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Benzyl radical

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Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
LL - Sharon G. Lias and Joel F. Liebman
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron
B - John E. Bartmess

View reactions leading to C7H7+ (ion structure unspecified)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)7.242 ± 0.006eVN/AN/AL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)198.7kcal/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity191.4kcal/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltaf(+) ion215. ± 1.6kcal/molN/AN/A 
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
DeltafH(+) ion,0K219.6 ± 1.2kcal/molN/AN/A 

Electron affinity determinations

EA (eV) Method Reference Comment
0.9120 ± 0.0060LPESGunion, Gilles, et al., 1992 Kim, Wenthold, et al., 1999, with LN2 cooling of the ion, gives the same EA; B
0.979 ± 0.093D-EABartmess, Scott, et al., 1979value altered from reference due to change in acidity scale; B
0.863 ± 0.013LPDDrzaic and Brauman, 1984B
0.885 ± 0.065LPDRichardson, Stephenson, et al., 1975B
2.350 ± 0.069SIFailes, Joyce, et al., 1976The Magnetron method, lacking mass analysis, is not considered reliable.; B
1.0841SIPage, 1972The Magnetron method, lacking mass analysis, is not considered reliable.; B
0.758873SIPage and Goode, 1969The Magnetron method, lacking mass analysis, is not considered reliable.; B
0.7979SIGaines and Page, 1968The Magnetron method, lacking mass analysis, is not considered reliable.; B

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
7.236LSIm and Bernstein, 1991T = 0K; LL
7.2488 ± 0.0006TEEiden, Weinhold, et al., 1991T = 0K; LL
7.2477 ± 0.0017LSEiden and Weisshaar, 1991T = 0K; LL
7.2DERGriller and Lossing, 1981LLK
7.20 ± 0.02PEHoule and Beauchamp, 1978LLK
<=7.27 ± 0.03EILossing, 1971LLK
7.63PIElder and Parr, 1969RDSH
7.5 ± 0.1SAkopyan and Vilesov, 1966RDSH
7.76 ± 0.08EIHarrison, Kebarle, et al., 1961RDSH
7.43 ± 0.06PEKoenig, Snell, et al., 1976Vertical value; LLK

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase ion energetics data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556018 . [all data]

Gunion, Gilles, et al., 1992
Gunion, R.F.; Gilles, M.K.; Polak, M.L.; Lineberger, W.C., Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy of the Phenide, Benzyl, and Phenoxide Anions., Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc., 1992, 117, 601, https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1176(92)80115-H . [all data]

Kim, Wenthold, et al., 1999
Kim, J.B.; Wenthold, P.G.; Lineberger, W.C., Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of o-, m-, and p-halobenzyl anions, J. Phys. Chem. A, 1999, 103, 50, 10833-10841, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp992817o . [all data]

Bartmess, Scott, et al., 1979
Bartmess, J.E.; Scott, J.A.; McIver, R.T., Jr., The gas phase acidity scale from methanol to phenol, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1979, 101, 6047. [all data]

Drzaic and Brauman, 1984
Drzaic, P.S.; Brauman, J.I., A determination of the singlet-triplet splitting in phenylnitrene via photoelectron detachment, J. Phys. Chem., 1984, 88, 5285. [all data]

Richardson, Stephenson, et al., 1975
Richardson, J.H.; Stephenson, L.M.; Brauman, J.I., Photodetachment of electrons from large molecular systems: Benzyl anion. An upper Limitlto the electron affinity of C6H5CH2, J. Chem. Phys., 1975, 63, 74. [all data]

Failes, Joyce, et al., 1976
Failes, R.L.; Joyce, J.T.; Walton, E.C., The behaviour of some dimethyl and trimethyl substituted pyridines in the magnetron, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 1976, 9, 1543. [all data]

Page, 1972
Page, F.M., Experimental determination of the electron affinities of inorganic radicals, Adv. Chem. Ser., 1972, 36, 68. [all data]

Page and Goode, 1969
Page, F.M.; Goode, G.C., Negative Ions and the Magnetron., Wiley, NY, 1969. [all data]

Gaines and Page, 1968
Gaines, A.F.; Page, F.M., The Stabilities of Negative Ions.I. The Methyl-, Diphenylmethyl, and Triphenylmethyl Negative Ions, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 1968, 1, 4-5, 315, https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-7381(68)85008-9 . [all data]

Im and Bernstein, 1991
Im, H.S.; Bernstein, E.R., Mass resolved excitation spectroscopy of radicals: benzyl and phenylnitrene, J. Chem. Phys., 1991, 95, 6326. [all data]

Eiden, Weinhold, et al., 1991
Eiden, G.C.; Weinhold, F.; Weisshar, J.C., Photoelectron spectroscopy of free radicals with cm-1 resolution: The benzyl cation, J. Chem. Phys., 1991, 95, 8665. [all data]

Eiden and Weisshaar, 1991
Eiden, G.C.; Weisshaar, J.C., Adiabatic ionization potential of benzyl radical by two-color resonant two-photon ionization, J. Phys. Chem., 1991, 95, 6194. [all data]

Griller and Lossing, 1981
Griller, D.; Lossing, F.P., On the thermochemistry of «alpha»-aminoalkyl radicals, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1981, 103, 1586. [all data]

Houle and Beauchamp, 1978
Houle, F.A.; Beauchamp, J.L., Detection and investigation of allyl and benzyl radicals by photoelectron spectroscopy, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1978, 100, 3290. [all data]

Lossing, 1971
Lossing, F.P., Free radicals by mass spectrometry. XLIII. Ionization potentials and ionic heats of formation for vinyl, allyl, and benzyl radicals, Can. J. Chem., 1971, 49, 357. [all data]

Elder and Parr, 1969
Elder, F.A.; Parr, A.C., Photoionization of the cycloheptatrienyl radical, J. Chem. Phys., 1969, 50, 1027. [all data]

Akopyan and Vilesov, 1966
Akopyan, M.E.; Vilesov, F.I., A mass-spectrometric study of the photo-ionisation of benzene derivatives at wavelengths up to 885 A, Zh. Fiz. Khim., 1966, 40, 125, In original 63. [all data]

Harrison, Kebarle, et al., 1961
Harrison, A.G.; Kebarle, P.; Lossing, F.P., Free radicals by mass spectrometry. XXI. The ionization potentials of some meta and para substituted benzyl radicals, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1961, 83, 777. [all data]

Koenig, Snell, et al., 1976
Koenig, T.; Snell, W.; Chang, J.C., The He(I) photoelectron spectra of benzyl and «alpha»-cyanoisopropyl radicals, Tetrahedron Lett., 1976, 50, 4569. [all data]


Notes

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