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Benzo[e]pyrene

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Gas Chromatography

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillarySE-30240.2753.Pozhidaev, Berezkin, et al., 1988He; Column length: 17.5 m; Column diameter: 0.21 mm
CapillarySE-30240.2753.Pozhidaev, Berezkin, et al., 1988He; Column length: 17.5 m; Column diameter: 0.21 mm
CapillarySE-30240.2766.Pozhidaev, Berezkin, et al., 1988He; Column length: 17.5 m; Column diameter: 0.21 mm
CapillarySE-30260.2799.Pozhidaev, Berezkin, et al., 1988He; Column length: 17.5 m; Column diameter: 0.21 mm
CapillarySE-30260.2801.Pozhidaev, Berezkin, et al., 1988He; Column length: 17.5 m; Column diameter: 0.21 mm
CapillarySE-30260.2806.Pozhidaev, Berezkin, et al., 1988He; Column length: 17.5 m; Column diameter: 0.21 mm
CapillarySE-30260.2817.Pozhidaev, Berezkin, et al., 1988He; Column length: 17.5 m; Column diameter: 0.21 mm
PackedOV-101250.2816.Rudenko, Bulychova, et al., 1984N2; Column length: 3. m
CapillaryOV-101270.2816.Grimmer and Böhnke, 1972N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.50 mm

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySE-522794.4Pozhidaev, Berezkin, et al., 1988He, 2. K/min; Column length: 17.5 m; Column diameter: 0.21 mm; Tstart: 100. C; Tend: 280. C
CapillarySE-522770.65Lee, Vassilaros, et al., 197912. m/0.3 mm/0.34 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 250. C
CapillarySE-522751.03Lee, Vassilaros, et al., 197912. m/0.28 mm/0.17 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 250. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillarySE-52240.2817.5Pozhidaev, Berezkin, et al., 1988He; Column length: 17.5 m; Column diameter: 0.21 mm

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryUltra-12816.Elizalde-González, Hutfliess, et al., 199650. m/0.2 mm/0.33 «mu»m, H2, 3. K/min, 300. C @ 35. min; Tstart: 60. C

Lee's RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
PackedMethyl Silicone200.452.2Shlyakhov, 1984 
PackedMethyl Silicone260.452.6Shlyakhov, 1984 
PackedMethyl Silicone270.452.1Shlyakhov, 1984 
PackedMethyl Silicone300.453.3Shlyakhov, 1984 

Lee's RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPE-5453.3Jamoussi, Kanzari, et al., 200720. m/0.18 mm/0.18 «mu»m, 50. C @ 1.5 min, 8. K/min; Tend: 345. C
Capillary5 % Phenyl methyl siloxane450.73Skrbic and Onjia, 20062. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 250. C
Capillary5 % Phenyl methyl siloxane451.80Skrbic and Onjia, 200680. C @ 2. min, 8. K/min, 300. C @ 10. min
CapillaryHP-5453.12Pedersen, Durant, et al., 200530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 50. C @ 1.5 min, 6. K/min, 310. C @ 10. min
CapillaryHP-5452.7Marynowski, Pieta, et al., 200460. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 35. C; Tend: 300. C
CapillaryDB-5MS452.22Chen, Keeran, et al., 200230. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, 40. C @ 1. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryHP-5451.28Piao, Chu, et al., 199930. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 50. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 280. C @ 20. min
CapillarySE-54452.36Chen, 19964. K/min; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 300. C
CapillaryDB-5451.53Williams and Horne, 1995He, 60. C @ 2. min, 5. K/min; Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm; Tend: 270. C
CapillarySPB-5454.1Knobloch and Engewald, 199340. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tend: 300. C
CapillaryCP Sil 8 CB449.4Aceves and Grimalt, 199225. m/0.25 mm/0.13 «mu»m, He, 6. K/min; Tstart: 60. C; Tend: 280. C
CapillaryHP-5452.4Aceves and Grimalt, 199225. m/0.2 mm/0.11 «mu»m, He, 6. K/min; Tstart: 60. C; Tend: 280. C
CapillarySE-52452.7Aceves and Grimalt, 199225. m/0.32 mm/0.125 «mu»m, He, 6. K/min; Tstart: 60. C; Tend: 280. C
CapillarySE-54453.1Aceves and Grimalt, 199225. m/0.32 mm/0.125 «mu»m, He, 6. K/min; Tstart: 60. C; Tend: 280. C
CapillaryDB-5451.1Aceves and Grimalt, 199230. m/0.25 mm/0.2 «mu»m, He, 6. K/min; Tstart: 60. C; Tend: 280. C
CapillarySE-54452.86Guillén, Blanco, et al., 198920. m/0.22 mm/0.20 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 300. C
CapillaryDB-5451.24Sye, Lin, et al., 198830. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 80. C @ 1. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 290. C
CapillaryDB-5452.70Wise, Benner, et al., 198830. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 280. C @ 5. min
CapillaryDB-5452.85Tong, Centen, et al., 1985He, 4. K/min; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 90. C; Tend: 325. C
PackedMethyl Silicone449.8Shlyakhov, 19842. K/min; Tstart: 100. C; Tend: 275. C
CapillarySE-52452.29Vassilaros, Kong, et al., 198220. m/0.30 mm/0.25 «mu»m, H2, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 265. C
CapillarySE-52450.73Lee, Vassilaros, et al., 197912. m/0.3 mm/0.34 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 250. C

Lee's RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-5439.1Fuentes, Font, et al., 2007Column length: 60. m; Program: not specified
CapillaryHP-5MS452.93Wang, Li, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 60C(2min) => 6C/min => 258C => 2C/min => 300C(4min)
CapillaryHP-5MS452.29Wang, Li, et al., 2007, 230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: not specified
CapillaryHP-5MS452.70Wang, Li, et al., 2007, 230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: not specified
CapillaryHP-5MS452.93Wang, Li, et al., 2007, 230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: not specified
Capillary5 % Phenyl methyl siloxane452.70Skrbic and Onjia, 2006Program: 70 0C (2 min) 30 0C/min -> 150 0C 5 0C/min -> 200 0C 4 0C/min -> 310 0C (5 min)
CapillaryDB-5MS444.4Aracil, Font, et al., 2005Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryLM-5449.38Ré-Poppi and Santiago-Silva, 200530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 60C(2min) => 15C/min => 180C => 5C/min => 280C (10min)
CapillaryLM-5449.47Ré-Poppi and Santiago-Silva, 200530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 60C(2min) => 15C/min => 180C => 5C/min => 280C (10min)
CapillaryUltra-1450.7Sremac, Skrbic, et al., 200550. m/0.32 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Nitrogen; Program: 40-100 0C 3-15 0C/min -> 290 0C
CapillaryUltra-1451.8Sremac, Skrbic, et al., 200550. m/0.32 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Nitrogen; Program: 40-100 0C 3-15 0C/min -> 290 0C
CapillaryUltra-1452.7Sremac, Skrbic, et al., 200550. m/0.32 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Nitrogen; Program: 40-100 0C 3-15 0C/min -> 290 0C
CapillaryDB-5451.8Lundstedt, Haglund, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: not specified
CapillaryLM-5450.10Ré-Poppi and Santiago-Silva, 200230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 60C(2min) => 15C/min => 180C => 5C/min => 280C(5min)
CapillaryLM-5450.12Ré-Poppi and Santiago-Silva, 200230. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 60C(2min) => 15C/min => 180C => 5C/min => 280C(5min)
CapillaryDB-5452.86Zamperlini, Silva, et al., 199730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 90C (1min) => 10C/min => 120C => 4C/min => 310C (20min)
CapillaryDB-5452.94Zamperlini, Silva, et al., 199730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 90C (1min) => 10C/min => 120C => 4C/min => 310C (20min)
CapillarySE-54450.73Chen, 1996Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryCP Sil 8 CB452.14Bemgard, Colmsjo, et al., 1992Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: 140C (2min) => (rapidly) => 200C(2min) => 5C/min => 370C
CapillaryXTI-5452.71Bemgard, Colmsjo, et al., 1992Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.28 mm; Program: 140C (2min) => (rapidly) => 200C(2min) => 5C/min => 370C
CapillarySE-54450.75Guillen, Iglesias, et al., 1992Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-5452.65Takada, Onda, et al., 1990He; Program: 70C(2min) => 30C/min => 150C => 5C/min => 200C => 4C/min => 310C
CapillaryDB-5449.76Naikwadi, Charbonneau, et al., 1987Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-5450.73Naikwadi, Charbonneau, et al., 1987Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-101455.9Tucminen, Wickstrom, et al., 1986Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-5450.73Tong, Centen, et al., 1985He; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Program: not specified
CapillarySE-52441.53Shlyakhov, 1984Program: not specified
CapillarySE-52449.62Shlyakhov, 1984Program: not specified
CapillarySE-52450.43Shlyakhov, 1984Program: not specified
CapillarySE-52450.73Shlyakhov, 1984Program: not specified
CapillarySE-52450.82Shlyakhov, 1984Program: not specified
CapillarySE-52451.25Shlyakhov, 1984Program: not specified
CapillarySE-52452.23Shlyakhov, 1984Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Gas Chromatography, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Pozhidaev, Berezkin, et al., 1988
Pozhidaev, V.M.; Berezkin, V.G.; Korolev, A.A.; Popova, T.P.; Pozhidaeva, K.A., Retention indices of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on quartz capillary columns with chemically immobilized stationary phases, Zh. Anal. Khim., 1988, 43, 1082-1088. [all data]

Rudenko, Bulychova, et al., 1984
Rudenko, B.A.; Bulychova, Z.Yu.; Topunov, V.N.; Itsikson, L.B., Regularities in changes of retention indices for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons depending on their structure and polarity of stationary phase, Zh. Anal. Khim., 1984, 39, 4, 700-706. [all data]

Grimmer and Böhnke, 1972
Grimmer, G.; Böhnke, H., Bestimmung des Gesamtgehaltes aller polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffe in Luftstaub und Kraftfahrzeugabgas mit der Capillar-Gas-Chromatographie, Z. Anal. Chem., 1972, 261, 4-5, 310-314, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00786987 . [all data]

Lee, Vassilaros, et al., 1979
Lee, M.L.; Vassilaros, D.L.; White, C.M.; Novotny, M., Retention Indices for Programmed-Temperature Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Anal. Chem., 1979, 51, 6, 768-773, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac50042a043 . [all data]

Elizalde-González, Hutfliess, et al., 1996
Elizalde-González, M.P.; Hutfliess, M.; Hedden, K., Retention index system, adsorption characteristics, and sructure correlations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fuels, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1996, 19, 6, 345-352, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240190608 . [all data]

Shlyakhov, 1984
Shlyakhov, A.F., Gas chromatography in organic geochemistry, Nedra, Moscow, 1984, 221. [all data]

Jamoussi, Kanzari, et al., 2007
Jamoussi, B.; Kanzari, F.; Hassine, B.B.; Abderrabba, A., Using Bezier curves for the calculation of retention indices of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the so-called Lee's scale in temperature-programmed gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 2007, 45, 1, 22-27, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/45.1.22 . [all data]

Skrbic and Onjia, 2006
Skrbic, B.; Onjia, A., Prediction of Lee Retention Indices of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Artificial Neural Networks, J. Chromatorg. A, 2006, 1108, 2, 279-284, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2006.01.080 . [all data]

Pedersen, Durant, et al., 2005
Pedersen, D.U.; Durant, J.L.; Taghizadeh, K.; Hemond, H.F.; Lafleur, A.L.; Cass, G.R., Human cell mutagenes in respirable airborne particles from the Northeastern United States. 2. Quantification of mutagenes and other organic compounds., Environ. Sci. Technol., 2005, 39, 24, 9547-9560, https://doi.org/10.1021/es050886c . [all data]

Marynowski, Pieta, et al., 2004
Marynowski, L.; Pieta, M.; Janeczek, J., Composition and source of polycyclic aromatic compounds in deposited dust from selected sites around the Upper Silesia, Poland, Geol. Q., 2004, 48, 2, 169-180. [all data]

Chen, Keeran, et al., 2002
Chen, P.H.; Keeran, W.S.; Van Ausdale, W.A.; Schindler, D.R.; Roberts, D.W., Application of Lee retention indices to the confirmation of tentatively identified compounds from GC/MS analysis of environmental samples, Technical paper, Analytical Services Division, Environmental ScienceEngineering, Inc, PO Box 1703, Gainesville, FL 32602, 2002, 11. [all data]

Piao, Chu, et al., 1999
Piao, M.; Chu, S.; Zheng, M.; Xu, X., Characterization of the combustion products of polyethylene, Chemosphere, 1999, 39, 9, 1497-1512, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00054-5 . [all data]

Chen, 1996
Chen, J., GC and GC/MS methods for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in sediment of the grand canal of China, Toxicol. Environ. Chem., 1996, 54, 1-4, 69-73, https://doi.org/10.1080/02772249609358297 . [all data]

Williams and Horne, 1995
Williams, P.T.; Horne, P.A., Analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons in pyrolytic oil derived from biomass, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 1995, 31, 15-37, https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-2370(94)00814-H . [all data]

Knobloch and Engewald, 1993
Knobloch, T.; Engewald, W., Identification of some polar polycyclic compounds in emissions from brown-coal-fired residential stoves, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1993, 16, 4, 239-242, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240160407 . [all data]

Aceves and Grimalt, 1992
Aceves, M.; Grimalt, J.O., Gas chromatographic screening of organic compounds in urban aerosols. Selectivity effects in semi-polar columns, J. Chromatogr., 1992, 607, 2, 261-270, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(92)87084-L . [all data]

Guillén, Blanco, et al., 1989
Guillén, M.D.; Blanco, J.; Bermejo, J.; Blanco, C.G., Temperature programmed retention indices of some PAHs on Capillary columns coated with OV-1701 and SE-54, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1989, 12, 8, 552-554, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240120816 . [all data]

Sye, Lin, et al., 1988
Sye, W.-F.; Lin, C.-L.; Yen, D.-P.; Tsai, C.-S., Polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons formation from luel and additives combustion, J. Chinese Chem. Soc., 1988, 35, 1, 1-11. [all data]

Wise, Benner, et al., 1988
Wise, S.A.; Benner, B.A.; Byrd, G.D.; Chesler, S.N.; Rebbert, R.E.; Schantz, M.M., Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a coal tar standard reference material, Anal. Chem., 1988, 60, 9, 887-894, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac00160a012 . [all data]

Tong, Centen, et al., 1985
Tong, H.Y.; Centen, J.D.; Karasek, F.W.; Jellum, E.; Helland, P., Identification of Trace Organic Compounds in Dimethyl Sulphoxide Solution Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, J. Chromatogr., 1985, 324, 373-383, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)81336-4 . [all data]

Vassilaros, Kong, et al., 1982
Vassilaros, D.L.; Kong, R.C.; Later, D.W.; Lee, M.L., Linear retention index system for polycyclic aromatic compounds. Critical evaluation and additional indices, J. Chromatogr., 1982, 252, 1-20, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)88394-1 . [all data]

Fuentes, Font, et al., 2007
Fuentes, M.J.; Font, R.; Gomez-Rico, M.F.; Martin-Gullon, I., Pyrolysis and combustion of waste lubricant oil from diesel cars: Decomposition and pollutants, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 2007, 79, 1-2, 215-226, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2006.12.004 . [all data]

Wang, Li, et al., 2007
Wang, Z.; Li, K.; Lambert, P.; Yang, C., Identification, characterization and quantitation of pyrogenic polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organic compounds in tire fire products, J. Chromatogr. A, 2007, 1139, 1, 14-26, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2006.10.085 . [all data]

Wang, Li, et al., 2007, 2
Wang, Z.; Li, K.; Lambert, P.; Brown, C.E.; Yang, C.; Hollebone, B.P., Identification and characterization of polycyclic aromatic compounds in tire fire products and differentiation of pyrogenic PAHs from petrogenic PAHs in Proceedings of the 30th Arctic and Marine Oilspill (AMOP) Technical Seminar. Vol.1, 2007, 61-85. [all data]

Aracil, Font, et al., 2005
Aracil, I.; Font, R.; Conesa, J.A., Semivolatile and volatile compounds from the pyrolysis and combustion of polyvinyl chloride, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 2005, 74, 1-2, 465-478, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2004.09.008 . [all data]

Ré-Poppi and Santiago-Silva, 2005
Ré-Poppi, N.; Santiago-Silva, M., Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other selected organic compounds in ambient air of Campo Grande City, Brazil, Atmos. Environ., 2005, 39, 16, 2839-2850, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.10.006 . [all data]

Sremac, Skrbic, et al., 2005
Sremac, S.; Skrbic, B.; Onjia, A., Artificial neural network prediction of quantitative structure-retention relationships of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in gas chromatography, J. Serb. Chem. Soc., 2005, 70, 11, 1291-1300, https://doi.org/10.2298/JSC0511291S . [all data]

Lundstedt, Haglund, et al., 2003
Lundstedt, S.; Haglund, P.; Öberg, L., Degradation and formation of polycyclic aromatic compounds during bioslurry treatment of an aged gasworks soil, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 2003, 22, 7, 1413-1420, https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.5620220701 . [all data]

Ré-Poppi and Santiago-Silva, 2002
Ré-Poppi, N.; Santiago-Silva, M.R., Identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and methoxylated phenols in wood smoke emitted during production of charcoal, Chromatographia, 2002, 55, 7/8, 475-481, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02492280 . [all data]

Zamperlini, Silva, et al., 1997
Zamperlini, G.C.M.; Silva, M.R.S.; Vilegas, W., Identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sugar cane soot by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Chromatographia, 1997, 46, 11/12, 655-663, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02490527 . [all data]

Bemgard, Colmsjo, et al., 1992
Bemgard, A.; Colmsjo, A.; Lundmark, B.-O., Gas chromatographic analysis of high-molecular-weight polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. I. Molecular weight 328, J. Chromatogr., 1992, 595, 1-2, 247-258, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(92)85167-R . [all data]

Guillen, Iglesias, et al., 1992
Guillen, M.D.; Iglesias, M.J.; Dominguez, A.; Blanco, C.G., Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon retention indices on SE-54 stationary phase of the volatile components of a coal tar pitch. Relationships between chromatographic retention and thermal reactivity, J. Chromatogr., 1992, 591, 1-2, 287-295, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(92)80246-Q . [all data]

Takada, Onda, et al., 1990
Takada, H.; Onda, T.; Ogura, N., Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban street dusts and their source materials by capillary gas chromatography, Environ. Sci. Technol., 1990, 24, 8, 1179-1186, https://doi.org/10.1021/es00078a005 . [all data]

Naikwadi, Charbonneau, et al., 1987
Naikwadi, K.P.; Charbonneau, G.M.; Karasek, F.W.; Clement, R.E., Separation and Identification of Organic Compounds in Air Particulate Extracts by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, J. Chromatogr., 1987, 398, 227-237, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)96508-2 . [all data]

Tucminen, Wickstrom, et al., 1986
Tucminen, A.; Wickstrom, K.; Pyysalo, H., Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds by GLC-Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM) Technique, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1986, 9, 8, 469-471, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240090813 . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas Chromatography, References