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2-Butenal

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas-26.22 ± 0.57kcal/molCcbVan-chin-syan, Kochubei, et al., 1996ALS
Deltafgas-25.55kcal/molN/ATjebbes, 1960Value computed using «DELTA»fHliquid° value of -144.1±0.4 kj/mol from Tjebbes, 1960 and «DELTA»vapH° value of 37.2 kj/mol from Van-chin-syan, Kochubei, et al., 1996.; DRB
Deltafgas-24.03 ± 0.37kcal/molChydDolliver, Gresham, et al., 1938Heat of formation derived by Cox and Pilcher, 1970; ALS

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafliquid-35.11 ± 0.57kcal/molCcbVan-chin-syan, Kochubei, et al., 1996 
Deltafliquid-34.45 ± 0.09kcal/molCcbTjebbes, 1960 
Deltafliquid-33.13 ± 0.45kcal/molChydDolliver, Gresham, et al., 1938Heat of formation derived by Cox and Pilcher, 1970
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacliquid-546.06 ± 0.55kcal/molCcbVan-chin-syan, Kochubei, et al., 1996Corresponding «DELTA»fliquid = -35.09 kcal/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections)
Deltacliquid-546.71 ± 0.09kcal/molCcbTjebbes, 1960Corresponding «DELTA»fliquid = -34.44 kcal/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections)

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Chris Muzny, director
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil375.50KN/AMarkovnik, Sachek, et al., 1979Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.02 K; TRC
Tboil375.5KN/AAnonymous, 1953Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.6 K; TRC
Tboil363.15KN/AMiller, Cook, et al., 1950Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 5. K; TRC
Tboil377.2KN/ATimmermans, 1922Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.3 K; TRC
Tboil375.3KN/ATimmermans, 1913Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 1.5 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus198.KN/AAnonymous, 1968Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 5. K; TRC
Tfus196.7KN/ATimmermans, 1922Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.5 K; TRC
Tfus199.15KN/ATimmermans, 1913Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 1.5 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc601.98KN/AGurarii, Kuleshov, et al., 1987Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.1 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Pc54.250atmN/AGurarii, Kuleshov, et al., 1987Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.01 atm; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
rhoc4.1803mol/lN/AGurarii, Kuleshov, et al., 1987Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.04 mol/l; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap8.90 ± 0.1kcal/molCVan-chin-syan, Kochubei, et al., 1996ALS
Deltavap8.89kcal/molN/AVan-chin-syan, Kochubei, et al., 1996DRB
Deltavap8.91 ± 0.1kcal/molCVan-Chin-Syan, Kochubei, et al., 1996AC
Deltavap9.1 ± 0.2kcal/molEDolliver, Gresham, et al., 1938Heat of formation derived by Cox and Pilcher, 1970; ALS
Deltavap9.11kcal/molN/ADolliver, Gresham, et al., 1938DRB

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
9.27325.EBWiberg, Morgan, et al., 1994AC
8.4 ± 0.1332.N/ABaglay, Gurariy, et al., 1988Based on data from 288. - 376. K.; AC
8.80321.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 306. - 376. K. See also Waradzin and Skubla, 1973 and Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984.; AC
8.91319.N/AMarkovnik, Sachek, et al., 1979Based on data from 304. - 377. K.; AC

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Reaction thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

C4H5O- + Hydrogen cation = 2-Butenal

By formula: C4H5O- + H+ = C4H6O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar354.7 ± 2.1kcal/molG+TSBartmess and Kiplinger, 1986gas phase; Acid: CH3CH=CHCHO; value altered from reference due to change in acidity scale; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar348.1 ± 2.0kcal/molIMREBartmess and Kiplinger, 1986gas phase; Acid: CH3CH=CHCHO; value altered from reference due to change in acidity scale; B

(CAS Reg. No. 64724-02-3 bullet 42949672952-Butenal) + 2-Butenal = CAS Reg. No. 64724-02-3

By formula: (CAS Reg. No. 64724-02-3 bullet 4294967295C4H6O) + C4H6O = CAS Reg. No. 64724-02-3

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar60.5 ± 2.2kcal/molN/AAlconcel, Deyerl, et al., 2001gas phase; B
Deltar61.1 ± 2.4kcal/molTherZimmerman, Reed, et al., 1977gas phase; B

Hydrogen + 2-Butenal = Butanal

By formula: H2 + C4H6O = C4H8O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-24.91 ± 0.10kcal/molChydDolliver, Gresham, et al., 1938gas phase; Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -25.2 ± 0.1 kcal/mol; At 355°K; ALS

2-Butene, 1,1-dimethoxy- + Water = 2-Butenal + 2Methyl Alcohol

By formula: C6H12O2 + H2O = C4H6O + 2CH4O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar3.66 ± 0.04kcal/molCmWiberg, Morgan, et al., 1994liquid phase; ALS

Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron

View reactions leading to C4H6O+ (ion structure unspecified)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)198.6kcal/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity191.0kcal/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
9.75PEMasclet and Mouvier, 1978LLK
9.73 ± 0.01PIWatanabe, 1957RDSH
9.86 ± 0.03PEKlessinger and Gunkel, 1978Vertical value; LLK

De-protonation reactions

C4H5O- + Hydrogen cation = 2-Butenal

By formula: C4H5O- + H+ = C4H6O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar354.7 ± 2.1kcal/molG+TSBartmess and Kiplinger, 1986gas phase; Acid: CH3CH=CHCHO; value altered from reference due to change in acidity scale; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar348.1 ± 2.0kcal/molIMREBartmess and Kiplinger, 1986gas phase; Acid: CH3CH=CHCHO; value altered from reference due to change in acidity scale; B

IR Spectrum

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Data compiled by: Coblentz Society, Inc.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, 1990.
NIST MS number 118878

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


UV/Visible spectrum

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Victor Talrose, Eugeny B. Stern, Antonina A. Goncharova, Natalia A. Messineva, Natalia V. Trusova, Margarita V. Efimkina

Spectrum

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UVVis spectrum
For Zoom
1.) Enter the desired X axis range (e.g., 100, 200)
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Additional Data

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Source Blacet, 1948
Owner INEP CP RAS, NIST OSRD
Collection (C) 2007 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin INSTITUTE OF ENERGY PROBLEMS OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, RAS
Source reference RAS UV No. 19
Instrument n.i.g.

Gas Chromatography

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-1110.627.Héberger and Görgényi, 199950. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m, N2
CapillaryHP-150.623.Héberger and Görgényi, 199950. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m, N2
CapillaryHP-170.624.Héberger and Görgényi, 199950. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m, N2
CapillaryHP-190.626.Héberger and Görgényi, 199950. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m, N2
PackedApiezon L120.615.Bogoslovsky, Anvaer, et al., 1978Celite 545
PackedApiezon L160.621.Bogoslovsky, Anvaer, et al., 1978Celite 545
PackedDC-200100.631.Rohrschneider, 1966Column length: 4. m
PackedApiezon L100.619.Rohrschneider, 1966Column length: 5. m

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-101630.Morales and Duque, 1987He, 2. K/min; Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.31 mm; Tstart: 60. C; Tend: 200. C

Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

View large format table.

Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-Innowax110.1086.2Héberger and Görgényi, 199930. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m
CapillaryHP-Innowax50.1061.5Héberger and Görgényi, 199930. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m
CapillaryHP-Innowax70.1069.3Héberger and Görgényi, 199930. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m
CapillaryHP-Innowax90.1077.1Héberger and Görgényi, 199930. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m
PackedCarbowax 20M100.1059.Rohrschneider, 1966Column length: 2. m

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySPB-5647.Engel and Ratel, 200760. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, 40. C @ 2. min, 3. K/min, 230. C @ 10. min
CapillaryMega 5MS632.Condurso, Verzera, et al., 200660. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 60. C; Tend: 240. C
CapillarySPB-5645.Deport, Ratel, et al., 200660. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 3. K/min, 230. C @ 5. min
CapillaryHP-1618.Cavalli, Fernandez, et al., 200350. m/0.2 mm/0.33 «mu»m, He, 60. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 250. C @ 20. min
CapillaryDB-5657.Dallüge, van Stee, et al., 200230. m/0.25 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 2.5 K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryCP-Sil 8CB-MS657.Bruna, Hierro, et al., 200160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 280. C
CapillarySPB-1627.Larráyoz, Addis, et al., 200130. m/0.32 mm/4. «mu»m, He, 45. C @ 13. min, 5. K/min, 240. C @ 5. min

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-5640.Boué, Shih, et al., 200350. m/0.2 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(3min) => 10C/min => 60C =3C/min => 150C => 20C/min => 250C (5min)
CapillaryHP-5623.Engel, Baty, et al., 200230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 5C(5min) => 3C/min => 20C => 5C/min => 100C 15C/min => 150C (5min)

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryFFAP1051.Calvo-Gómez, Morales-López, et al., 200430. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 3. min, 5. K/min; Tend: 220. C
CapillarySupelcowax-101042.Chung, Yung, et al., 200260. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 195. C @ 90. min
CapillarySupelcowax-101042.Chung, Yung, et al., 200160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 195. C @ 90. min
CapillarySupelcowax-101050.Chung and Cadwallader, 199360. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 195. C @ 40. min
CapillaryCP-WAX 57CB1024.Baltes and Mevissen, 1988He, 50. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.24 mm; Tend: 210. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySupelcowax-101041.Bianchi, Careri, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 35C(8min) => 4C/min => 60C => 6C/min => 160C => 20C/min => 200C(1min)
CapillaryCP-Wax 52CB1043.Condurso, Verzera, et al., 200660. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 45C(5min) => 10C/min => 80C => 2C/min => 240C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-1648.Lu, Yu, et al., 199760. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 2. min, 2. K/min, 280. C @ 40. min
CapillaryDB-1629.Yu, Wu, et al., 199460. m/0.25 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 260. C @ 60. min
CapillaryOV-101655.Zenkevich and Kulikova, 1993He, 3. K/min; Column length: 54. m; Column diameter: 0.26 mm; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 230. C
CapillaryDB-1622.Habu, Flath, et al., 19853. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Tstart: 0. C; Tend: 250. C
CapillarySF-96640.Donetzhuber, Johansson, et al., 1976Nitrogen, 3. K/min, 130. C @ 40. min; Column length: 111. m; Column diameter: 0.76 mm; Initial hold: 8. min

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-1610.Barra, Baldovini, et al., 200750. m/0.2 mm/0.33 «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(2min) => 2C/min => 200C => 15C/min => 250C (30min)
CapillaryBPX-5600.van Ruth, Floris, et al., 200660. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(4min) => 2C/min => 90C => 4C/min => 130C => 8C/min => 250C
CapillaryMethyl Silicone636.Zenkevich, 1996Program: not specified

Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryFFAP1056.Nebesny, Budryn, et al., 200730. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, N2, 35. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 320. C @ 45. min
CapillaryTC-Wax1049.Ishikawa, Ito, et al., 200460. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 8. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 230. C
CapillaryHP-Wax1042.Sanz, Maeztu, et al., 200260. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 6. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 190. C
CapillaryHP-Wax1042.Sanz, Ansorena, et al., 200160. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 6. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 190. C
CapillarySupelcowax-101047.Girard and Durance, 200060. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 10. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1038.Umano, Hagi, et al., 1995He, 40. C @ 2. min, 2. K/min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tend: 200. C

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Van-chin-syan, Kochubei, et al., 1996
Van-chin-syan, Yu.Ya.; Kochubei, V.V.; Sergeev, V.V.; Raevskii, Yu.A.; Gerasimchuk, S.I.; Kotovich, Kh.Z., Thermodynamic properties of some acids and aldehydes of the acrylic series, Sov. J. Chem. Phys. (Engl. Transl.), 1996, 70, 1789-1794, In original 1932. [all data]

Tjebbes, 1960
Tjebbes, J., Heats of combustion of butannal and some related compounds, Acta Chem. Scand., 1960, 14, 180-188. [all data]

Dolliver, Gresham, et al., 1938
Dolliver, M.A.; Gresham, T.L.; Kistiakowsky, G.B.; Smith, E.A.; Vaughan, W.E., Heats of organic reactions. VI. Heats of hydrogenation of some oxygen-containing compounds, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1938, 60, 440-450. [all data]

Cox and Pilcher, 1970
Cox, J.D.; Pilcher, G., Thermochemistry of Organic and Organometallic Compounds, Academic Press, New York, 1970, 1-636. [all data]

Markovnik, Sachek, et al., 1979
Markovnik, V.S.; Sachek, A.I.; Peshchenko, A.D.; Shvaro, O.V.; Andreevskii, D.N.; Olizarevich, N.M., Termodin. Org. Soedin., 1979, 107. [all data]

Anonymous, 1953
Anonymous, R., , Physical Properties of Chemical Substances, Dow Chemical Company, 1953. [all data]

Miller, Cook, et al., 1950
Miller, A.L.; Cook, N.C.; Whitmore, F.C., The Ketonic Decarboxylation Reaction: The Ketonic Decarboxylation of Trimethylacetic Acid and Isobutyric Acid, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1950, 72, 2732. [all data]

Timmermans, 1922
Timmermans, J., Investigation of the Freezing Point of Organic Substances VII, Bull. Soc. Chim. Belg., 1922, 31, 389. [all data]

Timmermans, 1913
Timmermans, J., Bull. Soc. Chim. Belg., 1913, 27, 334. [all data]

Anonymous, 1968
Anonymous, X., Chemicals and Plastics Physical Properties, 1968, Union Carbide Corp., product bulletin, 1968. [all data]

Gurarii, Kuleshov, et al., 1987
Gurarii, L.L.; Kuleshov, G.G.; Baglai, A.K.; Petrashkevich, R.I., Thermodynamic properties of 2-methoxypropene, Khim.-Farm. Zh., 1987, 21, 247. [all data]

Van-Chin-Syan, Kochubei, et al., 1996
Van-Chin-Syan, Yu.Ya.; Kochubei, V.V.; Sergeev, V.V.; Raevskii, Yu.A.; Gerasimchuk, S.I.; Kotovich, Kh.Z., Thermodynamic properties of some acrylic-series acids and aldehydes, Zh. Fiz. Khim., 1996, 70, 11, 1932. [all data]

Wiberg, Morgan, et al., 1994
Wiberg, K.B.; Morgan, K.M.; Maltz, H., Thermochemistry of carbonyl reactions. 6. A study of hydration equilibria, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1994, 116, 11067-11077. [all data]

Baglay, Gurariy, et al., 1988
Baglay, A.K.; Gurariy, L.L.; Kuleshov, G.G., Physical properties of compounds used in vitamin synthesis, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1988, 33, 512-518. [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Waradzin and Skubla, 1973
Waradzin, W.; Skubla, P., Chem. Prum., 1973, 23, 11, 556. [all data]

Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984
Boublik, T.; Fried, V.; Hala, E., The Vapour Pressures of Pure Substances: Selected Values of the Temperature Dependence of the Vapour Pressures of Some Pure Substances in the Normal and Low Pressure Region, 2nd ed., Elsevier, New York, 1984, 972. [all data]

Bartmess and Kiplinger, 1986
Bartmess, J.E.; Kiplinger, J.P., 'Kinetic' vs. thermodynamic acidities of enones in the gas phase, J. Org. Chem., 1986, 51, 2173. [all data]

Alconcel, Deyerl, et al., 2001
Alconcel, L.S.; Deyerl, H.J.; Continetti, R.E., Effects of alkyl substitution on the energetics of enolate anions and radicals, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2001, 123, 50, 12675-12681, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja0120431 . [all data]

Zimmerman, Reed, et al., 1977
Zimmerman, A.H.; Reed, K.J.; Brauman, J.I., Photodetachment of electrons from enolate anions. Gas phase electron affinities of enolate radicals, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1977, 99, 7203. [all data]

Hunter and Lias, 1998
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Notes

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