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Hydronium cation


Gas phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Reaction thermochemistry data, Ion clustering data, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
gas,1 bar192.25J/mol*KReviewChase, 1998Data last reviewed in June, 1966

Reaction thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Ion clustering data, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Reactions 1 to 50

(Hydronium cation bullet 2Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 3Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 2H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 3H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar73. ± 4.kJ/molAVGN/AAverage of 9 out of 16 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar118. ± 8.J/mol*KAVGN/AAverage of 6 out of 9 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar39.kJ/molFABierbaum, Golde, et al., 1976gas phase

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
38.300.HPMSArifov, Pozharov, et al., 1971gas phase
38.296.SAMSPuckett and Teague, 1971gas phase
35.300.PHPMSGood, Durden, et al., 1970gas phase
35.307.PHPMSGood, Durden, et al., 1970, 2gas phase

Hydronium cation + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet Water)

By formula: H3O+ + H2O = (H3O+ bullet H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar136. ± 9.kJ/molAVGN/AAverage of 7 out of 14 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar120. ± 30.J/mol*KAVGN/AAverage of 5 out of 7 values; Individual data points

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
34.300.HPMSArifov, Pozharov, et al., 1971gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 2Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 2H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar84. ± 5.kJ/molAVGN/AAverage of 7 out of 14 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar94. ± 20.J/mol*KAVGN/AAverage of 5 out of 7 values; Individual data points

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
36.300.HPMSArifov, Pozharov, et al., 1971gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 3Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 4Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 3H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 4H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar56. ± 20.kJ/molAVGN/AAverage of 6 out of 9 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar100. ± 20.J/mol*KAVGN/AAverage of 5 out of 7 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar23.kJ/molFABierbaum, Golde, et al., 1976gas phase

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
24.293.ES/HPMSKlassen, Blades, et al., 1995gas phase
23.296.SAMSPuckett and Teague, 1971gas phase
21.300.PHPMSGood, Durden, et al., 1970gas phase
21.307.PHPMSGood, Durden, et al., 1970, 2gas phase
29.300.HPMSArifov, Pozharov, et al., 1971gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 4Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 5Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 4H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 5H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar50. ± 8.kJ/molAVGN/AAverage of 5 out of 8 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar102. ± 20.J/mol*KAVGN/AAverage of 4 out of 6 values; Individual data points

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
19.293.ES/HPMSKlassen, Blades, et al., 1995gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 5Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 6Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 5H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 6H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar44.8kJ/molPHPMSLau, Ikuta, et al., 1982gas phase
Deltar49.0kJ/molHPMSKebarle, Searles, et al., 1967gas phase
Deltar67.32kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase; Entropy change is questionable
Deltar28.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar109.J/mol*KPHPMSLau, Ikuta, et al., 1982gas phase
Deltar124.J/mol*KHPMSKebarle, Searles, et al., 1967gas phase
Deltar346.0J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase; Entropy change is questionable

(Hydronium cation bullet 6Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 7Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 6H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 7H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar28.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Deltar43.1kJ/molHPMSKebarle, Searles, et al., 1967gas phase
Deltar50.33kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase; Entropy change is questionable
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar110.J/mol*KHPMSKebarle, Searles, et al., 1967gas phase
Deltar218.9J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase; Entropy change is questionable

Hydronium cation + Carbon dioxide = (Hydronium cation bullet Carbon dioxide)

By formula: H3O+ + CO2 = (H3O+ bullet CO2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar59.8kJ/molPHPMSSzulejko and McMahon, 1992gas phase
Deltar64.0kJ/molPHPMSHiraoka, Shoda, et al., 1986gas phase
Deltar60.2kJ/molPHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner) and Field, 1977gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar88.7J/mol*KPHPMSSzulejko and McMahon, 1992gas phase
Deltar103.J/mol*KPHPMSHiraoka, Shoda, et al., 1986gas phase
Deltar86.6J/mol*KPHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner) and Field, 1977gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 12Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 13Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 12H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 13H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar43.10kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar28.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar158.7J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 13Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 14Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 13H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 14H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar44.35kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar28.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar166.7J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 14Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 15Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 14H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 15H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar44.85kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar28.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar168.9J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 15Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 16Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 15H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 16H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar45.27kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar25.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar176.4J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 16Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 17Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 16H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 17H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar45.02kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar28.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar173.1J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 17Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 18Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 17H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 18H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar44.98kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar26.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar170.0J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 18Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 19Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 18H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 19H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar44.60kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar29.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar171.5J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 19Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 20Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 19H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 20H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar44.10kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar38.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar165.8J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 20Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 21Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 20H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 21H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar43.64kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar31.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar156.7J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 21Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 22Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 21H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 22H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar43.18kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar25.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar165.1J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 22Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 23Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 22H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 23H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar43.72kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar27.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar162.8J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 23Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 24Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 23H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 24H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar43.01kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar28.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar156.7J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 24Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 25Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 24H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 25H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar42.09kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar30.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar151.3J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 10Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 11Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 10H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 11H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar38.9kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar28.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar112.6J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 11Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 12Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 11H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 12H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar41.1kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar29.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar140.7J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 25Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 26Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 25H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 26H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar40.7kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar26.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar137.4J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 26Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 27Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 26H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 27H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar39.4kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar34.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar129.4J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 9Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 10Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 9H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 10H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar37.2kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar28.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar107.8J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 8Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 9Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 8H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 9H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar36.7kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar24.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar112.6J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 7Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 8Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 7H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 8H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar40.9kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar21.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar140.0J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 2Nitrogen bullet 3Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet 3Nitrogen bullet 3Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 2N2 bullet 3H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet 3N2 bullet 3H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar5.0kJ/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase; «DELTA»rH, «DELTA»rS approximate
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar27.J/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase; «DELTA»rH, «DELTA»rS approximate

(Hydronium cation bullet 3Nitrous oxide) + Nitrous oxide = (Hydronium cation bullet 4Nitrous oxide)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 3N2O) + N2O = (H3O+ bullet 4N2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar22.kJ/molPHPMSHiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar88.J/mol*KN/AHiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated

(Hydronium cation bullet 3Nitrogen bullet 2Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet 4Nitrogen bullet 2Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 3N2 bullet 2H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet 4N2 bullet 2H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar10.kJ/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase; «DELTA»rH, «DELTA»rS approximate
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar50.J/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase; «DELTA»rH, «DELTA»rS approximate

(Hydronium cation bullet 27Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 28Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 27H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 28H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar37.9kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar116.2J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet Methane) + Methane = (Hydronium cation bullet 2Methane)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet CH4) + CH4 = (H3O+ bullet 2CH4)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar14.kJ/molHPMSBennet and Field, 1972gas phase; Entropy change is questionable
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar34.J/mol*KHPMSBennet and Field, 1972gas phase; Entropy change is questionable

(Hydronium cation bullet 4Water) + Sulfur dioxide = (Hydronium cation bullet Sulfur dioxide bullet 4Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 4H2O) + O2S = (H3O+ bullet O2S bullet 4H2O)

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
11.300.HPMSBanic and Iribarne, 1985gas phase; electric fields
11.300.HPMSBanic and Iribarne, 1985gas phase; electric fields

(Hydronium cation bullet 2Nitrogen bullet 2Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet 3Nitrogen bullet 2Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 2N2 bullet 2H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet 3N2 bullet 2H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar38. ± 11.kJ/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar119.J/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 2Water) + Hydrogen cyanide = (Hydronium cation bullet Hydrogen cyanide bullet 2Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 2H2O) + CHN = (H3O+ bullet CHN bullet 2H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar82.8kJ/molPHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner) and Speller, 1989gas phase; n
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar123.J/mol*KPHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner) and Speller, 1989gas phase; n

(Hydronium cation bullet 2Nitrogen bullet Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet 3Nitrogen bullet Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 2N2 bullet H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet 3N2 bullet H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar33. ± 8.kJ/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar92.J/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet Nitrogen bullet 2Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet 2Nitrogen bullet 2Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet N2 bullet 2H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet 2N2 bullet 2H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar22.kJ/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar69.5J/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet Nitrogen bullet 3Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet 2Nitrogen bullet 3Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet N2 bullet 3H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet 2N2 bullet 3H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar18.kJ/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar65.7J/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet Nitrogen bullet Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet 2Nitrogen bullet Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet N2 bullet H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet 2N2 bullet H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar21.kJ/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar54.8J/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 2Nitrous oxide) + Nitrous oxide = (Hydronium cation bullet 3Nitrous oxide)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 2N2O) + N2O = (H3O+ bullet 3N2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar42.7kJ/molPHPMSHiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar110.J/mol*KPHPMSHiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 2Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet Nitrogen bullet 2Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 2H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet N2 bullet 2H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar21.kJ/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar59.8J/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet Nitrous oxide) + Nitrous oxide = (Hydronium cation bullet 2Nitrous oxide)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet N2O) + N2O = (H3O+ bullet 2N2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar50.6kJ/molPHPMSHiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar96.J/mol*KPHPMSHiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet Nitrogen bullet Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet N2 bullet H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar22.kJ/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar58.2J/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 2Carbon dioxide) + Carbon dioxide = (Hydronium cation bullet 3Carbon dioxide)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 2CO2) + CO2 = (H3O+ bullet 3CO2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar43.9kJ/molPHPMSHiraoka, Shoda, et al., 1986gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar113.J/mol*KPHPMSHiraoka, Shoda, et al., 1986gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet Carbon dioxide) + Carbon dioxide = (Hydronium cation bullet 2Carbon dioxide)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet CO2) + CO2 = (H3O+ bullet 2CO2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar51.9kJ/molPHPMSHiraoka, Shoda, et al., 1986gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar111.J/mol*KPHPMSHiraoka, Shoda, et al., 1986gas phase

Hydronium cation + Nitrous oxide = (Hydronium cation bullet Nitrous oxide)

By formula: H3O+ + N2O = (H3O+ bullet N2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar70.7kJ/molPHPMSHiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar110.J/mol*KPHPMSHiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994gas phase

Hydronium cation + Sulfur dioxide = (Hydronium cation bullet Sulfur dioxide)

By formula: H3O+ + O2S = (H3O+ bullet O2S)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar92.0kJ/molPHPMSSzulejko and McMahon, 1992gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar95.0J/mol*KPHPMSSzulejko and McMahon, 1992gas phase

Hydronium cation + Methane = (Hydronium cation bullet Methane)

By formula: H3O+ + CH4 = (H3O+ bullet CH4)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar33.kJ/molHPMSBennet and Field, 1972gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar85.4J/mol*KHPMSBennet and Field, 1972gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 3Water) + Sulfur dioxide = (Hydronium cation bullet Sulfur dioxide bullet 3Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 3H2O) + O2S = (H3O+ bullet O2S bullet 3H2O)

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
18.300.HPMSBanic and Iribarne, 1985gas phase; electric fields

Ion clustering data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. Searches may be limited to ion clustering reactions. A general reaction search form is also available.

Clustering reactions

Hydronium cation + Methane = (Hydronium cation bullet Methane)

By formula: H3O+ + CH4 = (H3O+ bullet CH4)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar33.kJ/molHPMSBennet and Field, 1972gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar85.4J/mol*KHPMSBennet and Field, 1972gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet Methane) + Methane = (Hydronium cation bullet 2Methane)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet CH4) + CH4 = (H3O+ bullet 2CH4)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar14.kJ/molHPMSBennet and Field, 1972gas phase; Entropy change is questionable
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar34.J/mol*KHPMSBennet and Field, 1972gas phase; Entropy change is questionable

Hydronium cation + Carbon dioxide = (Hydronium cation bullet Carbon dioxide)

By formula: H3O+ + CO2 = (H3O+ bullet CO2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar59.8kJ/molPHPMSSzulejko and McMahon, 1992gas phase
Deltar64.0kJ/molPHPMSHiraoka, Shoda, et al., 1986gas phase
Deltar60.2kJ/molPHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner) and Field, 1977gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar88.7J/mol*KPHPMSSzulejko and McMahon, 1992gas phase
Deltar103.J/mol*KPHPMSHiraoka, Shoda, et al., 1986gas phase
Deltar86.6J/mol*KPHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner) and Field, 1977gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet Carbon dioxide) + Carbon dioxide = (Hydronium cation bullet 2Carbon dioxide)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet CO2) + CO2 = (H3O+ bullet 2CO2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar51.9kJ/molPHPMSHiraoka, Shoda, et al., 1986gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar111.J/mol*KPHPMSHiraoka, Shoda, et al., 1986gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 2Carbon dioxide) + Carbon dioxide = (Hydronium cation bullet 3Carbon dioxide)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 2CO2) + CO2 = (H3O+ bullet 3CO2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar43.9kJ/molPHPMSHiraoka, Shoda, et al., 1986gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar113.J/mol*KPHPMSHiraoka, Shoda, et al., 1986gas phase

Hydronium cation + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet Water)

By formula: H3O+ + H2O = (H3O+ bullet H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar136. ± 9.kJ/molAVGN/AAverage of 7 out of 14 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar120. ± 30.J/mol*KAVGN/AAverage of 5 out of 7 values; Individual data points

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
34.300.HPMSArifov, Pozharov, et al., 1971gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 2Water) + Hydrogen cyanide = (Hydronium cation bullet Hydrogen cyanide bullet 2Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 2H2O) + CHN = (H3O+ bullet CHN bullet 2H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar82.8kJ/molPHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner) and Speller, 1989gas phase; n
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar123.J/mol*KPHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner) and Speller, 1989gas phase; n

(Hydronium cation bullet Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 2Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 2H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar84. ± 5.kJ/molAVGN/AAverage of 7 out of 14 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar94. ± 20.J/mol*KAVGN/AAverage of 5 out of 7 values; Individual data points

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
36.300.HPMSArifov, Pozharov, et al., 1971gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 2Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 3Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 2H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 3H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar73. ± 4.kJ/molAVGN/AAverage of 9 out of 16 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar118. ± 8.J/mol*KAVGN/AAverage of 6 out of 9 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar39.kJ/molFABierbaum, Golde, et al., 1976gas phase

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
38.300.HPMSArifov, Pozharov, et al., 1971gas phase
38.296.SAMSPuckett and Teague, 1971gas phase
35.300.PHPMSGood, Durden, et al., 1970gas phase
35.307.PHPMSGood, Durden, et al., 1970, 2gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 3Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 4Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 3H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 4H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar56. ± 20.kJ/molAVGN/AAverage of 6 out of 9 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar100. ± 20.J/mol*KAVGN/AAverage of 5 out of 7 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar23.kJ/molFABierbaum, Golde, et al., 1976gas phase

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
24.293.ES/HPMSKlassen, Blades, et al., 1995gas phase
23.296.SAMSPuckett and Teague, 1971gas phase
21.300.PHPMSGood, Durden, et al., 1970gas phase
21.307.PHPMSGood, Durden, et al., 1970, 2gas phase
29.300.HPMSArifov, Pozharov, et al., 1971gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 4Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 5Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 4H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 5H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar50. ± 8.kJ/molAVGN/AAverage of 5 out of 8 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar102. ± 20.J/mol*KAVGN/AAverage of 4 out of 6 values; Individual data points

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
19.293.ES/HPMSKlassen, Blades, et al., 1995gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 5Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 6Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 5H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 6H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar44.8kJ/molPHPMSLau, Ikuta, et al., 1982gas phase
Deltar49.0kJ/molHPMSKebarle, Searles, et al., 1967gas phase
Deltar67.32kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase; Entropy change is questionable
Deltar28.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar109.J/mol*KPHPMSLau, Ikuta, et al., 1982gas phase
Deltar124.J/mol*KHPMSKebarle, Searles, et al., 1967gas phase
Deltar346.0J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase; Entropy change is questionable

(Hydronium cation bullet 6Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 7Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 6H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 7H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar28.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Deltar43.1kJ/molHPMSKebarle, Searles, et al., 1967gas phase
Deltar50.33kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase; Entropy change is questionable
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar110.J/mol*KHPMSKebarle, Searles, et al., 1967gas phase
Deltar218.9J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase; Entropy change is questionable

(Hydronium cation bullet 7Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 8Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 7H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 8H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar40.9kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar21.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar140.0J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 8Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 9Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 8H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 9H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar36.7kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar24.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar112.6J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 9Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 10Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 9H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 10H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar37.2kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar28.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar107.8J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 10Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 11Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 10H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 11H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar38.9kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar28.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar112.6J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 11Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 12Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 11H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 12H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar41.1kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar29.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar140.7J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 12Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 13Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 12H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 13H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar43.10kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar28.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar158.7J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 13Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 14Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 13H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 14H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar44.35kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar28.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar166.7J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 14Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 15Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 14H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 15H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar44.85kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar28.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar168.9J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 15Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 16Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 15H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 16H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar45.27kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar25.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar176.4J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 16Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 17Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 16H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 17H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar45.02kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar28.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar173.1J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 17Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 18Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 17H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 18H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar44.98kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar26.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar170.0J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 18Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 19Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 18H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 19H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar44.60kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar29.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar171.5J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 19Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 20Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 19H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 20H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar44.10kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar38.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar165.8J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 20Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 21Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 20H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 21H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar43.64kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar31.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar156.7J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 21Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 22Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 21H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 22H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar43.18kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar25.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar165.1J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 22Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 23Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 22H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 23H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar43.72kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar27.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar162.8J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 23Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 24Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 23H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 24H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar43.01kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar28.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar156.7J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 24Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 25Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 24H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 25H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar42.09kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar30.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar151.3J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 25Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 26Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 25H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 26H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar40.7kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar26.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar137.4J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 26Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 27Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 26H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 27H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar39.4kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Deltar34.kJ/molCIDMagnera, David, et al., 1991gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar129.4J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 27Water) + Water = (Hydronium cation bullet 28Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 27H2O) + H2O = (H3O+ bullet 28H2O)

Bond type: Hydrogen bond (positive ion to hydride)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar37.9kJ/molMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar116.2J/mol*KMKERShi, Ford, et al., 1993gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet Nitrogen bullet Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet N2 bullet H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar22.kJ/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar58.2J/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 2Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet Nitrogen bullet 2Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 2H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet N2 bullet 2H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar21.kJ/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar59.8J/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 3Water) + Sulfur dioxide = (Hydronium cation bullet Sulfur dioxide bullet 3Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 3H2O) + O2S = (H3O+ bullet O2S bullet 3H2O)

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
18.300.HPMSBanic and Iribarne, 1985gas phase; electric fields

(Hydronium cation bullet 4Water) + Sulfur dioxide = (Hydronium cation bullet Sulfur dioxide bullet 4Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 4H2O) + O2S = (H3O+ bullet O2S bullet 4H2O)

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
11.300.HPMSBanic and Iribarne, 1985gas phase; electric fields
11.300.HPMSBanic and Iribarne, 1985gas phase; electric fields

Hydronium cation + Hydrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet Hydrogen)

By formula: H3O+ + H2 = (H3O+ bullet H2)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar15. ± 2.kJ/molSCATTERINGOkumura, Yeh, et al., 1990gas phase

Hydronium cation + Nitrous oxide = (Hydronium cation bullet Nitrous oxide)

By formula: H3O+ + N2O = (H3O+ bullet N2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar70.7kJ/molPHPMSHiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar110.J/mol*KPHPMSHiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet Nitrous oxide) + Nitrous oxide = (Hydronium cation bullet 2Nitrous oxide)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet N2O) + N2O = (H3O+ bullet 2N2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar50.6kJ/molPHPMSHiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar96.J/mol*KPHPMSHiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 2Nitrous oxide) + Nitrous oxide = (Hydronium cation bullet 3Nitrous oxide)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 2N2O) + N2O = (H3O+ bullet 3N2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar42.7kJ/molPHPMSHiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar110.J/mol*KPHPMSHiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 3Nitrous oxide) + Nitrous oxide = (Hydronium cation bullet 4Nitrous oxide)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 3N2O) + N2O = (H3O+ bullet 4N2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar22.kJ/molPHPMSHiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar88.J/mol*KN/AHiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994gas phase; Entropy change calculated or estimated

(Hydronium cation bullet Nitrogen bullet Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet 2Nitrogen bullet Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet N2 bullet H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet 2N2 bullet H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar21.kJ/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar54.8J/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet Nitrogen bullet 2Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet 2Nitrogen bullet 2Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet N2 bullet 2H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet 2N2 bullet 2H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar22.kJ/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar69.5J/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet Nitrogen bullet 3Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet 2Nitrogen bullet 3Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet N2 bullet 3H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet 2N2 bullet 3H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar18.kJ/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar65.7J/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 2Nitrogen bullet Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet 3Nitrogen bullet Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 2N2 bullet H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet 3N2 bullet H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar33. ± 8.kJ/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar92.J/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 2Nitrogen bullet 2Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet 3Nitrogen bullet 2Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 2N2 bullet 2H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet 3N2 bullet 2H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar38. ± 11.kJ/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar119.J/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase

(Hydronium cation bullet 2Nitrogen bullet 3Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet 3Nitrogen bullet 3Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 2N2 bullet 3H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet 3N2 bullet 3H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar5.0kJ/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase; «DELTA»rH, «DELTA»rS approximate
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar27.J/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase; «DELTA»rH, «DELTA»rS approximate

(Hydronium cation bullet 3Nitrogen bullet 2Water) + Nitrogen = (Hydronium cation bullet 4Nitrogen bullet 2Water)

By formula: (H3O+ bullet 3N2 bullet 2H2O) + N2 = (H3O+ bullet 4N2 bullet 2H2O)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar10.kJ/molDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase; «DELTA»rH, «DELTA»rS approximate
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar50.J/mol*KDTGheno and Fitaire, 1987gas phase; «DELTA»rH, «DELTA»rS approximate

Hydronium cation + Sulfur dioxide = (Hydronium cation bullet Sulfur dioxide)

By formula: H3O+ + O2S = (H3O+ bullet O2S)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar92.0kJ/molPHPMSSzulejko and McMahon, 1992gas phase
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar95.0J/mol*KPHPMSSzulejko and McMahon, 1992gas phase

Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Ion clustering data, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Marilyn E. Jacox

State:   X


Vib. 
sym. 
 No.   Approximate 
 type of mode 
 cm-1   Med.   Method   References

a1 1 OH stretch 3491.17 I gas LD Tang and Oka, 1999
1 OH stretch 3389.66 I gas LD Tang and Oka, 1999
1 OH stretch 3490 T H gas PF Okumura, Yeh, et al., 1990
2 Umbrella 954.40 I gas DL Haese and Oka, 1984
Lemoine and Destombes, 1984
Davies, Hamilton, et al., 1985
Liu, Haese, et al., 1985
Zheng, Wang, et al., 2007
2 Umbrella 525.82 I gas DL Davies, Hamilton, et al., 1985
Liu and Oka, 1985
Liu, Haese, et al., 1985
(H2)H-O stretch 3120 H gas PF Okumura, Yeh, et al., 1990
e 3 OH stretch 3535.56 I gas CC Begemann, Gudeman, et al., 1983
Begemann and Saykally, 1985
Stahn, Solka, et al., 1987
Ho, Pursell, et al., 1991
3 OH stretch 3518.95 I gas CC Begemann, Gudeman, et al., 1983
Begemann and Saykally, 1985
Stahn, Solka, et al., 1987
Keim, Polak, et al., 1990
Ho, Pursell, et al., 1991
3 OH stretch 3560 H gas PF Okumura, Yeh, et al., 1990
3 OH stretch 3550 H gas PF Okumura, Yeh, et al., 1990
4 Deformation 1625.95 I gas DL Grubele, Polak, et al., 1987
4 Deformation 1638.53 I gas DL Grubele, Polak, et al., 1987

Additional references: Jacox, 1994, page 129; Jacox, 2003, page 160; Sears, Bunker, et al., 1985; Liu, Oka, et al., 1986; Verhoeve, Versluis, et al., 1989; Petek, Nesbitt, et al., 1990; Uy, White, et al., 1997; Araki, Ozeki, et al., 1998; Araki, Ozeki, et al., 1999; Dong, Uy, et al., 2005; Dong and Nesbitt, 2006; Furuya, Saito, et al., 2007; Furuya and Saito, 2008

Notes

H(1/2)(2nu)
IComponent of an inversion doublet
TTentative assignment or approximate value

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Ion clustering data, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, NIST Free Links, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Chase, 1998
Chase, M.W., Jr., NIST-JANAF Themochemical Tables, Fourth Edition, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, Monograph 9, 1998, 1-1951. [all data]

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Bierbaum, V.M.; Golde, M.F.; Kaufman, F., Flowing Afterglow Studies of Hydronium Ion Clustering Including Diffusion Effects, J. Chem. Phys., 1976, 65, 7, 2715, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.433415 . [all data]

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Arifov, U.A.; Pozharov, S.L.; Chernov, I.G., High Energy Chem., 1971, 5, 1. [all data]

Puckett and Teague, 1971
Puckett, L.J.; Teague, A.W., Production of H3O+.nH2O from NO+ Precursor in NO - H2O Gas Mixtures, J. Chem. Phys., 1971, 54, 6, 2564, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1675213 . [all data]

Good, Durden, et al., 1970
Good, A.; Durden, D.A.; Kebarle, P., Ion-Molecule Reactions in Pure Nitrogen and Nitrogen Containing Traces of Water at Total Pressures 0.5 - 4 torr. Kinetics of Clustering Reactions Forming H+(H2O)n, J. Chem. Phys., 1970, 52, 1, 212, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1672667 . [all data]

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Good, A.; Durden, D.A.; Kebarle, P., Mechanism and Rate Constants of Ion-Molecule Reactions Leading to Formation of H+(H2O)n in Moist Oxygen and Air, J. Chem. Phys., 1970, 52, 1, 222, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1672668 . [all data]

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Klassen, J.S.; Blades, A.T.; Kebarle, P., Determinations of Ion-Molecule Equilibria Involving Ions Produced by Electrospray. Hydration of Protonated Amines, Diamines, and Some Small Peptides, J. Phys. Chem., 1995, 99, 42, 15509, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100042a027 . [all data]

Lau, Ikuta, et al., 1982
Lau, Y.K.; Ikuta, S.; Kebarle, P., Thermodynamics and Kinetics of the Gas - Phase Reactions: H3O+(H2O)n - 1 + H2O = H3O+(H2O)n, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1982, 104, 6, 1462, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00370a002 . [all data]

Kebarle, Searles, et al., 1967
Kebarle, P.; Searles, S.K.; Zolla, A.; Scarborough, J.; Arshadi, M., The Solvation of the Hydrogen Ion by Water Molecules in the Gas Phase. Heats and Entropies of Solvation of the Individual Reactions: H+(H2O)n-1 + H2O = H+(H2O)n, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1967, 89, 25, 6393, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01001a001 . [all data]

Shi, Ford, et al., 1993
Shi, Z.; Ford, V.; Wei, S.; Castleman, A.W., Water Clusters - Contributions of Binding Energy and Entropy to Stability, J. Chem. Phys., 1993, 99, 10, 8009, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.465678 . [all data]

Magnera, David, et al., 1991
Magnera, T.F.; David, D.E.; Michl, J., The First Twenty - Eight Proton Hydration Energies, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1991, 182, 3-4, 363, https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2614(91)80230-U . [all data]

Szulejko and McMahon, 1992
Szulejko, J.; McMahon, T.B., personal communication, 1992. [all data]

Hiraoka, Shoda, et al., 1986
Hiraoka, K.; Shoda, T.; Morise, K.; Yamabe, S.; Kawai, E.; Hirao, K., Stability and structure of cluster ions in the gas phase: Carbon dioxide with Cl-, H3O+, HCO2+ and HCO+, J. Chem. Phys., 1986, 84, 2091. [all data]

Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Field, 1977
Meot-Ner (Mautner), M.; Field, F.H., Proton Affinity and Ion - Molecule Clustering in CO2 and CS2. Applications in Martian Ionospheric Chemistry, J. Chem. Phys., 1977, 66, 10, 4527, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.433706 . [all data]

Gheno and Fitaire, 1987
Gheno, F.; Fitaire, M., Association of N2 with NH4+ and H3O+(H2O)n, n = 1,2,3, J. Chem. Phys., 1987, 87, 2, 953, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.453250 . [all data]

Hiraoka, Fujimaki, et al., 1994
Hiraoka, K.; Fujimaki, S.; Aruga, K.; Sato, T.; Yamabe, S., Gas-Phase Solavtion of NO+, O2+, N2O+, and H3O+ with N2O, J. Chem. Phys., 1994, 101, 5, 4073, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.467524 . [all data]

Bennet and Field, 1972
Bennet, S.L.; Field, F.H., Reversible Reactions of Gaseous Ions. V. The Methane - Water System at Low Temperatures, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1972, 94, 15, 5188, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00770a008 . [all data]

Banic and Iribarne, 1985
Banic, C.M.; Iribarne, J.V., Equilibrium Constants for Clustering of Neutral Molecules about Gaseous Ions, J. Chem. Phys., 1985, 83, 12, 6432, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.449543 . [all data]

Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Speller, 1989
Meot-Ner (Mautner), M.; Speller, C.V., Multicomponent Cluster Ions.3. Comparative Stabilities of Cationic and Anionic Hydrogen Bonded Networks. Mixed Clusters of Water and Hydrogen Cyanide, J. Phys. Chem., 1989, 93, 6580. [all data]

Okumura, Yeh, et al., 1990
Okumura, M.; Yeh, L.I.; Myers, J.D.; Lee, Y.T., Infrared Spectra of the Solvated Hydronium Ion: Vibrational Predissociation Spectroscopy of Mass-Selected H3O+.(H2O)n.(H2)m, J. Phys. Chem., 1990, 94, 9, 3416, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100372a014 . [all data]

Tang and Oka, 1999
Tang, J.; Oka, T., Infrared Spectroscopy of H3O+: The «nu»1 Fundamental Band, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1999, 196, 1, 120, https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsp.1999.7844 . [all data]

Haese and Oka, 1984
Haese, N.N.; Oka, T., Observation of the «nu»2 (1-<--0+) inversion mode band in H3O+ by high resolution infrared spectroscopy, J. Chem. Phys., 1984, 80, 1, 572, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.446436 . [all data]

Lemoine and Destombes, 1984
Lemoine, B.; Destombes, J.L., Infrared spectroscopy of molecular ions in a magnetically confined glow discharge, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1984, 111, 3, 284, https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2614(84)85507-4 . [all data]

Davies, Hamilton, et al., 1985
Davies, P.B.; Hamilton, P.A.; Johnson, S.A., Infrared laser spectroscopy of H_3O^+ between 510 and 1150 cm^-1, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 1985, 2, 5, 794, https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.2.000794 . [all data]

Liu, Haese, et al., 1985
Liu, D.-J.; Haese, N.N.; Oka, T., Infrared spectrum of the «nu»2 vibration-inversion band of H3O+, J. Chem. Phys., 1985, 82, 12, 5368, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.448620 . [all data]

Zheng, Wang, et al., 2007
Zheng, R.; Wang, R.-B.; Li, S.; Huang, G.-M.; Duan, C.-X., Extended Measurement of the, Chin. Phys. Lett., 2007, 24, 9, 2569, https://doi.org/10.1088/0256-307X/24/9/029 . [all data]

Liu and Oka, 1985
Liu, D.-J.; Oka, T., Experimental Determination of the Ground-State Inversion Splitting in H_{3}O^{+}, Phys. Rev. Lett., 1985, 54, 16, 1787, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.54.1787 . [all data]

Begemann, Gudeman, et al., 1983
Begemann, M.H.; Gudeman, C.S.; Pfaff, J.; Saykally, R., Detection of the Hydronium Ion (H_{3}O^{+}) by High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy, Phys. Rev. Lett., 1983, 51, 7, 554, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.51.554 . [all data]

Begemann and Saykally, 1985
Begemann, M.H.; Saykally, R.J., A study of the structure and dynamics of the hydronium ion by high-resolution infrared laser spectroscopy. I. The «nu»3 band of H3 16O+, J. Chem. Phys., 1985, 82, 8, 3570, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.448914 . [all data]

Stahn, Solka, et al., 1987
Stahn, A.; Solka, H.; Adams, H.; Urban, W., The, Mol. Phys., 1987, 60, 1, 121, https://doi.org/10.1080/00268978700100091 . [all data]

Ho, Pursell, et al., 1991
Ho, W.C.; Pursell, C.J.; Oka, T., Infrared spectroscopy in an H2«58872»O2«58872»He discharge: H3O+, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1991, 149, 2, 530, https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2852(91)90308-W . [all data]

Keim, Polak, et al., 1990
Keim, E.R.; Polak, M.L.; Owrutsky, J.C.; Coe, J.V.; Saykally, R.J., Absolute infrared vibrational band intensities of molecular ions determined by direct laser absorption spectroscopy in fast ion beams, J. Chem. Phys., 1990, 93, 5, 3111, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.458845 . [all data]

Grubele, Polak, et al., 1987
Grubele, M.; Polak, M.; Saykally, R.J., A study of the structure and dynamics of the hydronium ion by high resolution infrared laser spectroscopy. II. The «nu»4 perpendicular bending mode of H3 16O+, J. Chem. Phys., 1987, 87, 6, 3347, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.453029 . [all data]

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Jacox, M.E., Vibrational and electronic energy levels of polyatomic transient molecules, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1994, 464. [all data]

Jacox, 2003
Jacox, M.E., Vibrational and electronic energy levels of polyatomic transient molecules: supplement B, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 2003, 32, 1, 1-441, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1497629 . [all data]

Sears, Bunker, et al., 1985
Sears, T.J.; Bunker, P.R.; Davies, P.B.; Johnson, S.A.; Spirko, V., Diode laser absorption spectroscopy of D3O+: Determination of the equilibrium structure and potential function of the oxonium ion, J. Chem. Phys., 1985, 83, 6, 2676, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.449270 . [all data]

Liu, Oka, et al., 1986
Liu, D.-J.; Oka, T.; Sears, T.J., The calculated «nu»2 (inversion) spectrum of H3O+, J. Chem. Phys., 1986, 84, 3, 1312, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.450522 . [all data]

Verhoeve, Versluis, et al., 1989
Verhoeve, P.; Versluis, M.; Ter Meulen, J.J.; Meerts, W.L.; Dymanus, A., Far infrared laser sideband spectroscopy of H3O+: the pure inversion spectrum around 55 cm-1, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1989, 161, 3, 195, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2614(89)87059-9 . [all data]

Petek, Nesbitt, et al., 1990
Petek, H.; Nesbitt, D.J.; Owrutsky, J.C.; Gudeman, C.S.; Yang, X.; Harris, D.O.; Moore, C.B.; Saykally, R.J., A study of the structure and dynamics of the hydronium ion by high resolution infrared laser spectroscopy. III. The «nu»3 band of D3O+, J. Chem. Phys., 1990, 92, 6, 3257, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.457884 . [all data]

Uy, White, et al., 1997
Uy, D.; White, E.T.; Oka, T., Observation of «DELTA»|k - l| = 3 Transitions in the «nu»3Band of H3O+, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1997, 183, 2, 240, https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsp.1997.7270 . [all data]

Araki, Ozeki, et al., 1998
Araki, M.; Ozeki, H.; Saito, S., Experimental determination of the ground-state inversion splitting in D[sub 3]O[sup +] by microwave spectroscopy, J. Chem. Phys., 1998, 198, 14, 5707, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.477191 . [all data]

Araki, Ozeki, et al., 1999
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Dong, Uy, et al., 2005
Dong, F.; Uy, D.; Davis, S.; Child, M.; Nesbitt, D.J., Supersonically cooled hydronium ions in a slit-jet discharge: High-resolution infrared spectroscopy and tunneling dynamics of HD[sub 2]O[sup +], J. Chem. Phys., 2005, 122, 22, 224301, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1924699 . [all data]

Dong and Nesbitt, 2006
Dong, F.; Nesbitt, D.J., Jet cooled spectroscopy of H[sub 2]DO[sup +]: Barrier heights and isotope-dependent tunneling dynamics from H[sub 3]O[sup +] to D[sub 3]O[sup +], J. Chem. Phys., 2006, 125, 14, 144311, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2338520 . [all data]

Furuya, Saito, et al., 2007
Furuya, T.; Saito, S.; Araki, M., Microwave spectrum of the H[sub 2]DO[sup +] ion: Inversion-rotation transitions and inversion splitting, J. Chem. Phys., 2007, 127, 24, 244314, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2813352 . [all data]

Furuya and Saito, 2008
Furuya, T.; Saito, S., Microwave spectrum of the HD[sub 2]O[sup +] ion: Inversion-rotation transitions and inversion splitting, J. Chem. Phys., 2008, 128, 3, 034311, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2822284 . [all data]


Notes

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