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Heptane, 4-ethyl-

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Gas Chromatography

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillarySqualane100.858.Heinzen, Soares, et al., 1999 
CapillarySqualane25.856.Hilal, Carreira, et al., 1994 
CapillarySqualane25.866.Hilal, Carreira, et al., 1994 
CapillarySqualane50.857.4Lunskii and Paizanskaya, 1988He; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm
CapillarySqualane70.858.5Lunskii and Paizanskaya, 1988He; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm
CapillaryDB-160.861.8Lubeck and Sutton, 1983Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.264 mm
CapillaryDB-160.861.9Lubeck and Sutton, 198360. m/0.259 mm/1. «mu»m
CapillaryOV-160.857.Nijs and Jacobs, 1981He; Column length: 150. m; Column diameter: 0.50 mm
CapillarySqualane60.858.2Chretien and Dubois, 1976 
CapillarySqualane100.859.Lulova, Leont'eva, et al., 1976He; Column length: 120. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane100.859.6Lulova, Leont'eva, et al., 1976He; Column length: 120. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryVacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)95.857.6Sultanov and Arustamova, 1975N2; Column length: 150. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryApiezon L100.861.Rappoport and Gäumann, 1973 
CapillaryVacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)35.856.Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972 
CapillaryVacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)45.856.Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972 
CapillaryVacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)50.857.Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972 
CapillaryVacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)58.857.Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972 
CapillaryVacuum Grease Oil (VM-4)68.858.Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972 
PackedSqualane50.857.5Takács, Szita, et al., 1971N2, Chromosorb W; Column length: 3. m
CapillarySqualane60.858.Matukuma, 1969N2; Column length: 91.4 m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane80.861.Schomburg, 1967Ar; Column length: 100. m
CapillarySqualane30.857.Tourres, 1967H2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane50.858.Tourres, 1967H2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane70.858.Tourres, 1967H2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSE-3070.863.Widmer, 1967Diatoport S; Column length: 7.9 m

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-101858.Hayes and Pitzer, 1982110. m/0.25 mm/0.20 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 35. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryApiezon L858.Louis, 1971N2, 1. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 60. C

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPetrocol DH-100873.3Haagen-Smit Laboratory, 1997He; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.2 mm; Program: 5C(10min) => 5C/min => 50C(48min) => 1.5C/min => 195C(91min)

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPetrocol DH858.51Subramaniam, Bochniak, et al., 1994100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryPetrocol DH860.00Subramaniam, Bochniak, et al., 1994100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryOV-101858.Hayes and Pitzer, 1981108. m/0.25 mm/0.2 «mu»m, 1. K/min; Tstart: 35. C; Tend: 200. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryApiezon L40. - 190.862.Mann, Mühlstädt, et al., 1967Column length: 2. m

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane: CP-Sil 5 CB863.Bramston-Cook, 201360. m/0.25 mm/1.0 «mu»m, Helium, 45. C @ 1.45 min, 3.6 K/min, 210. C @ 2.72 min
CapillaryPONA863.Zhang, Ding, et al., 200950. m/0.20 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Nitrogen, 35. C @ 15. min, 2. K/min, 200. C @ 10. min
CapillarySE-54866.Guan, Li, et al., 199560. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Tend: 200. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-101858.Du and Liang, 2003Program: not specified
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane858.Junkes, Castanho, et al., 2003Program: not specified
CapillarySqualane858.Petrov, 1984Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Gas Chromatography, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Heinzen, Soares, et al., 1999
Heinzen, V.E.F.; Soares, M.F.; Yunes, R.A., Semi-empirical topological method for the prediction of the chromatographic retention of cis- and trans-alkene isomers and alkanes, J. Chromatogr. A, 1999, 849, 2, 495-506, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(99)00530-0 . [all data]

Hilal, Carreira, et al., 1994
Hilal, S.H.; Carreira, L.A.; Karickhoff, S.W.; Melton, C.M., Estimation of Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Retention Times from Molecular Structure, J. Chromatogr. A, 1994, 662, 2, 269-280, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(94)80515-6 . [all data]

Lunskii and Paizanskaya, 1988
Lunskii, M.Kh.; Paizanskaya, I.L., Identification of hydrocarbons C1-C9 of petrol fractions of oils and condensates in the use of capillary columns with dinonylphthalate, Zh. Anal. Khim., 1988, 43, 127-135. [all data]

Lubeck and Sutton, 1983
Lubeck, A.J.; Sutton, DL., Kovats retention indices of selected hydrocarbons through C10 on bonded phase fused silica capillaries, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1983, 6, 6, 328-332, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240060612 . [all data]

Nijs and Jacobs, 1981
Nijs, H.H.; Jacobs, P.A., On-Line Single Run Analysis of Effluents from a Fischer-Tropsch Reactor, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 1981, 19, 1, 40-45, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/19.1.40 . [all data]

Chretien and Dubois, 1976
Chretien, J.R.; Dubois, J.-E., New Perspectives in the Prediction of Kovats Indices, J. Chromatogr., 1976, 126, 171-189, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)84071-1 . [all data]

Lulova, Leont'eva, et al., 1976
Lulova, N.I.; Leont'eva, S.A.; Timofeeva, A.N., Gas-chromatographic method of determination of individual hydrocarbons in catalytic cracking gasolines in Proceedings of All-Union Research Institute on Oil Processes. Vol.18, All-Union Research Institute on Oil Processes, Moscow, 1976, 30-53. [all data]

Sultanov and Arustamova, 1975
Sultanov, N.T.; Arustamova, L.G., Determination of the boiling points of C10 isoalkanes in an n-decane isomerizate from gas chromatographic retention indices, J. Chromatogr., 1975, 115, 2, 553-558, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)98959-9 . [all data]

Rappoport and Gäumann, 1973
Rappoport, S.; Gäumann, T., 114. L'indice de rétention des alcanes isomères en chromatographie en phase gazeuse, Helv. Chim. Acta, 1973, 56, 3, 1145-1158, https://doi.org/10.1002/hlca.19730560338 . [all data]

Sidorov, Petrova, et al., 1972
Sidorov, R.I.; Petrova, V.I.; Ivanova, M.P., Qualitative analysis of wide-boiling fraction C5-C10 with capillary chromatography in Processes in chromatographic columns. Vol.17, 1972, 14-25. [all data]

Takács, Szita, et al., 1971
Takács, J.; Szita, C.; Tarján, G., Contribution to the theory of the retention index system. III. Retention index and molecular structure. Calculation of retention indices of paraffin hydrocarbons on the basis of their molecular structure, J. Chromatogr., 1971, 56, 1-12, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)97771-9 . [all data]

Matukuma, 1969
Matukuma, A., Retention indices of alkanes through C10 and alkenes through C8 and relation between boiling points and retention data, Gas Chromatogr., Int. Symp. Anal. Instrum. Div Instrum Soc. Amer., 1969, 7, 55-75. [all data]

Schomburg, 1967
Schomburg, G., Struktur und Retentionsverhalten von Offenkettigen und Cyclischen Kohlenwasserstoffen und Deren Einfacher Substitutionsprodukte, Anal. Chim. Acta., 1967, 38, 45-64, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(01)80560-2 . [all data]

Tourres, 1967
Tourres, D.A., Structure moléculaire et rétention en chromatographie en phase gazeuse. Influence de la température sur l'indice de rétention d'alcanes isomères, J. Chromatogr., 1967, 30, 357-377, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)84168-0 . [all data]

Widmer, 1967
Widmer, H., Gas chromatographic identification of hydrocarbons using retention indices, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1967, 5, 10, 506-510, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/5.10.506 . [all data]

Hayes and Pitzer, 1982
Hayes, P.C., Jr.; Pitzer, E.W., Characterizing petroleum- and shale-derived jet fuel distillates via temperature-programmed Kováts indices, J. Chromatogr., 1982, 253, 179-198, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)88376-X . [all data]

Louis, 1971
Louis, R., Kovats-index-tafeln zur gaschromatographischen analyse von kohlenwasserstoffgemischen, Erdoel Kohle Erdgas Petrochem., 1971, 24, 2, 88-94. [all data]

Haagen-Smit Laboratory, 1997
Haagen-Smit Laboratory, Procedure for the detailed hydrocarbon analysis of gasolines by single column high efficiency (capillary) column gas chromatography, SOP NO. MLD 118, Revision No. 1.1, California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board, El Monte, California, 1997, 22. [all data]

Subramaniam, Bochniak, et al., 1994
Subramaniam, B.; Bochniak, D.; Snavely, K., Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in supercritical reaction media, Lawrence Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering (DOE/PC/92532--T7), United States Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA, 1994, 8, retrieved from http://www.NTIS.gov. [all data]

Hayes and Pitzer, 1981
Hayes, P.C., Jr.; Pitzer, E.W., Kovats indices as a tool in characterizing hydrocarbon fuels in temperature programmed glass capillary gas chromatography. Part 1. Qualitative identification, Inhouse rpt. for Air Force Wright Aeronautical Labs., Air Force Wright Aeronautical Labs., Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, 1981, 75. [all data]

Mann, Mühlstädt, et al., 1967
Mann, G.; Mühlstädt, M.; Braband, J.; Döring, E., Konformation und physikalische daten von alkanen und cyclanen. II. Einfach und zweifach verzweigte alkane, Tetrahedron, 1967, 23, 8, 3393-3401, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4020(01)92305-1 . [all data]

Bramston-Cook, 2013
Bramston-Cook, R., Kovats indices for C2-C13 hydrocarbons and selected oxygenated/halocarbons with 100 % dimethylpolysiloxane columns, 2013, retrieved from http://lotusinstruments.com/monographs/List .... [all data]

Zhang, Ding, et al., 2009
Zhang, X.; Ding, L.; Sun, Z.; Song, L.; Sun, T., Study on quantitative structure-retention relationships for hydrocarbons in FCC gasoline, Chromatographia, 2009, 70, 3/4, 511-518, https://doi.org/10.1365/s10337-009-1174-0 . [all data]

Guan, Li, et al., 1995
Guan, Y.; Li, L.; Zhou, L., Live retention database for compound identification in capillary gas chromatography, Chin. J. Chromatogr., 1995, 13, 5, 851-857. [all data]

Du and Liang, 2003
Du, Y.; Liang, Y., Data mining for seeking accurate quantitative relationship between molecular structure and GC retention indices of alkanes by projection pursuit, Comput. Biol. Chem., 2003, 27, 3, 339-353, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1476-9271(02)00081-6 . [all data]

Junkes, Castanho, et al., 2003
Junkes, B.S.; Castanho, R.D.M.; Amboni, C.; Yunes, R.A.; Heinzen, V.E.F., Semiempirical Topological Index: A Novel Molecular Descriptor for Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationship Studies, Internet Electronic Journal of Molecular Design, 2003, 2, 1, 33-49. [all data]

Petrov, 1984
Petrov, A.A., Hydrocarbons of petroleum, Nauka (publishing house), Moscow, 1984, 263. [all data]


Notes

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