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Azobenzene, (E)-

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas405.5 ± 1.3kJ/molCcrSteele, Chirico, et al., 1996Hfusion=21.3±0.5 kJ/mol; ALS
Deltafgas402.2 ± 2.7kJ/molCcbDias, Minas Da Piedade, et al., 1992ALS
Deltafgas403.8kJ/molN/ASchulze, Petrick, et al., 1977Value computed using «DELTA»fHsolid° value of 310.2±3.4 kj/mol from Schulze, Petrick, et al., 1977 and «DELTA»subH° value of 93.6 kj/mol from Steele, Chirico, et al., 1996.; DRB
Deltafgas413.6kJ/molN/ACole and Gilbert, 1951Value computed using «DELTA»fHsolid° value of 320.0 kj/mol from Cole and Gilbert, 1951 and «DELTA»subH° value of 93.6 kj/mol from Steele, Chirico, et al., 1996.; DRB
Deltafgas410.6kJ/molN/ACorruccini and Gilbert, 1939Value computed using «DELTA»fHsolid° value of 317.0±2.0 kj/mol from Corruccini and Gilbert, 1939 and «DELTA»subH° value of 93.6 kj/mol from Steele, Chirico, et al., 1996.; DRB

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafsolid311.41kJ/molCcrSteele, Chirico, et al., 1996Hfusion=21.3±0.5 kJ/mol; ALS
Deltafsolid308.6 ± 1.9kJ/molCcbDias, Minas Da Piedade, et al., 1992ALS
Deltafsolid310.2 ± 3.4kJ/molCcbSchulze, Petrick, et al., 1977Reanalyzed by Pedley, Naylor, et al., 1986, Original value = 311.3 ± 3.4 kJ/mol; Hfusion=22.6±0.1 kJ/mol; ALS
Deltafsolid320.0kJ/molCcbCole and Gilbert, 1951ALS
Deltafsolid317. ± 2.kJ/molCcbCorruccini and Gilbert, 1939ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacsolid-6462.68 ± 0.88kJ/molCcrSteele, Chirico, et al., 1996Hfusion=21.3±0.5 kJ/mol; ALS
Deltacsolid-6459.9 ± 1.0kJ/molCcbDias, Minas Da Piedade, et al., 1992ALS
Deltacsolid-6461.5 ± 3.4kJ/molCcbSchulze, Petrick, et al., 1977Hfusion=22.6±0.1 kJ/mol; ALS
Deltacsolid-6471.4kJ/molCcbCole and Gilbert, 1951ALS
Deltacsolid-6466.8kJ/molCcbCorruccini and Gilbert, 1939ALS

Constant pressure heat capacity of solid

Cp,solid (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
229.298.15Schulze, Petrick, et al., 1977T = 298 to 333 K. Cp(c) = 229 + 1.086(T - 298.15 K) J/mol*K (298 to 333 K).; DH

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Chris Muzny, director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus339.990KN/ADonnelly, Drewes, et al., 1990Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.2 K; TRC
Tfus340.50KN/ACingolani and Berchiesi, 1974Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.5 K; TRC
Tfus341.KN/APadoa, 1919Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 1. K; TRC
Tfus339.15KN/ABruner, 1894Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.6 K; TRC
Tfus342.20KN/AEykman, 1889Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 1. K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple341.KN/ASteele, Chirico, et al., 1996Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 2. K; TRC
Ttriple341.06KN/ABouwstra, deLeeuw, et al., 1985Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.02 K; TRC
Ttriple341.03KN/Avan Miltenburg and Bouwstra, 1984Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.02 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc830.KN/ASteele, Chirico, et al., 1996Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 3. K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Pc44.00barN/ASteele, Chirico, et al., 1996Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 3.50 bar; from extraploation of obs. vapor pressures to Tc; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
rhoc1.73mol/lN/ASteele, Chirico, et al., 1996Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.082 mol/l; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap72.8 ± 0.7kJ/molEBSteele, Chirico, et al., 1996Based on data from 436. - 626. K.; AC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltasub93.8 ± 0.4kJ/molAVGN/AAverage of 8 values; Individual data points

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
62.3391.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 376. - 566. K. See also Stull, 1947.; AC

Enthalpy of sublimation

DeltasubH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
92.1 ± 0.9319.TE,MEBouwstra, Oonk, et al., 1984Based on data from 298. - 341. K.; AC
96.9 ± 0.8308.TEDe Kruif and Van Ginkel, 1977Based on data from 299. - 317. K.; AC
94.9 ± 0.8308.MEDe Kruif and Van Ginkel, 1977Based on data from 299. - 317. K.; AC
93.8 ± 1.2323.MESchulte, Petrick, et al., 1977Based on data from 298. - 347. K.; AC

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
22.53341.1N/ADomalski and Hearing, 1996AC
22.65341.9DTASchulte, Petrick, et al., 1977AC

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Reaction thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

C12H10N2 = Azobenzene, (E)-

By formula: C12H10N2 = C12H10N2

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-45.2 ± 2.4kJ/molCphaDias, Minas Da Piedade, et al., 1992solid phase; Photoisomerization
Deltar-48.2 ± 0.3kJ/molCisoWolf and Cammenga, 1977solid phase
Deltar-47.3kJ/molCisoWolf and Cammenga, 1977gas phase; Gas phase

Gas phase ion energetics data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
8.5 ± 0.05PEMillefiori, Millefiori, et al., 1979Vertical value; LLK
8.46PEKobayashi, Yokota, et al., 1975Vertical value; LLK

Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Gas Chromatography, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin GAZ DE FRANCE, DELORME, PARIS, FRANCE
NIST MS number 7603

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Gas Chromatography

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Lee's RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP5-MS278.Vrana, Paschke, et al., 200530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 50. C @ 5. min, 5. K/min, 280. C @ 10. min

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Steele, Chirico, et al., 1996
Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Smith, N.K., Thermodynamic properties and ideal-gas enthalpies of formation for butyl vinyl ether, 1,2-dimethoxyethane, methyl glycolate, bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene, 5-vinylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene, trans-azobenzene, butyl acrylate, di-tert-butyl ether, and hexane-1,6-diol, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1996, 41, 1285-1302. [all data]

Dias, Minas Da Piedade, et al., 1992
Dias, A.R.; Minas Da Piedade, M.E.; Martinho Simoes, J.A.; Simoni, J.A.; Teixeira, C.; Diogo, H.P.; Meng-Yen, Y.; Pilcher, G., Enthalpies of formation of cis-azobenzene and trans-azobenzene, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1992, 24, 439-447. [all data]

Schulze, Petrick, et al., 1977
Schulze, F.W.; Petrick, H.J.; Cammenga, H.K., Thermodynamic properties of structural analogues benzo[c]cinnoline, trans-azobenzene, and cis-azobenzene, Z. Phys. Chem. (Neue Folge), 1977, 107, 1-19. [all data]

Cole and Gilbert, 1951
Cole, L.G.; Gilbert, E.C., The heats of combustion of some nitrogen compounds and the apparent energy of the N-N bond, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1951, 73, 5423-5427. [all data]

Corruccini and Gilbert, 1939
Corruccini, R.J.; Gilbert, E.C., The heat of combustion of cis- and trans-azobenzene, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1939, 61, 2925-2927. [all data]

Pedley, Naylor, et al., 1986
Pedley, J.B.; Naylor, R.D.; Kirby, S.P., Thermochemical Data of Organic Compounds, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1986, 1-792. [all data]

Donnelly, Drewes, et al., 1990
Donnelly, J.R.; Drewes, L.A.; Johnson, R.L.; Munslow, W.D.; Knapp, K.K.; Sovocool, G.W., Purity and heat of fusion data for environmental standards as determined by differential scanning calorimetry, Thermochim. Acta, 1990, 167, 2, 155, https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-6031(90)80476-F . [all data]

Cingolani and Berchiesi, 1974
Cingolani, A.; Berchiesi, G., Thermodynamic properties of organic compounds. 1. A DSC study of phase transitions in aliphatic dicarboxylic acids, J. Therm. Anal., 1974, 6, 87-90. [all data]

Padoa, 1919
Padoa, M., Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei, Cl. Sci. Fis., Mat. Nat., Rend., 1919, 28, 239. [all data]

Bruner, 1894
Bruner, L., The heats of fusion of some organic compounds, Ber. Dtsch. Chem. Ges., 1894, 27, 2102. [all data]

Eykman, 1889
Eykman, J.F., Z. Phys. Chem., Stoechiom. Verwandtschaftsl., 1889, 4, 497. [all data]

Bouwstra, deLeeuw, et al., 1985
Bouwstra, J.A.; deLeeuw, V.V.; van Miltenburg, J.C., Properties of mixed-crystalline organic material prepared by zone levelling 4. melting properties and excess enthalpies of (trans-azobenzene + trans-stilbene), J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1985, 17, 685. [all data]

van Miltenburg and Bouwstra, 1984
van Miltenburg, J.C.; Bouwstra, J.A., Thermodynamic properties of trans-azobenzene and trans-stilbene, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1984, 16, 61-5. [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Stull, 1947
Stull, Daniel R., Vapor Pressure of Pure Substances. Organic and Inorganic Compounds, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1947, 39, 4, 517-540, https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50448a022 . [all data]

Bouwstra, Oonk, et al., 1984
Bouwstra, J.A.; Oonk, H.A.J.; Blok, J.G.; De Kruif, C.G., Properties of mixed crystalline organic material prepared by zone levelling III. Vapour pressures of (trans-azobenzene + trans-stilbene), The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 1984, 16, 5, 403-409, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9614(84)90194-0 . [all data]

De Kruif and Van Ginkel, 1977
De Kruif, C.G.; Van Ginkel, C.H.D., Torsion-weighing effusion vapour-pressure measurements on organic compounds, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 1977, 9, 8, 725-730, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9614(77)90015-5 . [all data]

Schulte, Petrick, et al., 1977
Schulte, F.W.; Petrick, H.-J.; Cammenga, H.K.; Klinge, H., Z. Phys. Chem. (Frankfurt), 1977, 107, 1. [all data]

Domalski and Hearing, 1996
Domalski, Eugene S.; Hearing, Elizabeth D., Heat Capacities and Entropies of Organic Compounds in the Condensed Phase. Volume III, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1996, 25, 1, 1, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555985 . [all data]

Wolf and Cammenga, 1977
Wolf, E.; Cammenga, H.K., Thermodynamic and kinetic investigation of the thermal isomerization of cis-azobenzene, Z. Phys. Chem. (Neue Folge), 1977, 107, 21-38. [all data]

Millefiori, Millefiori, et al., 1979
Millefiori, S.; Millefiori, A.; Pignataro, S.; Distefano, G.; Colonna, F.P., Gas phase UPS investigation of trans-azobenzenes, Z. Naturforsch. A:, 1979, 34, 1496. [all data]

Kobayashi, Yokota, et al., 1975
Kobayashi, T.; Yokota, K.; Nagakura, S., Photoelectron spectra of trans-azobenzene and benzalaniline, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1975, 6, 167. [all data]

Vrana, Paschke, et al., 2005
Vrana, B.; Paschke, H.; Paschke, A.; Popp, P.; Schuurmann, G., Performance of semipermeable membrane devices for sampling of organic contaminants in groun water, J. Envirom. Monit., 2005, 7, 5, 500-508, https://doi.org/10.1039/b411645c . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, References