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1,3-Pentadiene, (Z)-

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
GT - Glushko Thermocenter, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas19.77 ± 0.22kcal/molCmFraser and Prosen, 1955ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacgas-763.30 ± 0.21kcal/molCmFraser and Prosen, 1955Corresponding «DELTA»fgas = 19.78 kcal/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
gas77.151cal/mol*KN/AMesserly J.F., 1970GT

Constant pressure heat capacity of gas

Cp,gas (cal/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
10.0650.Thermodynamics Research Center, 1997Entropy values from other statistical thermodynamics calculation [ Compton D.A.C., 1977] are substantially lower (up to 14 J/mol*K) than recommended ones and experimental value of S(298.15 K). Discrepancies in Cp(T) values do not exceed 2.5 J/mol*K. Values of thermodynamic functions calculated from data for lower alkenes and alkadienes by a method of increments [ Kilpatrick J.E., 1949] agree with TRC values within 1-3 J/mol*K.; GT
13.03100.
15.21150.
17.57200.
21.69273.15
23.23298.15
23.34300.
29.496400.
35.043500.
39.763600.
43.762700.
47.18800.
50.12900.
52.631000.
54.831100.
56.721200.
58.341300.
59.781400.
60.991500.

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
liquid55.748cal/mol*KN/AMesserly, Todd, et al., 1970 

Constant pressure heat capacity of liquid

Cp,liquid (cal/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
35.031298.15Messerly, Todd, et al., 1970T = 12 to 320 K.

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Chris Muzny, director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil317.3KN/AWeast and Grasselli, 1989BS
Tboil317.18KN/ABoord, Greenlee, et al., 1949Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.4 K; TRC
Tboil317.2KN/AAnonymous, 1948Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.4 K; TRC
Tboil316.65KN/AFrank, Emmick, et al., 1947Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 1. K; TRC
Tboil316.KN/AHarries and Duevel, 1915Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 2. K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus132.310KN/AStreiff, Soule, et al., 1950Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.04 K; TRC
Tfus132.310KN/AStreiff, Soule, et al., 1950Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.03 K; TRC
Tfus132.330KN/AStreiff, Soule, et al., 1950Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.02 K; TRC
Tfus131.57KN/ABoord, Greenlee, et al., 1949Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.5 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple132.35KN/AMesserly, Todd, et al., 1970, 2Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.05 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap6.76kcal/molN/AReid, 1972AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
7.19270.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 255. - 326. K.; AC
7.46242.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 230. - 255. K.; AC
7.62230.IPOsborn and Douslin, 1969Based on data from 213. - 242. K.; AC
6.88304.MMForziati, Camin, et al., 1950Based on data from 289. - 318. K.; AC

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (atm)
    T = temperature (K)

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Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
213.14 - 242.224.11261146.66-38.719Osborn and Douslin, 1969Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
1.3477132.35Messerly, Todd, et al., 1970DH
1.35132.4Domalski and Hearing, 1996AC

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (cal/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
10.183132.35Messerly, Todd, et al., 1970DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Reaction thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

1,3-Pentadiene, (Z)- = 1,3-Pentadiene, (E)-

By formula: C5H8 = C5H8

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-1.01 ± 0.18kcal/molEqkEgger and Benson, 1965gas phase; Heat of isomerization

Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron

View reactions leading to C5H8+ (ion structure unspecified)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)8.62 ± 0.03eVN/AN/AL

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
8.64PERucker, Lang, et al., 1980LLK
8.67 ± 0.02PEBieri, Burger, et al., 1977LLK
8.59PEDewar and Worley, 1968RDSH
8.63PEMasclet, Mouvier, et al., 1981Vertical value; LLK
8.60PEWorley, Webb, et al., 1980Vertical value; LLK
8.60PEWorley, Webb, et al., 1979Vertical value; LLK

IR Spectrum

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Gas Phase Spectrum

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IR spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Standard Reference Data Program
Collection (C) 2018 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
State gas
Instrument HP-GC/MS/IRD

This IR spectrum is from the NIST/EPA Gas-Phase Infrared Database .


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
NIST MS number 211

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


UV/Visible spectrum

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Victor Talrose, Alexander N. Yermakov, Alexy A. Usov, Antonina A. Goncharova, Axlexander N. Leskin, Natalia A. Messineva, Natalia V. Trusova, Margarita V. Efimkina

Spectrum

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UVVis spectrum
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Additional Data

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Source Fihtengolts, et al., 1969
Owner INEP CP RAS, NIST OSRD
Collection (C) 2007 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin INSTITUTE OF ENERGY PROBLEMS OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, RAS
Source reference RAS UV No. 20117
Instrument SF-4
Boiling point 44

Gas Chromatography

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-127.524.Heberger, 199025. m/0.25 mm/0.50 «mu»m, He
CapillaryOV-130.537.Heberger, 199025. m/0.25 mm/0.50 «mu»m, He
CapillaryOV-140.510.Heberger, 199025. m/0.25 mm/0.50 «mu»m, He
PackedSqualane70.525.Safina, Poznyak, et al., 1989He, Risorb (0.2-0.3 mm); Column length: 2. m
CapillarySqualane50.524.8Papazova, Milina, et al., 1988Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane50.524.4Bajus, Veselý, et al., 1979Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane70.525.1Bajus, Veselý, et al., 1979Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane100.536.1Lulova, Leont'eva, et al., 1976He; Column length: 120. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane27.522.80Schomburg and Dielmann, 1973Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane27.524.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane49.525.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane67.527.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane86.527.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPetrocol DH-100541.2Haagen-Smit Laboratory, 1997He; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.2 mm; Program: 5C(10min) => 5C/min => 50C(48min) => 1.5C/min => 195C(91min)

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-5510.5Xu, van Stee, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 2.5 K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryDB-1536.Kaiser and Siegl, 199460. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, -50. C @ 4. min, 6. K/min; Tend: 180. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillarySqualane70.524.Schomburg, 1966 

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane: CP-Sil 5 CB536.Bramston-Cook, 201360. m/0.25 mm/1.0 «mu»m, Helium, 45. C @ 1.45 min, 3.6 K/min, 210. C @ 2.72 min
CapillaryPetrocol DH536.Supelco, 2012100. m/0.25 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Helium, 20. C @ 15. min, 15. K/min, 220. C @ 30. min
CapillaryOV-101532.Chupalov and Zenkevich, 1996N2, 3. K/min; Column length: 52. m; Column diameter: 0.26 mm; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 220. C

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Fraser and Prosen, 1955
Fraser, F.M.; Prosen, E.J., Heats of combustion and isomerization of six pentadienes and spiropentane, J. Res. NBS, 1955, 54, 143-148. [all data]

Messerly J.F., 1970
Messerly J.F., Chemical thermodynamic properties of the pentadienes. Third law studies, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1970, 15, 227-232. [all data]

Thermodynamics Research Center, 1997
Thermodynamics Research Center, Selected Values of Properties of Chemical Compounds., Thermodynamics Research Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 1997. [all data]

Compton D.A.C., 1977
Compton D.A.C., Conformations of conjugated hydrocarbons. Part 2. A spectroscopic and thermodynamic study of cis- and trans-penta-1,3-diene, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 2, 1977, 1311-1315. [all data]

Kilpatrick J.E., 1949
Kilpatrick J.E., Heats, equilibrium constants, and free energies of formation of the C3 to C5 diolefins, styrene, and the methylstyrenes, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand., 1949, 42, 225-240. [all data]

Messerly, Todd, et al., 1970
Messerly, J.F.; Todd, S.S.; Guthrie, G.B., Chemical thermodynamic properties of the pentadienes, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1970, 15, 227-232. [all data]

Weast and Grasselli, 1989
CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds, 2nd Editon, Weast,R.C and Grasselli, J.G., ed(s)., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1989, 1. [all data]

Boord, Greenlee, et al., 1949
Boord, C.E.; Greenlee, K.W.; Perilstein, W.L.; Derfer, J.M., The Synthesis, Purification and Prop. of Hydrocarbons of Low Mol. Wt., Am. Pet. Inst. Res. Proj. 45, Eleventh Annu. Rep., Ohio State Univ., 1949. [all data]

Anonymous, 1948
Anonymous, B., The Chemistry of Fatty Amines, Armour & Co., Chicago, 1948. [all data]

Frank, Emmick, et al., 1947
Frank, R.L.; Emmick, R.D.; Johnson, R.S., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1947, 69, 2313. [all data]

Harries and Duevel, 1915
Harries, C.; Duevel, F., Chem. Ber., 1915, 48, 410. [all data]

Streiff, Soule, et al., 1950
Streiff, A.J.; Soule, L.F.; Kennedy, C.M.; Janes, M.E.; Sedlak, V.A.; Willingham, C.B.; Rossini, F.D., Purification, purity, and freezing points of twenty-nine hydrocarbons of the API-standard and API-NBS series., J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U. S.), 1950, 45, 173. [all data]

Messerly, Todd, et al., 1970, 2
Messerly, J.F.; Todd, S.S.; Guthrie, G.B., Chemical thermodynamic properties of the pentadienes. Third law studies., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1970, 15, 227-32. [all data]

Reid, 1972
Reid, Robert C., Handbook on vapor pressure and heats of vaporization of hydrocarbons and related compounds, R. C. Wilhort and B. J. Zwolinski, Texas A Research Foundation. College Station, Texas(1971). 329 pages.$10.00, AIChE J., 1972, 18, 6, 1278-1278, https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690180637 . [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Osborn and Douslin, 1969
Osborn, Ann G.; Douslin, Donald R., Vapor pressure relations for the seven pentadienes, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1969, 14, 2, 208-209, https://doi.org/10.1021/je60041a010 . [all data]

Forziati, Camin, et al., 1950
Forziati, A.F.; Camin, D.L.; Rossini, F.D., Density, refractive index, boiling point, and vapor pressure of eight monoolefin (1-alkene), six pentadiene, and two cyclomonoolefin hydrocarbons, J. RES. NATL. BUR. STAN., 1950, 45, 5, 406, https://doi.org/10.6028/jres.045.044 . [all data]

Domalski and Hearing, 1996
Domalski, Eugene S.; Hearing, Elizabeth D., Heat Capacities and Entropies of Organic Compounds in the Condensed Phase. Volume III, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1996, 25, 1, 1, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555985 . [all data]

Egger and Benson, 1965
Egger, K.W.; Benson, S.W., Nitric oxide and iodine catalyzed isomerization of olefins. IV. Thermodynamic data from equilibrium studies of the geometrical isomerization of 1,3-pentadiene, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1965, 87, 3311-3314. [all data]

Rucker, Lang, et al., 1980
Rucker, C.; Lang, D.; Sauer, J.; Friege, H.; Sustmann, R., Reaktivitat substituierter 1,3-Butadiene in Diels-Alder-Reaktionen, Chem. Ber., 1980, 113, 1663. [all data]

Bieri, Burger, et al., 1977
Bieri, G.; Burger, F.; Heilbronner, E.; Maier, J.P., Valence ionization enrgies of hydrocarbons, Helv. Chim. Acta, 1977, 60, 2213. [all data]

Dewar and Worley, 1968
Dewar, M.J.S.; Worley, S.D., Ionization potential of cis-1,3-butadiene, J. Chem. Phys., 1968, 49, 2454. [all data]

Masclet, Mouvier, et al., 1981
Masclet, P.; Mouvier, G.; Bocquet, J.F., Effets electroniques et effets steriques dus a la substitution alcoyle dans les dienes conjugues, J. Chim. Phys., 1981, 78, 99. [all data]

Worley, Webb, et al., 1980
Worley, S.D.; Webb, T.R.; Gibson, D.H.; Ong, T.-S., The photoelectron spectra of some iron tricarbonyl complexes of 4«pi»-electron donor ligands, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 18, 189. [all data]

Worley, Webb, et al., 1979
Worley, S.D.; Webb, T.R.; Gibson, D.H.; Ong, T.-S., On the electronic structures of cyclobutadiene trimethylenemethane, J. Organomet. Chem., 1979, 168, 16. [all data]

Fihtengolts, et al., 1969
Fihtengolts, V.S., et al., Atlas of UV Absorption Spectra of Substances Used in Synthetic Rubber Manufacture, 1969, 11. [all data]

Heberger, 1990
Heberger, K., Identification of C5H8 Isomers Through Reactions of Singlet Methylene, CH21A1), with Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Using Capillary Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry, Analyst, 1990, 115, 6, 725-729, https://doi.org/10.1039/an9901500725 . [all data]

Safina, Poznyak, et al., 1989
Safina, L.R.; Poznyak, T.I.; Lisitsyn, D.M.; Kiseleva, E.V.; Kovalev, G.I., Selective gas-chromatographic determination of trace unsaturated and aromatic-hydrocarbons in complex-mixtures, J. Appl. Chem. USSR (Engl. Transl.), 1989, 44, 5, 749-754. [all data]

Papazova, Milina, et al., 1988
Papazova, D.; Milina, R.; Dimov, N., Comparative evaluation of retention of hydrocarbons present in the C5-petroleum fraction of methylsilicone and squalane phases, Chromatographia, 1988, 25, 3, 177-180, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02316441 . [all data]

Bajus, Veselý, et al., 1979
Bajus, M.; Veselý, V.; Leclercq, P.A.; Rijks, J.A., Steam cracking of hydrocarbons. 2. Pyrolysis of methylcyclohexane, Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev., 1979, 18, 2, 135-142, https://doi.org/10.1021/i360070a012 . [all data]

Lulova, Leont'eva, et al., 1976
Lulova, N.I.; Leont'eva, S.A.; Timofeeva, A.N., Gas-chromatographic method of determination of individual hydrocarbons in catalytic cracking gasolines in Proceedings of All-Union Research Institute on Oil Processes. Vol.18, All-Union Research Institute on Oil Processes, Moscow, 1976, 30-53. [all data]

Schomburg and Dielmann, 1973
Schomburg, G.; Dielmann, G., Identification by means of retention parameters, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 1973, 11, 3, 151-159, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/11.3.151 . [all data]

Hively and Hinton, 1968
Hively, R.A.; Hinton, R.E., Variation of the retention index with temperature on squalane substrates, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1968, 6, 4, 203-217, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/6.4.203 . [all data]

Haagen-Smit Laboratory, 1997
Haagen-Smit Laboratory, Procedure for the detailed hydrocarbon analysis of gasolines by single column high efficiency (capillary) column gas chromatography, SOP NO. MLD 118, Revision No. 1.1, California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board, El Monte, California, 1997, 22. [all data]

Xu, van Stee, et al., 2003
Xu, X.; van Stee, L.L.P.; Williams, J.; Beens, J.; Adahchour, M.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.Th.; Lelieveld, J., Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) measurements of volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2003, 3, 3, 665-682, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-3-665-2003 . [all data]

Kaiser and Siegl, 1994
Kaiser, E.W.; Siegl, W.O., High resolution gas chromatographic determination of the atmospheric reactivity of engine-out hydrocarbon emissions from a spark-ignited engine, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1994, 17, 4, 264-270, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240170414 . [all data]

Schomburg, 1966
Schomburg, G., Gaschromatographische Retentionsdaten und Struktur Chemischer Verbindungen. II. Methylverzweigungen und Doppelbindungen in Offenkettigen Kohlenwasserstoffen, J. Chromatogr., 1966, 23, 1-17, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)98652-2 . [all data]

Bramston-Cook, 2013
Bramston-Cook, R., Kovats indices for C2-C13 hydrocarbons and selected oxygenated/halocarbons with 100 % dimethylpolysiloxane columns, 2013, retrieved from http://lotusinstruments.com/monographs/List .... [all data]

Supelco, 2012
Supelco, CatalogNo. 24160-U, Petrocol DH Columns. Catalog No. 24160-U, 2012, retrieved from http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/etc/medialib/docs/Supelco/Datasheet/1/w97949.Par.0001.File.tmp/w97949.pdf. [all data]

Chupalov and Zenkevich, 1996
Chupalov, A.A.; Zenkevich, I.G., Chromatographic Characterization of Structural Transformations of Organic Compounds in Diels-Alder Reaction. Aliphatic Dienes and Dienophyls, Zh. Org. Khim., 1996, 32, 6, 675-684. [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References