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Paraldehyde

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
GT - Glushko Thermocenter, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas-636. ± 3.kJ/molCcbPihlaja and Tuomi, 1970ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
gas374.4 ± 5.0J/mol*KN/AClegg G.A., 1969GT

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafliquid-681.8 ± 2.6kJ/molCcbPihlaja and Tuomi, 1970ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacliquid-3394.2 ± 2.6kJ/molCcbPihlaja and Tuomi, 1970Corresponding «DELTA»fliquid = -681.82 kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS
Deltacliquid-3389.kJ/molCcbFletcher, Mortimer, et al., 1959Corresponding «DELTA»fliquid = -687.0 kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS
Deltacliquid-3390. ± 2.kJ/molCcbCass, Springall, et al., 1955Corresponding «DELTA»fliquid = -686.2 kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
liquid289.4J/mol*KN/AClegg and Melia, 1969Extrapolation below 80 K, 61.1 J/mol*K.; DH

Constant pressure heat capacity of liquid

Cp,liquid (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
257.3298.15Clegg and Melia, 1969T = 80 to 310 K.; DH
254.0306.6Phillip, 1939DH
250.2298.von Reis, 1881T = 293 to 400 K.; DH

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Chris Muzny, director
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
CAL - James S. Chickos, William E. Acree, Jr., Joel F. Liebman, Students of Chem 202 (Introduction to the Literature of Chemistry), University of Missouri -- St. Louis
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil397. ± 4.KAVGN/AAverage of 6 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus285.75KN/AAnonymous, 1968TRC
Tfus284.15KN/ABiltz, Fischer, et al., 1930Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 1. K; TRC
Tfus285.65KN/ACooper, 1928Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.2 K; TRC
Tfus286.KN/ALouguinine and Dupont, 1911Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.5 K; TRC
Tfus285.70KN/AHollmann, 1903Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.1 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple285.7KN/AClegg and Melia, 1969Crystal phase 1 phase; Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.1 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc563.KN/AHollmann, 1903Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 4. K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap45.8kJ/molN/APihlaja and Tuomi, 1970DRB
Deltavap41. ± 0.4kJ/molVFletcher, Mortimer, et al., 1959ALS

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
41.5338.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 323. - 396. K.; AC

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
13.52285.7Domalski and Hearing, 1996AC

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
1.81142.7Domalski and Hearing, 1996CAL
5.24147.5
47.32285.7

Enthalpy of phase transition

DeltaHtrs (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
0.2577142.7crystaline, IVcrystaline, IIIClegg and Melia, 1969DH
0.7731147.5crystaline, IIIcrystaline, IIClegg and Melia, 1969H and S of transition for c,II/c,I at 230.3 K has been added into H and S of fusion at 285.7 K.; DH
13.520285.7crystaline, IliquidClegg and Melia, 1969DH

Entropy of phase transition

DeltaStrs (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
1.81142.7crystaline, IVcrystaline, IIIClegg and Melia, 1969DH
5.24147.5crystaline, IIIcrystaline, IIClegg and Melia, 1969H; DH
47.32285.7crystaline, IliquidClegg and Melia, 1969DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Reaction thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

3Acetaldehyde = Paraldehyde

By formula: 3C2H4O = C6H12O3

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-87. ± 6.kJ/molCmKrasnov, Ozherel'eva, et al., 1983liquid phase; solvent: Nonaqueous; Trimerization
Deltar-98.1kJ/molEqkBusfield, Lee, et al., 1973gas phase

Paraldehyde = 3Acetaldehyde

By formula: C6H12O3 = 3C2H4O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar98.1kJ/molEqkBusfield, Lee, et al., 1973gas phase; At 292-313 K

IR Spectrum

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Data compiled by: Coblentz Society, Inc.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
NIST MS number 20876

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Gas Chromatography

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

View large format table.

Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
PackedSE-30150.755.Tiess, 1984Ar, Gas Chrom Q (80-100 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedApiezon L120.729.Bogoslovsky, Anvaer, et al., 1978Celite 545
PackedApiezon L160.734.Bogoslovsky, Anvaer, et al., 1978Celite 545

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
PackedSE-30786.MHA, 9999Nitrogen, Chromosorb G AW DMCS (80-100 mesh); Column length: 2. m; Tstart: 100. C; Tend: 300. C
CapillaryMDN-5781.van Loon, Linssen, et al., 200560. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 4. min, 4. K/min, 270. C @ 5. min
CapillaryDB-5776.Berdague, Denoyer, et al., 199160. m/0.32 mm/1.0 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 240. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySE-30763.Vinogradov, 2004Program: not specified
CapillarySPB-1767.Flanagan, Streete, et al., 199760. m/0.53 mm/5. «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(6min) => 5C/min => 80C => 10C/min => 200C
CapillarySPB-1767.Strete, Ruprah, et al., 199260. m/0.53 mm/5.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 40 0C (6 min) 5 0C/min -> 80 0C 10 0C/min -> 200 0C
CapillarySPB-1771.Strete, Ruprah, et al., 199260. m/0.53 mm/5.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1786.Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982Program: not specified

Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryFFAP1070.Vernin, Metzger, et al., 199360. C @ 8. min, 2. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm; Tend: 230. C

Normal alkane RI, polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1069.Vinogradov, 2004Program: not specified
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1069.Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Pihlaja and Tuomi, 1970
Pihlaja, K.; Tuomi, M., Bond-Bond interactions in organic oxygen compounds. Part II. Anomalous stablization in cis-2,4,6-trimethyl-1,3,5-trioxane, Suom. Kemistil., 1970, 43, 224-226. [all data]

Clegg G.A., 1969
Clegg G.A., Thermodynamics of polymerization of heterocyclic compounds. Part IV. The heat capacity, entropy, enthalpy and free energy of paraldehyde, Makromol. Chem., 1969, 123, 194-202. [all data]

Fletcher, Mortimer, et al., 1959
Fletcher, S.E.; Mortimer, C.T.; Springall, H.D., Heats of combustion and molecular structure. Part VII. 1:3-dioxa- and 1:3:5-trioxa-cycloalkanes, J. Chem. Soc., 1959, 580-584. [all data]

Cass, Springall, et al., 1955
Cass, R.C.; Springall, H.D.; White, T.R., The anomalous heat of combustion of paraldehyde, Chem. Ind. (London), 1955, 387-388. [all data]

Clegg and Melia, 1969
Clegg, G.A.; Melia, T.P., Thermodynamics of polymerization of heterocyclic compounds. Part IV. The heat capacity, entropy, enthalpy and free energy of paraldehyde, Makromol. Chem., 1969, 123, 194-202. [all data]

Phillip, 1939
Phillip, N.M., Adiabatic and isothermal compressibilities of liquids, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., 1939, A9, 109-120. [all data]

von Reis, 1881
von Reis, M.A., Die specifische Wärme flüssiger organischer Verbindungen und ihre Beziehung zu deren Moleculargewicht, Ann. Physik [3], 1881, 13, 447-464. [all data]

Anonymous, 1968
Anonymous, X., Chemicals and Plastics Physical Properties, 1968, Union Carbide Corp., product bulletin, 1968. [all data]

Biltz, Fischer, et al., 1930
Biltz, W.; Fischer, W.; Wunnenberg, E., Molecular and Atomic Volumes. The Volume Requirements of Crystalline Organic Compounds and Low Temperatures, Z. Phys. Chem., Abt. A, 1930, 151, 13-55. [all data]

Cooper, 1928
Cooper, D.L., The Heat Cpacities of Acetaldehyde and Paraldehyde, and the Heat of Transformation of Acetaldehyde into Paraldehyde, Proc. Trans. N. S. Inst. Sci., Pt. 1, 1928, 17. 82-90. [all data]

Louguinine and Dupont, 1911
Louguinine, W.; Dupont, G., The heat of fusion of substances which melt at ordinary temperatures., Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr., 1911, 9, 219-224. [all data]

Hollmann, 1903
Hollmann, R., Physical and natural equilibria between the modifications of aldehyde, Z. Phys. Chem., Stoechiom. Verwandtschaftsl., 1903, 43, 129-59. [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Domalski and Hearing, 1996
Domalski, Eugene S.; Hearing, Elizabeth D., Heat Capacities and Entropies of Organic Compounds in the Condensed Phase. Volume III, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1996, 25, 1, 1, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555985 . [all data]

Krasnov, Ozherel'eva, et al., 1983
Krasnov, V.L.; Ozherel'eva, N.K.; Trub, E.P.; Tsvetkov, V.G.; Bodrikov, I.V., Trimerization of aldehydes under the action of sulfur dioxide, J. Gen. Chem. USSR, 1983, 53, 2135-2138. [all data]

Busfield, Lee, et al., 1973
Busfield, W.K.; Lee, R.M.; Merifold, D., Gas phase equilibrium between acetaldehyde and paraldehyde, thermodynamic values for the trimerisation of acetaldehyde and the polymerisability of paraldehyde, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 1, 1973, 69, 936-940. [all data]

Tiess, 1984
Tiess, D., Gaschromatographische Retentionsindices von 125 leicht- bis mittelflüchtigen organischen Substanzen toxikologisch-analytischer Relevanz auf SE-30, Wiss. Z. Wilhelm-Pieck-Univ. Rostock Math. Naturwiss. Reihe, 1984, 33, 6-9. [all data]

Bogoslovsky, Anvaer, et al., 1978
Bogoslovsky, Yu.N.; Anvaer, B.I.; Vigdergauz, M.S., Chromatographic constants in gas chromatography (in Russian), Standards Publ. House, Moscow, 1978, 192. [all data]

MHA, 9999
MHA, Directorate of ForensicScience., Forensic Toxicology, 9999. [all data]

van Loon, Linssen, et al., 2005
van Loon, W.A.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Legger, A.; Posthumus, M.A.; Voragen, A.G.J., Identification and olfactometry of French fries flavour extracted at mouth conditions, Food Chem., 2005, 90, 3, 417-425, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.05.005 . [all data]

Berdague, Denoyer, et al., 1991
Berdague, J.-L.; Denoyer, C.; Le Quéré, J.-L.; Semon, E., Volatile components of dry-cured ham, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1991, 39, 7, 1257-1261, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00007a012 . [all data]

Vinogradov, 2004
Vinogradov, B.A., Production, composition, properties and application of essential oils, 2004, retrieved from http://viness.narod.ru. [all data]

Flanagan, Streete, et al., 1997
Flanagan, R.J.; Streete, P.J.; Ramsey, J.D., Volatile Substance Abuse, UNODC Technical Series, No 5, United Nations, Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna International Centre, PO Box 500, A-1400 Vienna, Austria, 1997, 56, retrieved from http://www.odccp.org/pdf/technicalseries1997-01-011.pdf. [all data]

Strete, Ruprah, et al., 1992
Strete, P.J.; Ruprah, M.; Ramsey, J.D.; Flanagan, R.J., Detection and identification of volatile substances by headspace capillary gas chromatography to aid the diagnosis of acute poisoning, Analyst, 1992, 117, 7, 1111-1127, https://doi.org/10.1039/an9921701111 . [all data]

Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982
Ramsey, J.D.; Flanagan, R.J., Detection and Identification of Volatile Organic Compounds in Blood by Headspace Gas Chromatography as an Aid to the Diagnosis of Solvent Abuse, J. Chromatogr., 1982, 240, 2, 423-444, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)99622-5 . [all data]

Vernin, Metzger, et al., 1993
Vernin, G.; Metzger, J.; Sultan, A.A.M.; El-Shafei, A.K.; Párkányi, C., Heterocyclic compounds in model systems for the Maillard reaction. Reactions of aldehydes with ammonium sulfide in the presence or absence of acetoin, Am. Chem. Soc. Symp. Ser., 1993, 528, 36-55. [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, References