Home Symbol which looks like a small house Up Solid circle with an upward pointer in it

NOTICE: Due to scheduled maintenance at our Gaithersburg campus, this site will not be available from 5:00 pm EDT (21:00 UTC) on Friday October 25 until 5:00 pm (21:00 UTC) on Sunday October 27. We apologize for any inconvenience this outage may cause.

Indole

Data at NIST subscription sites:

NIST subscription sites provide data under the NIST Standard Reference Data Program, but require an annual fee to access. The purpose of the fee is to recover costs associated with the development of data collections included in such sites. Your institution may already be a subscriber. Follow the links above to find out more about the data in these sites and their terms of usage.


Condensed phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafsolid86.65 ± 0.75kJ/molCcbGood, 1972 
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacsolid-4235.13 ± 0.63kJ/molCcbGood, 1972 
Deltacsolid-4240.5kJ/molCcbZimmerman and Geisenfelder, 1961 
Deltacsolid-4265.2 ± 4.2kJ/molCcbStern and Klebs, 1933Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -4272.3 kJ/mol; Heat of combustion at 288 K

Phase change data

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Chris Muzny, director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil527.2KN/AWeast and Grasselli, 1989BS
Tboil526.15KN/ACooper, Crowne, et al., 1967Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.6 K; TRC
Tboil526.65KN/ALecat, 1947Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.7 K; TRC
Tboil526.KN/AAdkins and Coonradt, 1941Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 4. K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus325. ± 1.KAVGN/AAverage of 11 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltasub77.6 ± 1.1kJ/molMERibeiro da Silva, Cabral, et al., 2008Based on data from 275. - 291. K.; AC
Deltasub95.0kJ/molVZimmerman and Geisenfelder, 1961ALS

Reduced pressure boiling point

Tboil (K) Pressure (bar) Reference Comment
396.70.007Weast and Grasselli, 1989BS

Enthalpy of sublimation

DeltasubH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
78.4 ± 1.4283.MERibeiro da Silva, Cabral, et al., 2008Based on data from 275. - 291. K.; AC
75.0305.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 291. - 319. K.; AC
77.8 ± 1.6289.MEArshadi, 1974Based on data from 275. - 303. K.; AC
70.0292.N/AAihara, 1955Based on data from 283. - 301. K.; AC
74.9305.N/ASerpinskii, Voitkevich, et al., 1954Based on data from 283. - 328. K. See also Jones, 1960.; AC

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Reaction thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
M - Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

C8H6N- + Hydrogen cation = Indole

By formula: C8H6N- + H+ = C8H7N

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1472. ± 10.kJ/molTDEqMeot-ner, Liebman, et al., 1988gas phase; anchored to 88MEO scale, not the "87 acidity scale". The Kiefer, Zhang, et al., 1997 BDE is for ortho.; B
Deltar1461. ± 8.8kJ/molG+TSTaft and Bordwell, 1988gas phase; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1440. ± 8.4kJ/molTDEqMeot-ner, Liebman, et al., 1988gas phase; anchored to 88MEO scale, not the "87 acidity scale". The Kiefer, Zhang, et al., 1997 BDE is for ortho.; B
Deltar1431. ± 8.4kJ/molIMRETaft and Bordwell, 1988gas phase; B

MeCO2 anion + Indole = (MeCO2 anion bullet Indole)

By formula: C2H3O2- + C8H7N = (C2H3O2- bullet C8H7N)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar117. ± 4.2kJ/molTDAsMeot-ner, 1988gas phase; B,M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar127.J/mol*KPHPMSMeot-ner, 1988gas phase; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar78.7 ± 4.2kJ/molTDAsMeot-ner, 1988gas phase; B

IR Spectrum

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Gas Phase Spectrum

Notice: This spectrum may be better viewed with a Javascript and HTML 5 enabled browser.

IR spectrum
For Zoom
1.) Enter the desired X axis range (e.g., 100, 200)
2.) Check here for automatic Y scaling
3.) Press here to zoom

Notice: Concentration information is not available for this spectrum and, therefore, molar absorptivity values cannot be derived.

Additional Data

View image of digitized spectrum (can be printed in landscape orientation).

View spectrum image in SVG format.

Download spectrum in JCAMP-DX format.

Owner NIST Standard Reference Data Program
Collection (C) 2018 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Sadtler Research Labs Under US-EPA Contract
State gas

This IR spectrum is from the NIST/EPA Gas-Phase Infrared Database .


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

Notice: This spectrum may be better viewed with a Javascript and HTML 5 enabled browser.

Mass spectrum
For Zoom
1.) Enter the desired X axis range (e.g., 100, 200)
2.) Check here for automatic Y scaling
3.) Press here to zoom

Additional Data

View image of digitized spectrum (can be printed in landscape orientation).

View spectrum image in SVG format.

Download spectrum in JCAMP-DX format.

Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
NIST MS number 353133

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


References

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Good, 1972
Good, W.D., Enthalpies of combustion of nine organic nitrogen compounds related to petroleum, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1972, 17, 28-31. [all data]

Zimmerman and Geisenfelder, 1961
Zimmerman, H.; Geisenfelder, H., Uber die Mesomerieenergie von Azolen, Z. Electrochem., 1961, 65, 368-371. [all data]

Stern and Klebs, 1933
Stern, A.; Klebs, G., Calorimetrische Bestimmungen bei einfachen und mehrkernigen Pyrrolderivaten, Ann., 1933, 504, 287-297. [all data]

Cox and Pilcher, 1970
Cox, J.D.; Pilcher, G., Thermochemistry of Organic and Organometallic Compounds, Academic Press, New York, 1970, 1-636. [all data]

Weast and Grasselli, 1989
CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds, 2nd Editon, Weast,R.C and Grasselli, J.G., ed(s)., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1989, 1. [all data]

Cooper, Crowne, et al., 1967
Cooper, A.R.; Crowne, C.W.P.; Farrell, P.G., Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Studies of Electron-Donor-Acceptor Systems, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1967, 63, 447. [all data]

Lecat, 1947
Lecat, M., Some azeotropes of which one constituant is heterocyclic nitrogen, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, Ser. 1, 1947, 61, 73. [all data]

Adkins and Coonradt, 1941
Adkins, H.; Coonradt, H.L., The Selective Hydrogenation of Derivatives of Pyrrole, Indole, Carbazole and Acridine, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1941, 63, 1563-70. [all data]

Ribeiro da Silva, Cabral, et al., 2008
Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Cabral, Joana I.T.A.; Gomes, Jose R.B., Experimental and Computational Study on the Molecular Energetics of Indoline and Indole, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2008, 112, 47, 12263-12269, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp8065212 . [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Arshadi, 1974
Arshadi, Mohammed R., Determination of heats of sublimation of organic compounds by a mass spectrometric--knudsen effusion method, J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 1, 1974, 70, 0, 1569, https://doi.org/10.1039/f19747001569 . [all data]

Aihara, 1955
Aihara, A., J. Chem. Soc. Jpn. Pure Chem. Sect., 1955, 76, 497. [all data]

Serpinskii, Voitkevich, et al., 1954
Serpinskii, V.V.; Voitkevich, S.A.; Lyuboshits, N.Y., Zh. Fiz. Khim., 1954, 28, 810. [all data]

Jones, 1960
Jones, A.H., Sublimation Pressure Data for Organic Compounds., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1960, 5, 2, 196-200, https://doi.org/10.1021/je60006a019 . [all data]

Meot-ner, Liebman, et al., 1988
Meot-ner, M.; Liebman, J.F.; Kafafi, S.A., Ionic Probes of Aromaticity in Annelated Rings, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1988, 110, 18, 5937, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00226a001 . [all data]

Kiefer, Zhang, et al., 1997
Kiefer, J.H.; Zhang, Q.; Kern, R.D.; Yao, J.; Jursic, B., Pyrolysis of Aromatic Azines: Pyrazine, Pyrimidine, and Pyridine, J. Phys. Chem. A, 1997, 101, 38, 7061, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp970211z . [all data]

Taft and Bordwell, 1988
Taft, R.W.; Bordwell, F.G., Structural and Solvent Effects Evaluated from Acidities Measured in Dimethyl Sulfoxide and in the Gas Phase, Acc. Chem. Res., 1988, 21, 12, 463, https://doi.org/10.1021/ar00156a005 . [all data]

Meot-ner, 1988
Meot-ner, M., Ionic Hydrogen Bond and Ion Solvation. 6. Interaction Energies of the Acetate Ion with Organic Molecules. Comparison of CH3COO- with Cl-, CN-, and SH-, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1988, 110, 12, 3854, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00220a022 . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), References