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Benzo[k]fluoranthene

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
GT - Glushko Thermocenter, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas306.2 ± 6.2kJ/molReviewRoux, Temprado, et al., 2008There are insufficient literature values to properly evaluated the data and measurements are of low quality and/or there is substantial disagreement with values predicted using thermochemical cycles or estimation methods (trends).; DRB

Constant pressure heat capacity of gas

Cp,gas (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
49.7850.Dorofeeva O.V., 1989These statistically calculated values were obtained using force field approximation for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to estimate the needed vibrational frequencies (see also [ Dorofeeva O.V., 1986, Moiseeva N.F., 1990]). These functions are reproduced in the reference book [ Frenkel M., 1994].; GT
80.91100.
118.58150.
161.68200.
229.41273.15
252.6 ± 3.5298.15
254.30300.
340.92400.
413.05500.
470.62600.
516.46700.
553.40800.
583.59900.
608.591000.
629.481100.
647.081200.
662.011300.
674.751400.
685.691500.

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Donald R. Burgess, Jr.

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafsolid172.4 ± 4.3kJ/molReviewRoux, Temprado, et al., 2008There are insufficient literature values to properly evaluated the data and measurements are of low quality and/or there is substantial disagreement with values predicted using thermochemical cycles or estimation methods (trends).

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil753.2KN/AWeast and Grasselli, 1989BS
Tboil753.KN/ABuckingham and Donaghy, 1982BS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus490.KN/ABuckingham and Donaghy, 1982BS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap117.4 ± 1.1kJ/molCGCHanshaw, Nutt, et al., 2008AC
Deltavap105.5 ± 1.5kJ/molGCHaftka, Parsons, et al., 2006Based on data from 463. - 513. K.; AC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltasub133.8 ± 4.5kJ/molReviewRoux, Temprado, et al., 2008There are sufficient literature values to make a qualified recommendation where the suggested value is in good agreement with values predicted using thermochemical cycles or from reliable estimates. In general, the evaluated uncertainty limits are on the order of (2 to 4) kJ/mol.; DRB
Deltasub124.2 ± 4.7kJ/molMEDiogo and Minas da Piedade, 2002Based on data from 387. - 423. K.; AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
88.5398.GCLei, Chankalal, et al., 2002Based on data from 323. - 473. K.; AC

Enthalpy of sublimation

DeltasubH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
130.378.Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 363. - 430. K.; AC

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
32.4489.7DSCKestens, Auclair, et al., 2010AC
27.5490.6N/ADiogo and Minas da Piedade, 2002AC

IR Spectrum

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Gas Phase Spectrum

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IR spectrum
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Notice: Concentration information is not available for this spectrum and, therefore, molar absorptivity values cannot be derived.

Additional Data

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Download spectrum in JCAMP-DX format.

Owner NIST Standard Reference Data Program
Collection (C) 2018 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
State gas
Instrument HP-GC/MS/IRD

This IR spectrum is from the NIST/EPA Gas-Phase Infrared Database .


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

View image of digitized spectrum (can be printed in landscape orientation).

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Download spectrum in JCAMP-DX format.

Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, 1990.
NIST MS number 114980

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


Gas Chromatography

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-101270.2761.Grimmer and Böhnke, 1972N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.50 mm

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySE-522702.Beernaert, 1979He, 50. C @ 5. min, 6. K/min; Column length: 33.3 m; Column diameter: 0.50 mm; Tend: 320. C
CapillarySE-522706.Carugno and Rossi, 1967N2, 1.8 K/min; Column length: 65. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm; Tstart: 100. C; Tend: 300. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-12722.Dimitriou-Christidis, Harris, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: 60C => 7C/min => 225C => 15C/min => 300C(11.43min)
CapillaryHP-52789.11Dimitriou-Christidis, Harris, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: 60C => 7C/min => 225C => 15C/min => 300C(11.43min)
CapillaryDB-52780.Havenga and Rohwer, 199930. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 60 0C 7 0C/min -> 130 0C 5 0C/min -> 200 0C 6 0C/min -> 260 0C 20 0C/min -> 320 0C (4 min)

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryC103H2082789.Dumitrescu, Buda, et al., 2000H2, 5. K/min; Phase thickness: 0.25 «mu»m; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 275. C
CapillaryC103H2082781.Dumitrescu, Buda, et al., 2000H2, 4. K/min; Phase thickness: 0.25 «mu»m; Tstart: 100. C; Tend: 275. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryMethyl Silicone2708.Oda, Yasuhara, et al., 199825. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 50 0C (2 min) 20 0C/min -> 160 0C 5 0C/min -> 210 0C 10 0C/min -> 300 0C

Lee's RI, non-polar column, isothermal

View large format table.

Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
PackedMethyl Silicone260.444.2Shlyakhov, 1984 
PackedMethyl Silicone270.442.8Shlyakhov, 1984 

Lee's RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPE-5443.2Jamoussi, Kanzari, et al., 200720. m/0.18 mm/0.18 «mu»m, 50. C @ 1.5 min, 8. K/min; Tend: 345. C
Capillary5 % Phenyl methyl siloxane442.56Skrbic and Onjia, 20062. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 250. C
Capillary5 % Phenyl methyl siloxane443.60Skrbic and Onjia, 200680. C @ 2. min, 8. K/min, 300. C @ 10. min
CapillaryHP-5443.19Pedersen, Durant, et al., 200530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 50. C @ 1.5 min, 6. K/min, 310. C @ 10. min
CapillaryHP-5444.06Marynowski, Pieta, et al., 200460. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 35. C; Tend: 300. C
CapillaryDB-5MS443.05Chen, Keeran, et al., 200230. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, 40. C @ 1. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryPTE-5441.79Wang, Jia, et al., 200030. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 60. C @ 1.5 min, 8. K/min, 300. C @ 12.5 min
CapillaryHP-5442.28Piao, Chu, et al., 199930. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 50. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 280. C @ 20. min
CapillaryHP-5442.77Piao, Chu, et al., 199930. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 50. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 280. C @ 20. min
CapillaryDB-5437.8Durlak, Biswas, et al., 199830. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 15. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 300. C
CapillarySE-54443.60Chen, 19964. K/min; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 300. C
CapillarySE-52444.60Shaogang and Xiaobai, 199440. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 300. C @ 20. min; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryDB-5430.8Donnelly, Abdel-Hamid, et al., 199330. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 3. min, 8. K/min, 285. C @ 29.5 min
CapillarySPB-5444.6Knobloch and Engewald, 199340. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tend: 300. C
CapillarySE-52442.72Hasegawa, Muragishi, et al., 19883. K/min; Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 130. C; Tend: 260. C
CapillaryDB-5444.06Wise, Benner, et al., 198830. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 280. C @ 5. min
CapillaryDB-5440.04Rostad and Pereira, 198630. m/0.26 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 4. min, 6. K/min, 300. C @ 20. min
CapillarySE-52444.02Vassilaros, Kong, et al., 198220. m/0.30 mm/0.25 «mu»m, H2, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 265. C
CapillarySE-52442.56Lee, Vassilaros, et al., 197912. m/0.3 mm/0.34 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 250. C

Lee's RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-5430.6Fuentes, Font, et al., 2007Column length: 60. m; Program: not specified
CapillaryHP-5MS444.65Wang, Li, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 60C(2min) => 6C/min => 258C => 2C/min => 300C(4min)
CapillaryHP-5MS444.02Wang, Li, et al., 2007, 230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: not specified
CapillaryHP-5MS444.06Wang, Li, et al., 2007, 230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: not specified
CapillaryHP-5MS444.65Wang, Li, et al., 2007, 230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: not specified
Capillary5 % Phenyl methyl siloxane442.80Skrbic and Onjia, 2006Program: 70 0C (2 min) 30 0C/min -> 150 0C 5 0C/min -> 200 0C 4 0C/min -> 310 0C (5 min)
CapillaryDB-5MS436.Aracil, Font, et al., 2005Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryUltra-1442.6Sremac, Skrbic, et al., 200550. m/0.32 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Nitrogen; Program: 40-100 0C 3-15 0C/min -> 290 0C
CapillaryUltra-1442.8Sremac, Skrbic, et al., 200550. m/0.32 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Nitrogen; Program: 40-100 0C 3-15 0C/min -> 290 0C
CapillaryUltra-1443.6Sremac, Skrbic, et al., 200550. m/0.32 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Nitrogen; Program: 40-100 0C 3-15 0C/min -> 290 0C
CapillaryDB-5442.8Lundstedt, Haglund, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: not specified
CapillaryLM-5441.09Ré-Poppi and Santiago-Silva, 200230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 60C(2min) => 15C/min => 180C => 5C/min => 280C(5min)
CapillaryLM-5441.16Ré-Poppi and Santiago-Silva, 200230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 60C(2min) => 15C/min => 180C => 5C/min => 280C(5min)
CapillaryDB-5443.44Zamperlini, Silva, et al., 199730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 90C (1min) => 10C/min => 120C => 4C/min => 310C (20min)
CapillaryDB-5444.6Zamperlini, Silva, et al., 199730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 90C (1min) => 10C/min => 120C => 4C/min => 310C (20min)
CapillarySE-54442.56Chen, 1996Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Program: not specified
CapillarySE-52444.02Shaogang and Xiaobai, 1994Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Program: not specified
CapillarySE-54444.43Guillen, Iglesias, et al., 1992Program: not specified
CapillarySE-52440.48Shlyakhov, 1984Program: not specified
CapillarySE-52442.56Shlyakhov, 1984Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Roux, Temprado, et al., 2008
Roux, M.V.; Temprado, M.; Chickos, J.S.; Nagano, Y., Critically Evaluated Thermochemical Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 2008, 37, 4, 1855-1996. [all data]

Dorofeeva O.V., 1989
Dorofeeva O.V., Thermodynamic Properties of Gaseous Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Containing Five-Membered Rings. Institute for High Temperatures, USSR Academy of Sciences, Preprint No.1-263 (in Russian), Moscow, 1989. [all data]

Dorofeeva O.V., 1986
Dorofeeva O.V., On calculation of thermodynamic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Thermochim. Acta, 1986, 102, 59-66. [all data]

Moiseeva N.F., 1990
Moiseeva N.F., Group additivity scheme for calculating the chemical thermodynamic properties of gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing five-membered rings, Thermochim. Acta, 1990, 168, 179-186. [all data]

Frenkel M., 1994
Frenkel M., Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds in the Gas State, Vol. I, II, Thermodynamics Research Center, College Station, Texas, 1994, 1994. [all data]

Weast and Grasselli, 1989
CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds, 2nd Editon, Weast,R.C and Grasselli, J.G., ed(s)., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1989, 1. [all data]

Buckingham and Donaghy, 1982
Buckingham, J.; Donaghy, S.M., Dictionary of Organic Compounds: Fifth Edition, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1982, 1. [all data]

Hanshaw, Nutt, et al., 2008
Hanshaw, William; Nutt, Marjorie; Chickos, James S., Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties. Subcooled Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 2008, 53, 8, 1903-1913, https://doi.org/10.1021/je800300x . [all data]

Haftka, Parsons, et al., 2006
Haftka, Joris J.H.; Parsons, John R.; Govers, Harrie A.J., Supercooled liquid vapour pressures and related thermodynamic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determined by gas chromatography, Journal of Chromatography A, 2006, 1135, 1, 91-100, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2006.09.050 . [all data]

Diogo and Minas da Piedade, 2002
Diogo, Herminio P.; Minas da Piedade, Manuel E., Enthalpy of formation of benzo[k]fluoranthene, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 2002, 34, 2, 173-184, https://doi.org/10.1006/jcht.2001.0895 . [all data]

Lei, Chankalal, et al., 2002
Lei, Ying Duan; Chankalal, Raymond; Chan, Anita; Wania, Frank, Supercooled Liquid Vapor Pressures of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 2002, 47, 4, 801-806, https://doi.org/10.1021/je0155148 . [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Kestens, Auclair, et al., 2010
Kestens, Vikram; Auclair, Guy; Drozdzewska, Katarzyna; Held, Andrea; Roebben, Gert; Linsinger, Thomas, Thermodynamic property values of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measured by differential scanning calorimetry, J Therm Anal Calorim, 2010, 99, 1, 245-261, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-009-0440-6 . [all data]

Grimmer and Böhnke, 1972
Grimmer, G.; Böhnke, H., Bestimmung des Gesamtgehaltes aller polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffe in Luftstaub und Kraftfahrzeugabgas mit der Capillar-Gas-Chromatographie, Z. Anal. Chem., 1972, 261, 4-5, 310-314, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00786987 . [all data]

Beernaert, 1979
Beernaert, H., Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Polyclylic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, J. Chromatogr., 1979, 173, 1, 109-118, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)80450-7 . [all data]

Carugno and Rossi, 1967
Carugno, N.; Rossi, S., Evaluation of polynuclear hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke by glass capillary columns, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1967, 5, 2, 103-106, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/5.2.103 . [all data]

Dimitriou-Christidis, Harris, et al., 2003
Dimitriou-Christidis, P.; Harris, B.C.; McDonald, T.J.; Reese, E.; Autenrieth, R.L., Estimation of selected physicochemical properties for methylated naphthalene compounds, Chemosphere, 2003, 52, 5, 869-881, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00288-1 . [all data]

Havenga and Rohwer, 1999
Havenga, W.J.; Rohwer, E.R., Chemical Characterization and Screening of Hydrocarbon Pollution in Industrial Soils by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction, J. Chromatogr., 1999, 848, 1-2, 279-295, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(99)00522-1 . [all data]

Dumitrescu, Buda, et al., 2000
Dumitrescu, V.; Buda, W.; Medvedovici, A., Evaluation of new stationary phases for capillary gas chromatography, Rev. Roum. Chim., 2000, 45, 4, 313-318. [all data]

Oda, Yasuhara, et al., 1998
Oda, J.; Yasuhara, A.; Matsunaga, K.; Saito, Y., Identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of the particulate accumulated in the tunnel duct of freeway and generation of their oxygenated derivatives, Jpn. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, 1998, 44, 5, 334-351, https://doi.org/10.1248/jhs1956.44.334 . [all data]

Shlyakhov, 1984
Shlyakhov, A.F., Gas chromatography in organic geochemistry, Nedra, Moscow, 1984, 221. [all data]

Jamoussi, Kanzari, et al., 2007
Jamoussi, B.; Kanzari, F.; Hassine, B.B.; Abderrabba, A., Using Bezier curves for the calculation of retention indices of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the so-called Lee's scale in temperature-programmed gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 2007, 45, 1, 22-27, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/45.1.22 . [all data]

Skrbic and Onjia, 2006
Skrbic, B.; Onjia, A., Prediction of Lee Retention Indices of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Artificial Neural Networks, J. Chromatorg. A, 2006, 1108, 2, 279-284, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2006.01.080 . [all data]

Pedersen, Durant, et al., 2005
Pedersen, D.U.; Durant, J.L.; Taghizadeh, K.; Hemond, H.F.; Lafleur, A.L.; Cass, G.R., Human cell mutagenes in respirable airborne particles from the Northeastern United States. 2. Quantification of mutagenes and other organic compounds., Environ. Sci. Technol., 2005, 39, 24, 9547-9560, https://doi.org/10.1021/es050886c . [all data]

Marynowski, Pieta, et al., 2004
Marynowski, L.; Pieta, M.; Janeczek, J., Composition and source of polycyclic aromatic compounds in deposited dust from selected sites around the Upper Silesia, Poland, Geol. Q., 2004, 48, 2, 169-180. [all data]

Chen, Keeran, et al., 2002
Chen, P.H.; Keeran, W.S.; Van Ausdale, W.A.; Schindler, D.R.; Roberts, D.W., Application of Lee retention indices to the confirmation of tentatively identified compounds from GC/MS analysis of environmental samples, Technical paper, Analytical Services Division, Environmental ScienceEngineering, Inc, PO Box 1703, Gainesville, FL 32602, 2002, 11. [all data]

Wang, Jia, et al., 2000
Wang, J.; Jia, C.R.; Wong, C.K.; Wong, P.K., Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons created in lubricating oils, Water Air Soil Poll., 2000, 120, 3/4, 381-396, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005251618062 . [all data]

Piao, Chu, et al., 1999
Piao, M.; Chu, S.; Zheng, M.; Xu, X., Characterization of the combustion products of polyethylene, Chemosphere, 1999, 39, 9, 1497-1512, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00054-5 . [all data]

Durlak, Biswas, et al., 1998
Durlak, S.K.; Biswas, P.; Shi, J.; Bernhard, M.J., Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon particulate and gaseous emissions from polystyrene combustion, Environ. Sci. Technol., 1998, 32, 15, 2301-2307, https://doi.org/10.1021/es9709031 . [all data]

Chen, 1996
Chen, J., GC and GC/MS methods for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in sediment of the grand canal of China, Toxicol. Environ. Chem., 1996, 54, 1-4, 69-73, https://doi.org/10.1080/02772249609358297 . [all data]

Shaogang and Xiaobai, 1994
Shaogang, C.; Xiaobai, X., System for calculating the linear temperature-programmed retention indices of polycylic aromatic compounds, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1994, 17, 5, 339-342, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240170511 . [all data]

Donnelly, Abdel-Hamid, et al., 1993
Donnelly, J.R.; Abdel-Hamid, M.S.; Jeter, J.L.; Gurka, D.F., Application of gas chromatographic retention properties to the identification of environmental contaminants, J. Chromatogr., 1993, 642, 1-2, 409-415, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(93)80106-I . [all data]

Knobloch and Engewald, 1993
Knobloch, T.; Engewald, W., Identification of some polar polycyclic compounds in emissions from brown-coal-fired residential stoves, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1993, 16, 4, 239-242, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240160407 . [all data]

Hasegawa, Muragishi, et al., 1988
Hasegawa, K.; Muragishi, T.; Usami, S., Component analysis of coal-derivated heavy oil. Analysis of carcinogenic components in neutral nonpolar fractions, Nippon Kagaku Kaishi, 1988, 3, 3, 311-320, https://doi.org/10.1246/nikkashi.1988.311 . [all data]

Wise, Benner, et al., 1988
Wise, S.A.; Benner, B.A.; Byrd, G.D.; Chesler, S.N.; Rebbert, R.E.; Schantz, M.M., Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a coal tar standard reference material, Anal. Chem., 1988, 60, 9, 887-894, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac00160a012 . [all data]

Rostad and Pereira, 1986
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Notes

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