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9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)-

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Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafliquid-492.75kJ/molChydRogers and Siddiqui, 1975 
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacliquid-11506.0 ± 1.5kJ/molCcbFreedman, Bagby, et al., 1989Corresponding «DELTA»fliquid = -543.96 kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections)

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap110.5 ± 0.5kJ/molCGCLipkind, Kapustin, et al., 2007AC
Deltavap102.1kJ/molGCKrop, Velzen, et al., 1997Based on data from 423. - 503. K.; AC

Reduced pressure boiling point

Tboil (K) Pressure (bar) Reference Comment
455.20.004Weast and Grasselli, 1989BS

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
87.7409.A,MG,OMStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 394. - 459. K. See also Scott, Macmillan, et al., 1952.; AC

Reaction thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

3Hydrogen + 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- = Methyl stearate

By formula: 3H2 + C19H32O2 = C19H38O2

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-357.3 ± 2.4kJ/molChydRogers and Siddiqui, 1975liquid phase; solvent: n-Hexane

IR Spectrum

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Coblentz Society, Inc.

Condensed Phase Spectrum

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IR spectrum
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Notice: Except where noted, spectra from this collection were measured on dispersive instruments, often in carefully selected solvents, and hence may differ in detail from measurements on FTIR instruments or in other chemical environments. More information on the manner in which spectra in this collection were collected can be found here.

Notice: Concentration information is not available for this spectrum and, therefore, molar absorptivity values cannot be derived.

Additional Data

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Owner COBLENTZ SOCIETY
Collection (C) 2018 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin DOW CHEMICAL COMPANY
Source reference COBLENTZ NO. 2356
Date Not specified, most likely prior to 1970
Name(s) methyl (9Z,12Z,15Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoate
State SOLUTION (10% CCl4 FOR 5000-1330, 10% CS2 FOR 1330-625 CM-1)
Instrument Not specified, most likely a prism, grating, or hybrid spectrometer.
Path length 0.011 CM, 0.011 CM
Resolution 4
Sampling procedure TRANSMISSION
Data processing DIGITIZED BY NIST FROM HARD COPY

This IR spectrum is from the Coblentz Society's evaluated infrared reference spectra collection.


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

View image of digitized spectrum (can be printed in landscape orientation).

View spectrum image in SVG format.

Download spectrum in JCAMP-DX format.

Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
NIST MS number 333199

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


Gas Chromatography

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-101200.2071.8Kittiratanapiboon, Jeyashoke, et al., 199815. m/0.25 mm/0.2 «mu»m, N2
CapillaryCP Sil 5 CB240.2078.Hanai and Hong, 198930. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m
CapillaryDB-1240.2092.Hanai and Hong, 198930. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m
PackedSE-30200.2079.Golovnya and Kuzmenko, 1977He, Chromosorb W (80-100 mesh); Column length: 1.5 m

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryBP-12058.Raina, Verma, et al., 200625. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, N2, 5. K/min, 220. C @ 13. min; Tstart: 60. C

Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax240.2590.Hanai and Hong, 198925. m/0.25 mm/0.22 «mu»m

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-52108.Rout, Rao, et al., 200725. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min, 200. C @ 60. min; Tstart: 60. C
CapillaryHP-5MS2105.4Zeng, Zhao, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 300. C
CapillarySPB-12077.Radulovic, Lazarevic, et al., 200630. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 3. min, 5. K/min, 250. C @ 15. min
CapillaryHP-52101.Zhao, Wang X.Y., et al., 200630. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 3. min, 10. K/min; Tend: 260. C
CapillaryHP-12098.Senatore, Rigano, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.33 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 260. C @ 20. min
CapillaryBP-12073.Tan, Wilkins, et al., 1989H2, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 240. C @ 75. min; Column length: 12. m
CapillaryOV-12069.Tan, Holland, et al., 1988He, 8. K/min, 280. C @ 10. min; Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Tstart: 40. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-12084.Sing, Smadja, et al., 199250. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m, He; Program: 20C(0.5min) => 60C => 4C/min => 250C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryLM-1210.2078.Filho and Lancas, 199530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Hydrogen

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryRTx-12081.Dib, Bendahou, et al., 201060. m/0.22 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 2. K/min, 230. C @ 35. min; Tstart: 60. C
CapillarySPB-12089.Escalona-Arranz, Perez-Roses, et al., 201030. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 30. C @ 3. min, 4. K/min, 250. C @ 10. min
CapillaryOV-12076.Hu, Liang, et al., 201030. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 50. C @ 3. min, 5. K/min, 250. C @ 2. min
CapillarySPB-12073.Lazarevic, Palic, et al., 201030. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 50. C @ 3. min, 5. K/min, 250. C @ 15. min
CapillaryHP-5 MS2113.Vedernikov and Roschin, 201030. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 5. K/min, 280. C @ 10. min; Tstart: 150. C
CapillaryHP-5 MS2100.Zhao, Zeng, et al., 200930. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 4. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 280. C
CapillaryHP-5MS2125.Calyecac-cortero, Cibrian-Tovar, et al., 200730. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, N2, 50. C @ 1. min, 1. K/min; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryRTX-5 MS2098.Edris, Chizzola, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 60. C @ 2. min, 2. K/min, 200. C @ 10. min
CapillaryElite-5MS2096.Tava, Pecetti, et al., 200730. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 280. C @ 10. min
CapillaryHP-1012081.Mastelic, Jerkovic, et al., 200625. m/0.2 mm/0.2 «mu»m, He, 70. C @ 2. min, 3. K/min, 200. C @ 15. min
CapillaryDB-52099.Rout, Naik, et al., 200630. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min, 200. C @ 60. min; Tstart: 60. C
CapillaryDB-52096.Rout, Misra, et al., 200525. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min, 200. C @ 80. min; Tstart: 60. C
CapillaryHP-52073.N/A30. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 40. C @ 2. min, 5. K/min, 250. C @ 5. min
CapillaryDB-52098.Senatore, Rigano, et al., 200430. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 250. C @ 20. min
CapillaryBP-52082.Ardakani, Mosaddegh, et al., 2003He, 3. K/min; Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.33 mm; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 275. C
CapillaryDB-52099.Senatore and Bruno, 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min; Tend: 260. C
CapillaryDB-52098.Tellez, Khan, et al., 200230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 60. C; Tend: 240. C
CapillaryOV-1012078.Ehrhardt, Osterroht, et al., 1980Hydrogen, 60. C @ 0.5 min, 4. K/min; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.35 mm; Tend: 270. C
CapillaryOV-1012078.Ehrhardt, Osterroht, et al., 1980Hydrogen, 60. C @ 0.5 min, 4. K/min; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.35 mm; Tend: 270. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryVF-52108.Shivashankar, Roy, et al., 201230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 50 0C (2 min) 3 0C/min -> 200 0C (3 min) 10 0C/min -> 220 0C (8 min)
CapillaryVF-52098.Shivashankar, Roy, et al., 201230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryHP-5 MS2047.Grzeszczuk, Wesolowska, et al., 201130. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 40 0C (5 min) 30 0C/min -> 60 0C 6 0C/min -> 230 0C (10 min)
CapillaryRTx-12081.Dib, Bendahou, et al., 201060. m/0.22 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryHP-5 MS2098.Vedernikov and Roschin, 201030. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryHP-52095.Maggi, Bilek, et al., 200925. m/0.32 mm/0.17 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 60 0C (5 min) 4 0C/min -> 220 0C 11 0C/min -> 280 0C
CapillaryOV-12080.El-Shazly and Hussein, 2004He; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.317 mm; Program: 50C(4min) => 4C/min => 90C => 10C/min => 300C(10min)

Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySupelcowax-102508.Calyecac-cortero, Cibrian-Tovar, et al., 200730. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, N2, 50. C @ 1. min, 1. K/min; Tend: 200. C

Normal alkane RI, polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryInnowax FSC2583.Baser, Özek, et al., 200460. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 60C(10min) => 4C/min => 220C(10min) => 1C/min => 240C
CapillaryHP-Innowax FSC2583.Erdemoglu, Sener, et al., 200360. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 60C(10min) => 4C/min => 220C(10min) => 1C/min => 240C
CapillarySupelcowax 102550.Castioni and Kapetanidis, 199660. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 60 0C (10 min) 2 0C/min -> 80 0C 3 0C/min -> 100 0C 4 0C/min -> 220 0C (30 min)
CapillarySupelcowax 102558.Castioni and Kapetanidis, 199660. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Rogers and Siddiqui, 1975
Rogers, D.W.; Siddiqui, N.A., Heats of hydrogenation of large molecules. I. Esters of unsaturated fatty acids, J. Phys. Chem., 1975, 79, 574-577. [all data]

Freedman, Bagby, et al., 1989
Freedman, B.; Bagby, M.O.; Khoury, H., Correlation of heats of combustion with empirical formulas for fatty alcohols, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 1989, 66, 595-596. [all data]

Lipkind, Kapustin, et al., 2007
Lipkind, Dmitry; Kapustin, Yaroslav; Umnahanant, Patamaporn; Chickos, James S., The vaporization enthalpies and vapor pressures of a series of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters by correlation gas chromatography, Thermochimica Acta, 2007, 456, 2, 94-101, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2007.02.008 . [all data]

Krop, Velzen, et al., 1997
Krop, Hildo B.; Velzen, Martin J.M.v.; Parsons, John R.; Govers, Harrie A.J., Determination of environmentally relevant physical-chemical properties of some fatty acid esters, J Amer Oil Chem Soc, 1997, 74, 3, 309-315, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-997-0142-9 . [all data]

Weast and Grasselli, 1989
CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds, 2nd Editon, Weast,R.C and Grasselli, J.G., ed(s)., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1989, 1. [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Scott, Macmillan, et al., 1952
Scott, T.A., Jr.; Macmillan, D.; Melvin, E.H., Vapor pressures and distillation of methyl esters of some fatty acids, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1952, 44, 172-175. [all data]

Kittiratanapiboon, Jeyashoke, et al., 1998
Kittiratanapiboon, K.; Jeyashoke, N.; Krisnangkura, K., The relationship of Kováts retention indices and equivalent chain lengths of fatty acid methyl esters on a methyl silicone capillary column, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 1998, 36, 7, 361-364, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/36.7.361 . [all data]

Hanai and Hong, 1989
Hanai, T.; Hong, C., Structure-retention correlation in CGC, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1989, 12, 5, 327-332, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240120517 . [all data]

Golovnya and Kuzmenko, 1977
Golovnya, R.V.; Kuzmenko, T.E., Thermodynamic evaluation of the interaction of fatty acid methyl esters with polar and non-polar stationary phases, based on their retention indices, Chromatographia, 1977, 10, 9, 545-548, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02262915 . [all data]

Raina, Verma, et al., 2006
Raina, V.K.; Verma, S.C.; Dhawan, S.; Khan, M.; Ramesh, S.; Singh, S.C.; Yadav, A.; Srivastava, S.K., Essential oil composition of Murraya exotica from the plains of northern India, Flavour Fragr. J., 2006, 21, 1, 140-142, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1547 . [all data]

Rout, Rao, et al., 2007
Rout, P.K.; Rao, Y.R.; Sree., A.; Naik, S.N., Composition of essential oil, concrete, absolute, wax and headspace volatiles of Murrarya paniculata (Linn.) Jack flowers, Flavour Fragr. J., 2007, 22, 5, 352-357, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1804 . [all data]

Zeng, Zhao, et al., 2007
Zeng, Y.-X.; Zhao, C.-X.; Liang, Y.-Z.; Yang, H.; Fang, H.-Z.; Yi, L.-Z.; Zeng, Z.-D., Comparative analysis of volatile components from Clematis species growing in China, Anal. Chim. Acta., 2007, 595, 1-2, 328-339, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2006.12.022 . [all data]

Radulovic, Lazarevic, et al., 2006
Radulovic, N.; Lazarevic, J.; Stojanovic, G.; Palic, R., Chemotaxonomically significant 2-ethyl substituted fatty acids from Stachys milanii Petrovic (Lamiaceae), Biochem. Syst. Ecol., 2006, 34, 4, 341-344, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bse.2005.10.008 . [all data]

Zhao, Wang X.Y., et al., 2006
Zhao, Y.P.; Wang X.Y.; Wang, Z.C.; Lu Y.; Fu, C.X.; Chen, S.Y., Essential oil of Actinidia macrosperma, a catnip response kiwi endemic to China, Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B, 2006, 7, 9, 708-712, https://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.2006.B0708 . [all data]

Senatore, Rigano, et al., 2003
Senatore, F.; Rigano, D.; de Fusco, R.; Bruno, M., Volatile components of Centaurea cineraria L. subsp. umbrosa (lacaita) Pign. and Centaurea napifolia L. (Asteraceae), two species growing wild in Sicily, Flavour Fragr. J., 2003, 18, 3, 248-251, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1179 . [all data]

Tan, Wilkins, et al., 1989
Tan, S.T.; Wilkins, A.L.; Holland, P.T.; McGhie, T.K., Extractives from New Zealand unifloral honeys. 2. Degraded carotenoids and other substances from heather honey, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1989, 37, 5, 1217-1221, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00089a004 . [all data]

Tan, Holland, et al., 1988
Tan, S.-T.; Holland, P.T.; Wilkins, A.L.; Molan, P.C., Extractives from New Zealand honeys. 1. White clovers, manuka, and kanuka unifloral honeys, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1988, 36, 3, 453-460, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00081a012 . [all data]

Sing, Smadja, et al., 1992
Sing, A.S.C.; Smadja, J.; Brevard, H.; Maignial, L.; Chaintreau, A.; Marion, J.-P., Volatile constituents of faham (Jumellea fragrans (Thou.) Schltr.), J. Agric. Food Chem., 1992, 40, 4, 642-646, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00016a024 . [all data]

Filho and Lancas, 1995
Filho, N.R.A.; Lancas, F.M., Identification of FAMEs using ECL values and a three-dimensional Kovats retention index system, J. High Resol. Chromatogr., 1995, 18, 3, 167-170, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240180306 . [all data]

Dib, Bendahou, et al., 2010
Dib, M.A.; Bendahou, M.; Bendiabdellah, A.; Djabou, N.; Allali, H.; Tabti, B.; Paolini, J.; Costa, J., Partial chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Daucus crinitus Desf. extracts, Grasas y Aceites, 2010, 61, 3, 271-278, https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.122609 . [all data]

Escalona-Arranz, Perez-Roses, et al., 2010
Escalona-Arranz, J.C.; Perez-Roses, R.; Jimenez, I.L.; Rodriguez-Amado, J.; Argota-Coello, H.; Canizares-Lay, J.; Morris-Quevedo, H.J.; Sierra-Gonzales, G., Chemical constituents of Tamarindus indica L. leaves, Rev. Cubana Quim., 2010, 22, 3, 65-71. [all data]

Hu, Liang, et al., 2010
Hu, C.-D.; Liang, Y.-Z.; Guo, F.-Q.; Li, X.-R.; Wang, W.-P., Determination of essential oil composition from Osmanthus fragrans tea by GC-MS combined with a chemometric resolution method, Molecules, 2010, 15, 5, 3683-3693, https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15053683 . [all data]

Lazarevic, Palic, et al., 2010
Lazarevic, J.S.; Palic, R.V.M.; Radulovic, N.S.; Ristic, N.R.; Stojanovic, G.S., Chemical composition and screening of the antimicrobial and antioxidative acrivity of extracts of Stachys species, J. Serb. Chem. Soc., 2010, 75, 10, 1347-1359, https://doi.org/10.2298/JSC100601117L . [all data]

Vedernikov and Roschin, 2010
Vedernikov, D.N.; Roschin, V.I., Extractive compounds of Birch Buds (Betula pendula Roth.): I. Composition of fatty acids, hydrocarbons , and esters, Rus. J. Bioorg. Chem., 2010, 36, 7, 894-898, https://doi.org/10.1134/S1068162010070174 . [all data]

Zhao, Zeng, et al., 2009
Zhao, C.; Zeng, Y.; Wan, M.; Li, R.; Liang, Y.; Li, C.; Zeng, Z.; Chau, F.-T., Comparative analysis of essential oils from eight herbal medicines with pungent flavor and cool nature by GC-MS and chemometric resolution methods, J. Sep. Sci., 2009, 32, 4, 660-670, https://doi.org/10.1002/jssc.200800484 . [all data]

Calyecac-cortero, Cibrian-Tovar, et al., 2007
Calyecac-cortero, H.G.; Cibrian-Tovar, J.; Soto-Hernandez, M.; Garcia-Velasco, R., Aislamento e identificacion de volatiles de Physalis philadelphica LAM. (Isolation and identification of Physalis philadelphica LAM. volatiles), Agrociencia, 2007, 41, 337-346. [all data]

Edris, Chizzola, et al., 2007
Edris, A.E.; Chizzola, R.; Franz, C., Isolation and characterization of the volatile aroma compounds from the concrete headspace and the absolute of Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait. (Oleaceae) flowers grown in Egypt, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 2007, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-007-0623-y . [all data]

Tava, Pecetti, et al., 2007
Tava, A.; Pecetti, L.; Ricci, M.; Pagnotta, M.A.; Russi, L., Volatile compounds from leaves and flowers of Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) Stirt. (Fabaceae) from Italy, Flavour Fragr. J., 2007, 22, 5, 363-370, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1806 . [all data]

Mastelic, Jerkovic, et al., 2006
Mastelic, J.; Jerkovic, I.; Mesic, M., Volatile constituents from flowers, leaves, bark and wood of Prunus mahaleb L., Flavour Fragr. J., 2006, 21, 2, 306-313, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1596 . [all data]

Rout, Naik, et al., 2006
Rout, P.K.; Naik, S.N.; Rao, Y.R., Composition of the concrete, absolute, headspace and essential oil of the flowers of Michelia champaca Linn., Flavour Fragr. J., 2006, 21, 6, 906-911, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1742 . [all data]

Rout, Misra, et al., 2005
Rout, P.K.; Misra, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sree, A.; Rao, Y.R., Extraction of kewda (Pandanus fascicularis Lam.) flowers with hexane: composition of concrete, absolute and wax, Flavour Fragr. J., 2005, 20, 4, 442-444, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1466 . [all data]

Senatore, Rigano, et al., 2004
Senatore, F.; Rigano, D.; de Fusco, R.; Bruno, M., Composition of the essential oil from flowerheads of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (Asteraceae) growing wild in Southern Italy, Flavour Fragr. J., 2004, 19, 2, 149-152, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1285 . [all data]

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Notes

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