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Pyrazine, 2-ethyl-3-methyl-


Gas Chromatography

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1400.Shibamoto, Kamiya, et al., 1981N2, 2. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.28 mm; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 200. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-5MS999.Cerny and Guntz-Dubini, 200630. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 5. min, 10. K/min; Tend: 260. C
CapillaryCP Sil 8 CB999.Mahadevan and Farmer, 200660. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 220. C @ 30. min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm
CapillaryCP Sil 8 CB1016.Duckham, Dodson, et al., 200260. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 8. min, 4. K/min, 250. C @ 10. min
CapillaryDB-1981.Kim, 200160. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryBPX-51015.Oruna-Concha, Duckham, et al., 200150. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 3. min, 4. K/min, 250. C @ 10. min
CapillaryDB-1985.Wu, Wang, et al., 200060. m/0.25 mm/1. «mu»m, N2, 5. K/min, 200. C @ 30. min; Tstart: 30. C
CapillaryBPX-51014.Ames, Defaye, et al., 199750. m/0.325 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 250. C @ 10. min
CapillaryDB-1968.Yu, Lin, et al., 199460. m/0.25 mm/1.0 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 260. C @ 60. min
CapillaryHP-1983.Zhang, Dorjpalam, et al., 199250. m/0.32 mm/1.5 «mu»m, 2. K/min, 220. C @ 30. min; Tstart: 40. C
CapillaryDB-1982.Izzo and Ho, 199150. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min, 260. C @ 40. min; Tstart: 40. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryZB-5990.Lu, Hao, et al., 200530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 50C(1min) => 3C/min => 209C => 20C/min => 280C
CapillaryCP-Sil81014.Martin and Ames, 200160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(2min) => 4C/min => 200C => 10C/min => 250C (15min)
CapillaryBPX-51016.Elmore, Mottram, et al., 199950. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He; Program: 0C(5min) => 40C/min => 40C(2min) => 4C/min => 280C
CapillaryDB-51001.Beal and Mottram, 199430. m/0.32 mm/1.0 «mu»m, He; Program: 5 0C (0.5 min) -> (1 min) 60 0C (5 min) 4 0C/min -> 250 0C
CapillaryDB-1985.Kuo, Zhang, et al., 198960. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: -40C => 40C/min => 40C => 2C/min => 260C
CapillaryDB-1985.Kuo, Zhang, et al., 198960. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: -40C => 40C/min => 40C => 2C/min => 260C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax1414.Lopez-Galilea I., Fournier N., et al., 200630. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 5. K/min, 240. C @ 10. min; Tstart: 40. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1414.Lopez-Galilea I., Fournier N., et al., 200630. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 5. K/min, 240. C @ 10. min; Tstart: 40. C
CapillaryCP-Wax 52CB1390.Mahadevan and Farmer, 200660. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 220. C @ 30. min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm
CapillaryOV-3511373.Bonvehí, 200550. m/0.32 mm/0.2 «mu»m, He, 5. K/min; Tstart: 60. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillarySupelcowax-101403.Chung, Yung, et al., 200260. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 195. C @ 90. min
CapillarySupelcowax-101403.Chung, Yung, et al., 200160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 195. C @ 90. min
CapillaryDB-Wax1402.Kim, 200160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 200. C @ 30. min
CapillaryCP-WAX 57CB1407.Salter L.J., Mottram D.S., et al., 198860. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryCP-WAX 57CB1407.Whitfield, Mottram, et al., 1988He, 60. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 200. C @ 10. min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm
CapillaryCP-WAX 57CB1407.Whitfield, Mottram, et al., 1988He, 60. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 200. C @ 10. min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySupelcowax-101411.Bianchi, Careri, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 35C(8min) => 4C/min => 60C => 6C/min => 160C => 20C/min => 200C(1min)
CapillarySupelcowax-101410.Bianchi, Careri, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(1min) => 10C/min => 120C => 15C/min => 200C (1min)
CapillarySupelcowax-101397.Bianchi, Careri, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 35C(8min) => 4C/min => 60C => 6C/min => 160C => 20C/min => 200C(1min)
CapillaryCP-Wax 52CB1399.Alasalvar, Shahidi, et al., 200360. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 40C => 5C/min => 60C => 2.5C/min => 155C
CapillaryDB-Wax1363.Cantergiani, Brevard, et al., 200130. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: 20C(30s) => fast => 60C => 4C/min => 220C (20min)
CapillaryBP-201424.Beal and Mottram, 199450. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He; Program: 5 0C (0.5 min) -> (1 min) 60 0C (5 min) 4 0C/min -> 200 0C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryUltra-1977.Du, Clery, et al., 200850. m/0.20 mm/0.33 «mu»m, Helium, 2. K/min, 280. C @ 20. min; Tstart: 50. C
CapillaryHP-51005.Du, Clery, et al., 200850. m/0.20 mm/0.33 «mu»m, Helium, 10. K/min, 280. C @ 8.5 min; Tstart: 50. C
CapillarySLB-5MS1015.Risticevic, Carasek, et al., 200810. m/0.18 mm/0.18 «mu»m, Helium, 40. C @ 1.5 min, 10. K/min; Tend: 295. C
CapillaryDB-51003.Fadel, Mageed, et al., 2006He, 60. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Tend: 250. C
CapillaryDB-51005.Fadel, Mageed, et al., 2006, 2He, 50. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Tend: 250. C
CapillaryMDN-51004.van Loon, Linssen, et al., 200560. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 4. min, 4. K/min, 270. C @ 5. min
CapillaryDB-5MS1003.Welty, Marshall, et al., 2001He, 40. C @ 5. min, 5. K/min, 220. C @ 5. min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryHP-51003.Boylston and Viniyard, 199850. m/0.32 mm/0.52 «mu»m, 35. C @ 15. min, 2. K/min, 250. C @ 45. min
CapillaryDB-1989.Chen and Ho, 199860. m/0.32 mm/1.0 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 260. C
CapillaryDB-1985.Lu, Yu, et al., 199760. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 2. min, 2. K/min, 280. C @ 40. min
CapillaryDB-1990.Yu, Wu, et al., 199460. m/0.25 mm/1.0 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 260. C @ 60. min
CapillaryDB-1964.Yu, Wu, et al., 199460. m/0.25 mm/1.0 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 260. C @ 60. min
CapillaryDB-1981.Yu, Wu, et al., 1994, 260. m/0.25 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 260. C @ 60. min
CapillaryDB-1990.Yu, Wu, et al., 1994, 260. m/0.25 mm/1. «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 260. C @ 60. min
CapillaryDB-1977.Flath, Matsumoto, et al., 198960. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 4. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 250. C
CapillaryDB-1977.Flath, Matsumoto, et al., 198960. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 4. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 250. C
CapillaryDB-1978.Flath, Matsumoto, et al., 198960. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 4. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 250. C
CapillaryDB-1981.Flath, Matsumoto, et al., 198960. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 4. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 250. C
CapillaryOV-101984.Mihara and Masuda, 19882. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryOV-1972.Wu, Liou, et al., 1987Hydrogen, 1. K/min, 200. C @ 35. min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm; Tstart: 50. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-5995.Yu and Zhang, 201030. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: 40 0C (5 min) 5 0C/min -> 260 0C 15 0C/min -> 280 0C (1 min)
CapillarySLB-5MS1001.Risticevic, Carasek, et al., 200810. m/0.18 mm/0.18 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryHP-51001.Characterization of Pyrazines in Some Chinese Liquors and Their Approximate Concentrations, 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 50C(2min) => 2C/min => 140C => 10C/min => 280C (10min)
CapillaryHP-11033.Carpino, Mallia, et al., 200412. m/0.32 mm/0.52 «mu»m; Program: 35C(3min) => 6C/min => 190C => 30C/min => 225C
CapillarySE-30987.Vinogradov, 2004Program: not specified
CapillaryCP Sil 5 CB983.Counet, Callemien, et al., 200250. m/0.32 mm/1.2 «mu»m; Program: 36C => 20C/min => 85C => 1C/min => 145C=3C/min => 250C(30min)
CapillaryDB-51008.Matsui, Guth, et al., 199830. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 35C(1min) => 40C/min => 60C (1min) => 6C/min => 230C
CapillarySE-541002.Zehentbauer and Grosch, 199825. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 35C(2min) => 50C/min => 60C(2min) => 4C/min => 230C
CapillaryDB-5999.Schieberle and Grosch, 1994He; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: 35C => 40C/min => 50C(2min) => 4C/min => 240C

Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-Innowax1383.Puvipirom and Chaisei, 201215. m/0.32 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Helium, 3. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 250. C
CapillaryFFAP1418.Budryn, Nebesny, et al., 201130. m/0.32 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Nitrogen, 35. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 250. C @ 45. min
CapillaryHP-Innowax1391.Du, Clery, et al., 200850. m/0.20 mm/0.33 «mu»m, Helium, 10. K/min, 250. C @ 6. min; Tstart: 50. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1397.Characterization of Pyrazines in Some Chinese Liquors and Their Approximate Concentrations, 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min, 230. C @ 15. min; Tstart: 50. C
CapillaryFFAP1418.Nebesny, Budryn, et al., 200730. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, N2, 35. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 320. C @ 45. min
CapillaryTC-Wax1410.Ishizaki, Tachihara, et al., 200560. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, N2, 3. K/min, 220. C @ 40. min; Tstart: 70. C
CapillaryTC-Wax1417.Ishikawa, Ito, et al., 200460. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 8. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 230. C
CapillaryHP-Wax1432.Sanz, Maeztu, et al., 200260. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 6. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 190. C
CapillaryHP-Wax1432.Maeztu, Sanz, et al., 200160. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 6. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 190. C
CapillaryHP-Wax1432.Sanz, Ansorena, et al., 200160. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 6. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 190. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1434.Iwatsuki, Mizota, et al., 19994. K/min; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.53 mm; Tstart: 60. C; Tend: 210. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1422.Iwatsuki, Mizota, et al., 19994. K/min; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.53 mm; Tstart: 60. C; Tend: 210. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1402.Buttery and Ling, 199830. C @ 4. min, 2. K/min, 170. C @ 30. min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryDB-Wax1403.Umano, Hagi, et al., 1995He, 40. C @ 2. min, 2. K/min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1367.Mihara and Masuda, 19882. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1400.Wong and Bernhard, 1988He, 70. C @ 8. min, 2. K/min; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tend: 160. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1392.Wu, Liou, et al., 1987Hydrogen, 1. K/min, 200. C @ 35. min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm; Tstart: 50. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1410.Buttery, Ling, et al., 198350. C @ 30. min, 1. K/min, 170. C @ 60. min; Column length: 150. m; Column diameter: 0.64 mm
PackedCarbowax1393.Schieberle and Grosch, 1983He, Chromosorb G AW DMCS, 4. K/min; Column length: 3. m; Tstart: 60. C; Tend: 180. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1399.Liardon and Ledermann, 1980H2, 2. K/min; Column length: 39. m; Column diameter: 0.30 mm; Tstart: 60. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1406.Shibamoto and Russell, 19771. K/min; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 70. C; Tend: 170. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1408.Shibamoto and Russell, 19771. K/min; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 70. C; Tend: 170. C

Normal alkane RI, polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax1406.Gonzalez-Rios, Suarez-Quiroz, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Hydrogen; Program: 44 0C 3 0C/min -> 170 0C 8 0C/min -> 250 0C
CapillaryDB-Wax1419.Gonzalez-Rios, Suarez-Quiroz, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Hydrogen; Program: not specified
CapillaryHP-Innowax1411.Viegas and Bassoli, 200760. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 40 0C (5 min) 4 0C/min -> 60 0C (5 min) 8 0C/min -> 250 0C (3 min)
CapillaryHP-Innowax1407.Viegas and Bassoli, 200760. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryTC-Wax1410.Kraft and Switt, 2005Program: not specified
CapillaryInnowax1417.Ito and Mori, 200430. m/0.25 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 40 0C (2 min) 10 0C/min -> 100 0C 3 0C/min -> 160 0C 5 0C/min -> 260 0C (10 min)
CapillaryTC-Wax1410.Tachihara, Ishizaki, et al., 2004Program: not specified
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1381.Vinogradov, 2004Program: not specified
CapillaryFFAP1362.Matsui, Guth, et al., 199830. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 35C(1min) => 40C/min => 60C (1min) => 6C/min => 230C
CapillaryFFAP1387.Zehentbauer and Grosch, 199825. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 35C(2min) => 40C/min => 60C(2min) => 6C/min => 230C
CapillarySupelcowax-101387.Schieberle and Grosch, 1994He; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: 35C => 40C/min => 60C(2min) => 4C/min => 240C

References

Go To: Top, Gas Chromatography, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Shibamoto, Kamiya, et al., 1981
Shibamoto, T.; Kamiya, Y.; Mihara, S., Isolation and identification of volatile compounds in cooked meat: sukiyaki, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1981, 29, 1, 57-63, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00103a015 . [all data]

Cerny and Guntz-Dubini, 2006
Cerny, C.; Guntz-Dubini, R., Role of the solvent glycerol in the Maillard reaction of D-fructose and L-aniline, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54, 2, 574-577, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf052222s . [all data]

Mahadevan and Farmer, 2006
Mahadevan, K.; Farmer, L., Key Odor Impact Compounds in Three Yeast Extract Pastes, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54, 19, 7242-7250, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf061102x . [all data]

Duckham, Dodson, et al., 2002
Duckham, S.C.; Dodson, A.T.; Bakker, J.; Ames, J.M., Effect of cultivar and storage time on the volatile flavor components of baked potato, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50, 20, 5640-5648, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf011326+ . [all data]

Kim, 2001
Kim, J.S., Einfluss der Temperatur beim Rösten von Sesam auf Aroma und antioxidative Eigenschaften des Öls, PhD Thesis, Technischen Universität Berlin zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades, Berlin, 2001, 151. [all data]

Oruna-Concha, Duckham, et al., 2001
Oruna-Concha, M.J.; Duckham, S.C.; Ames, J.M., Comparison of volatile compounds isolated from the skin and flesh of four potato cultivars after baking, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001, 49, 5, 2414-2421, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0012345 . [all data]

Wu, Wang, et al., 2000
Wu, C.-M.; Wang, Z.; Wu, Q.H., Volatile compounds produced from monosodium glutamate in common food cooking, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2000, 48, 6, 2438-2442, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9907743 . [all data]

Ames, Defaye, et al., 1997
Ames, J.M.; Defaye, A.B.; Bates, L., The effect of pH on the volatiles formed in an extruded starch-glucose-lysine model system, Food Chem., 1997, 58, 4, 323-327, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(96)00171-9 . [all data]

Yu, Lin, et al., 1994
Yu, T.-H.; Lin, L.-Y.; Ho, C.-T., Volatile compounds of blanched, fried blanched, and baked blanched garlic slices, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1994, 42, 6, 1342-1347, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00042a018 . [all data]

Zhang, Dorjpalam, et al., 1992
Zhang, Y.; Dorjpalam, B.; Ho, C.-T., Contribution of peptides to volatile formation in the Maillard reaction of casein hydrolysate with glucose, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1992, 40, 12, 2467-2471, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00024a026 . [all data]

Izzo and Ho, 1991
Izzo, H.V.; Ho, C.-T., Isolation and identification of the volatile components of an extruded autolyzed yeast extract, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1991, 39, 12, 2245-2248, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00012a029 . [all data]

Lu, Hao, et al., 2005
Lu, C.-Y.; Hao, Z.; Payne, R.; Ho, C.-T., Effects of water content on volatile generation and peptide degradation in the Maillard reaction of glycine, diglycine, and triglycine, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53, 16, 6443-6447, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf050534p . [all data]

Martin and Ames, 2001
Martin, F.L.; Ames, J.M., Comparison of flavor compounds of potato chips fried in palmolein and silicone fluid, J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc., 2001, 78, 8, 863-866, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-001-0356-2 . [all data]

Elmore, Mottram, et al., 1999
Elmore, J.S.; Mottram, D.S.; Enser, M.; Wood, J.D., Effect of the polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of beef muscle on the profile of aroma volatiles, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1999, 47, 4, 1619-1625, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf980718m . [all data]

Beal and Mottram, 1994
Beal, A.D.; Mottram, D.S., Compounds contributing to the characteristic aroma of malted barley, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1994, 42, 12, 2880-2884, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00048a043 . [all data]

Kuo, Zhang, et al., 1989
Kuo, M.-C.; Zhang, Y.; Hartman, T.G.; Rosen, R.T.; Ho, C.-T., Selective purge-and-trap method for the analysis of volatile pyrazines, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1989, 37, 4, 1020-1022, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00088a045 . [all data]

Lopez-Galilea I., Fournier N., et al., 2006
Lopez-Galilea I.; Fournier N.; Cid C.; Guichard E., Changes in headspace volatile concentrations of coffee brews caused by the roasting process and the brewing procedure, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54, 22, 8560-8566, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf061178t . [all data]

Bonvehí, 2005
Bonvehí, J.S., Investigation of aromatic compounds in roasted cocoa powder, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 2005, 221, 1-2, 19-29, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-005-1147-y . [all data]

Chung, Yung, et al., 2002
Chung, H.-Y.; Yung, I.K.S.; Ma, W.C.J.; Kim, J.-S., Analysis of volatile components in frozen and dried scallops (Patinopecten yessoensis) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, Food Res. Int., 2002, 35, 1, 43-53, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(01)00107-7 . [all data]

Chung, Yung, et al., 2001
Chung, H.Y.; Yung, I.K.S.; Kim, J.-S., Comparison of volatile components in dried scallops (Chlamys farreri and Patinopecten yessoensis) prepared by boiling and steaming methods, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001, 49, 1, 192-202, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf000692a . [all data]

Salter L.J., Mottram D.S., et al., 1988
Salter L.J.; Mottram D.S.; Whitfield, Volatile compounds produces in Maillard reactions involving glycine, ribose and phospholid, J. Sci. Food Agric., 1988, 46, 2, 227-242, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740460211 . [all data]

Whitfield, Mottram, et al., 1988
Whitfield, F.B.; Mottram, D.S.; Brock, S.; Puckey, D.J.; Salter, L.J., Effect of Phospholipid on the Formation of Volatile Heterocyclic Compounds in Heated Aqueous Solutions of Amino Acids and Ribose, J. Sci. Food Agric., 1988, 42, 3, 261-272, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740420309 . [all data]

Bianchi, Careri, et al., 2007
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Notes

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