 69, 31. [all data]

McGlynn and Meeks, 1975
McGlynn, S.P.; Meeks, J.L., Photoelectron spectra of carbonyls: Acetaldehyde, acetamide, biacetyl, pyruvic acid, methyl pyruvate and vamide, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1975, 6, 269. [all data]

Kelder, Cerfontain, et al., 1974
Kelder, J.; Cerfontain, H.; Higginson, B.R.; Lloyd, D.R., Photoelectron and ultraviolet absorption spectra of cyclopropyl conjugated 1,2-diketones, Tetrahedron Lett., 1974, 739. [all data]

Arnett, Newkome, et al., 1974
Arnett, J.F.; Newkome, G.; Mattice, W.L.; McGlynn, S.P., Excited electronic states of the «alpha»-dicarbonyls, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1974, 96, 4385. [all data]

Cowan, Gleiter, et al., 1971
Cowan, D.O.; Gleiter, R.; Hashmall, J.A.; Heilbronner, E.; Hornung, V., Interaction between the orbitals of lone pair electrons in dicarbonyl compounds, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 1971, 10, 401. [all data]

Burgers, Holmes, et al., 1983
Burgers, P.C.; Holmes, J.L.; Szulejko, J.E.; Mommers, A.A.; Terlouw, J.K., The gas phase ion chemistry of the acetyl cation and isomeric [C2H3O]+ ions. On the structure of the [C2H3O]+ daughter ions generated from the enol of acetone radical cation, Org. Mass Spectrom., 1983, 18, 254. [all data]

Murad and Inghram, 1964
Murad, E.; Inghram, M.G., Thermodynamic properties of the acetyl radical and bond dissociation energies in aliphatic carbonyl compounds, J. Chem. Phys., 1964, 41, 404. [all data]

Holmes and Lossing, 1984
Holmes, J.L.; Lossing, F.P., Heats of formation of organic radicals from appearance energies, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes, 1984, 58, 113. [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), References