Home Symbol which looks like a small house Up Solid circle with an upward pointer in it

1-Propene, 2-methyl-

Data at NIST subscription sites:

NIST subscription sites provide data under the NIST Standard Reference Data Program, but require an annual fee to access. The purpose of the fee is to recover costs associated with the development of data collections included in such sites. Your institution may already be a subscriber. Follow the links above to find out more about the data in these sites and their terms of usage.


Gas phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
GT - Glushko Thermocenter, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas-17.9 ± 1.1kJ/molCmProsen, Maron, et al., 1951ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacgas-2699.5 ± 1.0kJ/molCmProsen, Maron, et al., 1951Corresponding «DELTA»fgas = -17.9 kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS
Deltacgas-2722.kJ/molCcbGuinchant, 1918Corresponding «DELTA»fgas = 4.6 kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
gas293.59J/mol*KN/AStull D.R., 1969This value was obtained on the basis of calorimetric data [ Todd S.S., 1936]. Experimental value of S(298 K)=288.7 J/mol*K [ Todd S.S., 1936] could not be recommended because of its large uncertainty.; GT

Constant pressure heat capacity of gas

Cp,gas (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
35.6850.Thermodynamics Research Center, 1997p=1 bar. Recommended values are in close agreement with other statistically calculated values [ Kilpatrick J.E., 1946] as well as with ab initio value of S(298.15 K)=293.37 J/mol*K [ East A.L.L., 1997].; GT
45.92100.
56.83150.
67.34200.
82.72273.15
88.09298.15
88.49300.
109.79400.
129.35500.
146.48600.
161.35700.
174.30800.
185.59900.
195.451000.
204.031100.
211.501200.
217.991300.
223.651400.
228.581500.
238.391750.
245.512000.
250.792250.
254.782500.
257.832750.
260.203000.

Constant pressure heat capacity of gas

Cp,gas (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
75.86 ± 0.38239.15Scott R.B., 1945GT
82.89 ± 0.41272.15
91.67 ± 0.46312.15
100.25 ± 0.50353.15

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
liquid194.J/mol*KN/ATodd and Parks, 1936Extrapolation below 90 K, 45.23 J/mol*K.

Constant pressure heat capacity of liquid

Cp,liquid (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
121.3266.26Rabinovich and Lebedev, 1971T = 90 to 266 K.
121.42253.1Todd and Parks, 1936T = 93.3 to 253 K. Value is unsmoothed experimental datum.

Phase change data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Kenneth Kroenlein director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil266.7 ± 0.7KAVGN/AAverage of 25 out of 28 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus132.38KN/ARabinovich and Lebedev, 1971DH
Tfus132.45KN/AKistiakowsky, Ruhoff, et al., 1935Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.3 K; TRC
Tfus125.4KN/ACoffin and Maass, 1928Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.5 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple132.4KN/ATodd and Parks, 1936, 2Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.2 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc417.9 ± 0.1KN/ATsonopoulos and Ambrose, 1996 
Tc417.88KN/ABeattie, Ingersoll, et al., 1942Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.1 K; TRC
Tc420.15KN/ACoffin and Maass, 1928Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 2. K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Pc40.00 ± 0.10barN/ATsonopoulos and Ambrose, 1996 
Pc40.0031barN/ABeattie, Ingersoll, et al., 1942Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.1013 bar; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Vc0.2388l/molN/ATsonopoulos and Ambrose, 1996 
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
rhoc4.19 ± 0.010mol/lN/ATsonopoulos and Ambrose, 1996 
rhoc4.17mol/lN/ABeattie, Ingersoll, et al., 1942Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.05 mol/l; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap20.6kJ/molN/AReid, 1972AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
23.1264.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 212. - 279. K.; AC
22.7281.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 266. - 313. K.; AC
22.2325.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 310. - 376. K.; AC
22.3386.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 371. - 418. K.; AC
22.2350.N/ABeattie, Ingersoll, et al., 1942, 2Based on data from 303. - 398. K.; AC
22.8258.N/ALamb and Roper, 1940Based on data from 216. - 273. K. See also Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984.; AC

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

View plot Requires a JavaScript / HTML 5 canvas capable browser.

Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
216.40 - 273.3.64709799.055-46.615Lamb and Roper, 1940Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
5.92132.4Domalski and Hearing, 1996AC
5.920132.4Todd and Parks, 1936DH

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
44.71132.4Todd and Parks, 1936DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Reaction thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
M - Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
RCD - Robert C. Dunbar

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

C4H7- + Hydrogen cation = 1-Propene, 2-methyl-

By formula: C4H7- + H+ = C4H8

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1644. ± 7.5kJ/molEndoWenthold, Hu, et al., 1999gas phase; B
Deltar1619. ± 8.4kJ/molD-EAWenthold, Polak, et al., 1996gas phase; B
Deltar1633. ± 9.6kJ/molG+TSBartmess and Burnham, 1984gas phase; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1613. ± 7.9kJ/molH-TSWenthold, Hu, et al., 1999gas phase; B
Deltar1588. ± 8.8kJ/molH-TSWenthold, Polak, et al., 1996gas phase; B
Deltar1602. ± 9.2kJ/molIMREBartmess and Burnham, 1984gas phase; B

NH4+ + 1-Propene, 2-methyl- = (NH4+ bullet 1-Propene, 2-methyl-)

By formula: H4N+ + C4H8 = (H4N+ bullet C4H8)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar146.kJ/molPHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner) and Sieck, 1991gas phase; condensation; M
Deltar146.kJ/molPHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner) and Sieck, 1990gas phase; forms t-C4H9NH3+; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar155.J/mol*KPHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner) and Sieck, 1991gas phase; condensation; M
Deltar164.J/mol*KPHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner) and Sieck, 1990gas phase; forms t-C4H9NH3+; M

Propane, 2-chloro-2-methyl- = 1-Propene, 2-methyl- + Hydrogen chloride

By formula: C4H9Cl = C4H8 + HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar74. ± 2.kJ/molEqkHowlett, 1955gas phase; ALS
Deltar74.06kJ/molEqkHowlett, 1951gas phase; Hf-gas-(390) -44.4 kcal/mol; ALS
Deltar72. ± 2.kJ/molEqkKistiakowsky and Stauffer, 1937gas phase; ALS

1-Propene, 2-methyl- + Ethanol = Propane, 2-ethoxy-2-methyl-

By formula: C4H8 + C2H6O = C6H14O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-32.0kJ/molCmSola, Pericas, et al., 1995liquid phase; ALS
Deltar-32.0kJ/molKinSola, Pericas, et al., 1995liquid phase; ALS
Deltar-62. ± 2.kJ/molEqkIborra, Izquierdo, et al., 1989gas phase; GC; ALS

C3H9Si+ + 1-Propene, 2-methyl- = (C3H9Si+ bullet 1-Propene, 2-methyl-)

By formula: C3H9Si+ + C4H8 = (C3H9Si+ bullet C4H8)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar153.kJ/molPHPMSLi and Stone, 1989gas phase; condensation; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar179.J/mol*KPHPMSLi and Stone, 1989gas phase; condensation; M

1-Propene, 2-methyl- + Hydrogen = Isobutane

By formula: C4H8 + H2 = C4H10

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-117.8 ± 0.42kJ/molChydKistiakowsky, Ruhoff, et al., 1935, 2gas phase; Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -118.78 ± 0.75 kJ/mol; At 355 °K; ALS

tert-Butyl iodide = Hydrogen iodide + 1-Propene, 2-methyl-

By formula: C4H9I = HI + C4H8

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-81. ± 2.kJ/molEqkBenson and Amano, 1962gas phase; ALS
Deltar-80.1 ± 4.2kJ/molEqkJones and Ogg, 1937gas phase; At 408-464 K; ALS

1-Propene, 2-methyl- + Isopropyl Alcohol = Propane, 2-methyl-2-(1-methylethoxy)-

By formula: C4H8 + C3H8O = C7H16O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-22.9 ± 1.3kJ/molEqkCalderon, Tejero, et al., 1997liquid phase; ALS
Deltar-21.7 ± 1.6kJ/molCmSola, Pericas, et al., 1997liquid phase; ALS

Lithium ion (1+) + 1-Propene, 2-methyl- = (Lithium ion (1+) bullet 1-Propene, 2-methyl-)

By formula: Li+ + C4H8 = (Li+ bullet C4H8)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar120.kJ/molICRStaley and Beauchamp, 1975gas phase; switching reaction(Li+)H2O, from graph; Dzidic and Kebarle, 1970 extrapolated; M

1-Propene, 2-methyl- + Hydrogen chloride = Propane, 2-chloro-2-methyl-

By formula: C4H8 + HCl = C4H9Cl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-63.1 ± 1.8kJ/molCmArnett and Pienta, 1980liquid phase; solvent: Methylene chloride; Hydrochloronation; ALS

1-Propene, 2-methyl- + Water = 2-Propanol, 2-methyl-

By formula: C4H8 + H2O = C4H10O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-53.451kJ/molEqkEberz and Lucas, 1934gas phase; solvent: Aqueous; Heat of hydration; ALS

Sodium ion (1+) + 1-Propene, 2-methyl- = (Sodium ion (1+) bullet 1-Propene, 2-methyl-)

By formula: Na+ + C4H8 = (Na+ bullet C4H8)

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
41.8298.IMREMcMahon and Ohanessian, 2000Anchor alanine=39.89; RCD

(CAS Reg. No. 38130-30-2 bullet 42949672951-Propene, 2-methyl-) + 1-Propene, 2-methyl- = CAS Reg. No. 38130-30-2

By formula: (CAS Reg. No. 38130-30-2 bullet 4294967295C4H8) + C4H8 = CAS Reg. No. 38130-30-2

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar64.9 ± 8.8kJ/molN/ADePuy, Gronert, et al., 1989gas phase; B

(i-C4H9 bullet 42949672951-Propene, 2-methyl-) + 1-Propene, 2-methyl- = i-C4H9

By formula: (C4H9 bullet 4294967295C4H8) + C4H8 = C4H9

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar64.0 ± 8.8kJ/molN/ADePuy, Gronert, et al., 1989gas phase; B

Propane, 2-methoxy-2-methyl- = 1-Propene, 2-methyl- + Methyl Alcohol

By formula: C5H12O = C4H8 + CH4O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar39.8 ± 0.4kJ/molCmArntz and Gottlieb, 1985gas phase; At 319K; ALS

Propane, 1,2-dibromo-2-methyl- = 1-Propene, 2-methyl- + Bromine

By formula: C4H8Br2 = C4H8 + Br2

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar139.7 ± 0.46kJ/molCmSunner and Wulff, 1974liquid phase; ALS

1-Propene, 2-methyl- + 2-Butanol = 2-(tert-butoxy)butane

By formula: C4H8 + C4H10O = C8H18O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-37.7 ± 2.4kJ/molEqkSharonov, Mishentseva, et al., 1991liquid phase; ALS

1-Propene, 2-methyl- + 1-Propanol, 2-methyl- = Propane, 1-(1,1-dimethylethoxy)-2-methyl-

By formula: C4H8 + C4H10O = C8H18O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-36.3 ± 1.8kJ/molEqkSharonov, Mishentseva, et al., 1991liquid phase; ALS

1-Propene, 2-methyl- + 1-Butanol = 1-Tert-butoxybutane

By formula: C4H8 + C4H10O = C8H18O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-34.8 ± 2.7kJ/molEqkSharonov, Mishentseva, et al., 1991liquid phase; ALS

Propane, 2-ethoxy-2-methyl- = 1-Propene, 2-methyl- + Ethanol

By formula: C6H14O = C4H8 + C2H6O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar35.5 ± 1.9kJ/molEqkSharonov, Rozhnov, et al., 1995liquid phase; ALS

Propane, 2-bromo-2-methyl- = 1-Propene, 2-methyl- + Hydrogen chloride

By formula: C4H9Br = C4H8 + HCl

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar79. ± 4.kJ/molEqkKistiakowsky and Stauffer, 1937gas phase; ALS

Hydrogen bromide + 1-Propene, 2-methyl- = Propane, 2-bromo-2-methyl-

By formula: HBr + C4H8 = C4H9Br

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-78.868kJ/molEqkHowlett, 1957gas phase; ALS

1-Propene, 2-methyl- + Methyl Alcohol = Propane, 2-methoxy-2-methyl-

By formula: C4H8 + CH4O = C5H12O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-33.8kJ/molCmSol, Perics, et al., 1994liquid phase; ALS

2-Propanol, 2-methyl- = 1-Propene, 2-methyl- + Water

By formula: C4H10O = C4H8 + H2O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar52.7kJ/molEqkTaft and Riesz, 1955liquid phase; ALS

p-Cresol + 1-Propene, 2-methyl- = Phenol, 2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl-

By formula: C7H8O + C4H8 = C11H16O

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar62.7 ± 2.8kJ/molEqkVerevkin, Nesterova, et al., 1984gas phase; ALS

Phenol, p-tert-butyl- = Phenol + 1-Propene, 2-methyl-

By formula: C10H14O = C6H6O + C4H8

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar71.0 ± 2.1kJ/molEqkVerevkin, 1982gas phase; ALS

Henry's Law data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Rolf Sander

Henry's Law constant (water solution)

kH(T) = H exp(d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) ((1/T) - 1/(298.15 K)))
H = Henry's law constant for solubility in water at 298.15 K (mol/kg*bar)
d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) = Temperature dependence constant (K)

H (mol/kg*bar) d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) (K) Method Reference Comment
0.0048 QN/A missing citation give several references for the Henry's law constants but don't assign them to specific species.
0.0016 LN/A 
0.00573000.LN/A 
0.0047 VN/A 

Gas phase ion energetics data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
MM - Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner)
LBLHLM - Sharon G. Lias, John E. Bartmess, Joel F. Liebman, John L. Holmes, Rhoda D. Levin, and W. Gary Mallard
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron

View reactions leading to C4H8+ (ion structure unspecified)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)9.22 ± 0.02eVN/AN/AL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)802.1kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity775.6kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Proton affinity at 298K

Proton affinity (kJ/mol) Reference Comment
802.3 ± 4.8Bouchoux and Salpin, 1999T = 300K; Re-evaluated thermokinetic parametric fitting by the authors using reference base GBs and PAs from Hunter and Lias, 1998; MM
802.3 ± 4.8Bouchoux and Salpin, 1999T = 298K; MM
805.0 ± 6.7Cleven, Hoke, et al., 1996PA > butyronitrile, < benzonitrile; MM

Gas basicity at 298K

Gas basicity (review) (kJ/mol) Reference Comment
776.3 ± 2.7Bouchoux and Salpin, 1999T = 300K; Re-evaluated thermokinetic parametric fitting by the authors using reference base GBs and PAs from Hunter and Lias, 1998; MM
776.3 ± 2.7Bouchoux and Salpin, 1999T = 298K; MM

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
9.19PITraeger, 1986LBLHLM
9.24 ± 0.05EIHolmes and Lossing, 1983LBLHLM
9.24 ± 0.02PEBieri, Burger, et al., 1977LLK
9.239 ± 0.003PEMasclet, Grosjean, et al., 1973LLK
9.19EILossing, 1972LLK
9.21PEFrost and Sandhu, 1971LLK
9.17PEDewar and Worley, 1969RDSH
9.23 ± 0.02PIWatanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962RDSH
9.23PIBralsford, Harris, et al., 1960RDSH
9.41PEWiberg, Ellison, et al., 1976Vertical value; LLK
9.39PEKoenig, Balle, et al., 1975Vertical value; LLK
9.45PEKimura, Katsumata, et al., 1975Vertical value; LLK

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
CH3+16.4C3H5EISenSharma and Franklin, 1973LLK
C2H4+12.0 ± 0.25?EIMeisels, Park, et al., 1970RDSH
C3H5+11.33CH3PITraeger, 1984LBLHLM
C3H5+11.8CH3EISenSharma and Franklin, 1973LLK
C3H5+11.45CH3EILossing, 1972LLK
C4H6+11.3 ± 0.1H2EIHolmes, Weese, et al., 1977LLK
C4H7+11.26HPITraeger, 1986LBLHLM
C4H7+11.41HEILossing, 1972LLK

De-protonation reactions

C4H7- + Hydrogen cation = 1-Propene, 2-methyl-

By formula: C4H7- + H+ = C4H8

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1644. ± 7.5kJ/molEndoWenthold, Hu, et al., 1999gas phase; B
Deltar1619. ± 8.4kJ/molD-EAWenthold, Polak, et al., 1996gas phase; B
Deltar1633. ± 9.6kJ/molG+TSBartmess and Burnham, 1984gas phase; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1613. ± 7.9kJ/molH-TSWenthold, Hu, et al., 1999gas phase; B
Deltar1588. ± 8.8kJ/molH-TSWenthold, Polak, et al., 1996gas phase; B
Deltar1602. ± 9.2kJ/molIMREBartmess and Burnham, 1984gas phase; B

Ion clustering data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
M - Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias
RCD - Robert C. Dunbar

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. Searches may be limited to ion clustering reactions. A general reaction search form is also available.

Clustering reactions

C3H9Si+ + 1-Propene, 2-methyl- = (C3H9Si+ bullet 1-Propene, 2-methyl-)

By formula: C3H9Si+ + C4H8 = (C3H9Si+ bullet C4H8)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar153.kJ/molPHPMSLi and Stone, 1989gas phase; condensation; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar179.J/mol*KPHPMSLi and Stone, 1989gas phase; condensation; M

NH4+ + 1-Propene, 2-methyl- = (NH4+ bullet 1-Propene, 2-methyl-)

By formula: H4N+ + C4H8 = (H4N+ bullet C4H8)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar146.kJ/molPHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner) and Sieck, 1991gas phase; condensation; M
Deltar146.kJ/molPHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner) and Sieck, 1990gas phase; forms t-C4H9NH3+; M
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar155.J/mol*KPHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner) and Sieck, 1991gas phase; condensation; M
Deltar164.J/mol*KPHPMSMeot-Ner (Mautner) and Sieck, 1990gas phase; forms t-C4H9NH3+; M

Lithium ion (1+) + 1-Propene, 2-methyl- = (Lithium ion (1+) bullet 1-Propene, 2-methyl-)

By formula: Li+ + C4H8 = (Li+ bullet C4H8)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar120.kJ/molICRStaley and Beauchamp, 1975gas phase; switching reaction(Li+)H2O, from graph; Dzidic and Kebarle, 1970 extrapolated; M

Sodium ion (1+) + 1-Propene, 2-methyl- = (Sodium ion (1+) bullet 1-Propene, 2-methyl-)

By formula: Na+ + C4H8 = (Na+ bullet C4H8)

Free energy of reaction

DeltarG° (kJ/mol) T (K) Method Reference Comment
41.8298.IMREMcMahon and Ohanessian, 2000Anchor alanine=39.89; RCD

IR Spectrum

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Gas Phase Spectrum

Notice: This spectrum may be better viewed with a Javascript and HTML 5 enabled browser.

IR spectrum
For Zoom
1.) Enter the desired X axis range (e.g., 100, 200)
2.) Check here for automatic Y scaling
3.) Press here to zoom

Notice: Concentration information is not available for this spectrum and, therefore, molar absorptivity values cannot be derived.

Additional Data

View image of digitized spectrum (can be printed in landscape orientation).

View spectrum image in SVG format.

Download spectrum in JCAMP-DX format.

Owner NIST Standard Reference Data Program
Collection (C) 2018 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Sadtler Research Labs Under US-EPA Contract
State gas

This IR spectrum is from the NIST/EPA Gas-Phase Infrared Database .


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, UV/Visible spectrum, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

Notice: This spectrum may be better viewed with a Javascript and HTML 5 enabled browser.

Mass spectrum
For Zoom
1.) Enter the desired X axis range (e.g., 100, 200)
2.) Check here for automatic Y scaling
3.) Press here to zoom

Additional Data

View image of digitized spectrum (can be printed in landscape orientation).

View spectrum image in SVG format.

Download spectrum in JCAMP-DX format.

Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
NIST MS number 18911

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


UV/Visible spectrum

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Victor Talrose, Eugeny B. Stern, Antonina A. Goncharova, Natalia A. Messineva, Natalia V. Trusova, Margarita V. Efimkina

Spectrum

Notice: This spectrum may be better viewed with a Javascript and HTML 5 enabled browser.

UVVis spectrum
For Zoom
1.) Enter the desired X axis range (e.g., 100, 200)
2.) Check here for automatic Y scaling
3.) Press here to zoom

Additional Data

View image of digitized spectrum (can be printed in landscape orientation).

View spectrum image in SVG format.

Download spectrum in JCAMP-DX format.

Source Jones and Taylor, 1955
Owner INEP CP RAS, NIST OSRD
Collection (C) 2007 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin INSTITUTE OF ENERGY PROBLEMS OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, RAS
Source reference RAS UV No. 2469
Instrument Beckman DU
Melting point -140.4
Boiling point -6.9

Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Takehiko Shimanouchi

Symmetry:   C2nu     Symmetry Number sigma = 2


 Sym.   No   Approximate   Selected Freq.  Infrared   Raman   Comments 
 Species   type of mode   Value   Rating   Value  Phase  Value  Phase

a1 1 CH2 s-str 2989  D 2991 M sln. 2989 S p liq.
a1 2 CH3 d-str 2941  C 2940.8 gas 2930 W p liq.
a1 3 CH3 s-str 2911  D 2919 W gas 2911 S p liq.
a1 4 C=C str 1661  C 1661.1 S gas 1655 S p liq.
a1 5 CH3 d-deform 1470  C 1469.6 S gas 1462 VW liq.
a1 6 CH2 scis 1416  D 1419 W sln. 1416 S p liq.
a1 7 CH3 s-deform 1366  D 1366 VW p liq.
a1 8 CH3 rock 1064  C 1063.9 S gas 1058 W p liq.
a1 9 C-C str 801  C 801 W gas 803 VS p liq.
a1 10 C=CC2 ip-deform 383  D 384 W sln. 383 W liq.
a2 11 CH3 d-str 2970  D  ia 2970 W p liq. OV(«nu»17)
a2 12 CH3 d-deform 1459  D  ia 1459 VW liq.
a2 13 CH3 rock 1076  E  ia CF
a2 14 CH2 twist 981  E  ia CF
a2 15 CH3 torsion 193  E  ia CF
b1 16 CH2 a-str 3086  C 3086.0 S gas 3079 W dp liq.
b1 17 CH3 d-str 2980  C 2980.4 gas 2970 W dp liq. OV(«nu»11)
b1 18 CH3 s-str 2893  C 2892.9 W gas 2892 W dp liq.
b1 19 CH3 d-deform 1458  C 1458.4 S gas
b1 20 CH3 s-deform 1381  C 1381.2 S gas 1386 W liq.
b1 21 C-C str 1282  C 1281.9 S gas 1281 W liq.
b1 22 CH3 rock 1043  E CF
b1 23 CH2 rock 974  C 973.7 W gas 972 VW liq.
b1 24 C=CC2 ip-deform 430  D 430 sh sln.
b2 25 CH3 d-str 2945  C 2944.9 S gas
b2 26 CH3 d-deform 1444  C 1443.7 S gas 1439 VW liq.
b2 27 CH3 rock 1079  C 1079.0 S gas
b2 28 CH2 wag 890  C 889.7 VS gas 883 W dp liq.
b2 29 C=CC2 op-deform 429  C 429.1 S gas 431 W dp liq.
b2 30 CH3 torsion 196  C 196 VW gas

Source: Shimanouchi, 1972

Notes

VSVery strong
SStrong
MMedium
WWeak
VWVery weak
iaInactive
shShoulder
pPolarized
dpDepolarized
CFCalculated frequency
OVOverlapped by band indicated in parentheses.
C3~6 cm-1 uncertainty
D6~15 cm-1 uncertainty
E15~30 cm-1 uncertainty

Gas Chromatography

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

View large format table.

Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryBPX-530.394.Aflalaye, Sternberg, et al., 199512. m/0.15 mm/0.25 «mu»m, H2
CapillaryCP Sil 5 CB20.391.Do and Raulin, 199225. m/0.15 mm/2. «mu»m, H2
CapillaryPoraPLOT Q100.389.Do and Raulin, 198910. m/0.32 mm/10. «mu»m, H2
CapillaryPoraPLOT Q160.390.Do and Raulin, 198910. m/0.32 mm/10. «mu»m, H2
CapillaryHP-PONA40.390.Lubeck and Sutton, 198450. m/0.21 mm/0.5 «mu»m, H2
CapillarySE-3060.390.Bredael, 1982Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.5 mm
CapillaryOV-120.380.Nijs and Jacobs, 1981He; Column length: 150. m; Column diameter: 0.50 mm
PackedSqualane80.383.Chrétien and Dubois, 1977 
CapillarySqualane40.383.Matukuma, 1969N2; Column length: 91.4 m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane27.383.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSqualane86.384.Hively and Hinton, 1968He, Chromosorb P; Column length: 15. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
PackedSE-3070.390.Widmer, 1967Diatoport S; Column length: 7.9 m
PackedSqualane26.382.Zulaïca and Guiochon, 1966Column length: 10. m

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPetrocol DH-100392.Haagen-Smit Laboratory, 1997He; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.2 mm; Program: 5C(10min) => 5C/min => 50C(48min) => 1.5C/min => 195C(91min)
CapillaryDB-1391.Hoekman, 199360. m/0.32 mm/1.0 «mu»m, He; Program: -40 C for 12 min; -40 - 125 C at 3 deg.min; 125-185 C at 6 deg/min; 185 - 220 C at 20 deg/min; hold 220 C for 2 min

Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

View large format table.

Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
PackedCarbowax 20M130.438.Widmer, 1967Diatoport P; Column length: 7.9 m
PackedCarbowax 20M70.427.Widmer, 1967Diatoport P; Column length: 7.9 m

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPetrocol DH384.White, Hackett, et al., 1992100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

View large format table.

Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryMethyl Silicone50.383.N/AN2; Column length: 74.6 m; Column diameter: 0.28 mm
PackedMethyl Silicone50.400.Huguet, 1961Nitrogen, Celite C-22; Column length: 2.5 m

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane: CP-Sil 5 CB385.Bramston-Cook, 201360. m/0.25 mm/1.0 «mu»m, Helium, 45. C @ 1.45 min, 3.6 K/min, 210. C @ 2.72 min
CapillaryPetrocol DH370.Supelco, 2012100. m/0.25 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Helium, 20. C @ 15. min, 15. K/min, 220. C @ 30. min
CapillaryOV-101388.Chupalov and Zenkevich, 1996N2, 3. K/min; Column length: 52. m; Column diameter: 0.26 mm; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryDB-1386.Ciccioli, Cecinato, et al., 199260. m/0.32 mm/1.2 «mu»m, He, 30. C @ 10. min, 3. K/min; Tend: 240. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryMethyl Silicone384.Chen and Feng, 2007Program: not specified
CapillaryMethyl Silicone390.Blunden, Aneja, et al., 200560. m/0.32 mm/1.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: -50 0C (2 min) 8 0C/min -> 200 0C (7.75 min) 25 0C -> 225 0C (8 min)
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane383.Junkes, Castanho, et al., 2003Program: not specified
CapillaryMethyl Silicone387.Spieksma, 1999Program: not specified
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxanes388.Zenkevich, Chupalov, et al., 1996Program: not specified
PackedApieson L390.Kojima, Fujii, et al., 1980Chromosorb W; Column length: 20. m; Program: not specified
PackedSE-30390.Robinson and Odell, 1971N2, Chromosorb W; Column length: 6.1 m; Program: 50C910min) => 20C/min => 90(6min) => 10C/min => 150C(hold)

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Prosen, Maron, et al., 1951
Prosen, E.J.; Maron, F.W.; Rossini, F.D., Heats of combustion, formation, and insomerization of ten C4 hydrocarbons, J. Res. NBS, 1951, 46, 106-112. [all data]

Guinchant, 1918
Guinchant, M.J., Etude sur la fonction acide dans les derives metheniques et methiniques, Ann. Chem., 1918, 10, 30-84. [all data]

Stull D.R., 1969
Stull D.R., Jr., The Chemical Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds. Wiley, New York, 1969. [all data]

Todd S.S., 1936
Todd S.S., Thermal data on organic compounds. XV. Some heat capacity, entropy and free energy data for the isomeric butenes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1936, 58, 134-137. [all data]

Thermodynamics Research Center, 1997
Thermodynamics Research Center, Selected Values of Properties of Chemical Compounds., Thermodynamics Research Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 1997. [all data]

Kilpatrick J.E., 1946
Kilpatrick J.E., Heat content, free energy function, entropy, and heat capacity of ethylene, propylene, and the four butenes to 1500 K, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand, 1946, 37, 163-171. [all data]

East A.L.L., 1997
East A.L.L., Ab initio statistical thermodynamical models for the computation of third-law entropies, J. Chem. Phys., 1997, 106, 6655-6674. [all data]

Scott R.B., 1945
Scott R.B., Specific heats of gaseous 1,3-butadiene, isobutene, styrene, and ethylbenzene, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand., 1945, 34, 243-254. [all data]

Todd and Parks, 1936
Todd, S.S.; Parks, G.S., Thermal data on organic compounds. XV. Some heat capacity, entropy and free energy data for the isomeric butenes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1936, 58, 134-137. [all data]

Rabinovich and Lebedev, 1971
Rabinovich, I.B.; Lebedev, B.V., On the thermodynamic stability of polyisobutylene. Tr. Khim. Khim. Tekhnol., 1971, 194-196. [all data]

Kistiakowsky, Ruhoff, et al., 1935
Kistiakowsky, G.B.; Ruhoff, J.R.; Smith, H.A.; Vaughan, W.E., Heats of Organic Reactions II. Hydrogenation of Some Simpler Olefinic Hydrocarbons, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1935, 57, 876-82. [all data]

Coffin and Maass, 1928
Coffin, C.C.; Maass, O., The Preparation and Physical Properties of «alpha»-,«beta»- and «gamma»-Butylene and Normal and Isobutane, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1928, 50, 1427-37. [all data]

Todd and Parks, 1936, 2
Todd, S.S.; Parks, G.S., Thermal Data on Organic Compounds XV. Some Heat Capacity, Entropy and Free Energy Data for the Isomeric Butenes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1936, 58, 134. [all data]

Tsonopoulos and Ambrose, 1996
Tsonopoulos, C.; Ambrose, D., Vapor-Liquid Critical Properties of Elements and Compounds. 6. Unsaturated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1996, 41, 645-656. [all data]

Beattie, Ingersoll, et al., 1942
Beattie, J.A.; Ingersoll, H.G.; Stockmayer, W.H., Vapor Pressure and Critical Consants of Isobutene, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1942, 64, 546. [all data]

Reid, 1972
Reid, Robert C., Handbook on vapor pressure and heats of vaporization of hydrocarbons and related compounds, R. C. Wilhort and B. J. Zwolinski, Texas A Research Foundation. College Station, Texas(1971). 329 pages.$10.00, AIChE J., 1972, 18, 6, 1278-1278, https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690180637 . [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Beattie, Ingersoll, et al., 1942, 2
Beattie, James A.; Ingersoll, Henry G.; Stockmayer, Walter H., Vapor Pressures and Critical Constants of Isobutene, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1942, 64, 3, 546-548, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01255a021 . [all data]

Lamb and Roper, 1940
Lamb, Arthur B.; Roper, Edwin E., The Vapor Pressures of Certain Unsaturated Hydrocarbons, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1940, 62, 4, 806-814, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01861a032 . [all data]

Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984
Boublik, T.; Fried, V.; Hala, E., The Vapour Pressures of Pure Substances: Selected Values of the Temperature Dependence of the Vapour Pressures of Some Pure Substances in the Normal and Low Pressure Region, 2nd ed., Elsevier, New York, 1984, 972. [all data]

Domalski and Hearing, 1996
Domalski, Eugene S.; Hearing, Elizabeth D., Heat Capacities and Entropies of Organic Compounds in the Condensed Phase. Volume III, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1996, 25, 1, 1, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555985 . [all data]

Wenthold, Hu, et al., 1999
Wenthold, P.G.; Hu, J.; Squires, R.R.; Lineberger, W.C., Photoelectron spectroscopy of the trimethylenemethane negative ion, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 1999, 10, 9, 800-809, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1044-0305(99)00043-4 . [all data]

Wenthold, Polak, et al., 1996
Wenthold, P.G.; Polak, M.L.; Lineberger, W.C., Photoelectron Spectroscopy of the Allyl and 2-Methylallyl Anions, J. Phys. Chem., 1996, 100, 17, 6920, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp953401n . [all data]

Bartmess and Burnham, 1984
Bartmess, J.E.; Burnham, R., Effect of central substituents on the gas phase acidities of propenes, J. Org. Chem., 1984, 49, 1382. [all data]

Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sieck, 1991
Meot-Ner (Mautner), M.; Sieck, L.W., Proton affinity ladders from variable-temperature equilibrium measurements. 1. A reevaluation of the upper proton affinity range, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1991, 113, 12, 4448, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00012a012 . [all data]

Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sieck, 1990
Meot-Ner (Mautner), M.; Sieck, L.W., Ion Thermochemistry at High Temperatures. 1. Thermochemistry of the Ammonium Ion from Variable - Temperature Equilibrium Measurements. Proton Transfer, Association, and Decomposition Reactions in Ammonia, Isobutene, and t-Butylamine, J. Phys. Chem., 1990, 94, 19, 7730, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100382a076 . [all data]

Howlett, 1955
Howlett, K.E., The use of equilibrium constants to calculate thermodynamic quantities. Part II, J. Chem. Soc., 1955, 1784-17. [all data]

Howlett, 1951
Howlett, K.E., The use of equilibrium constants to calculate thermodynamic quantities. Part I. Equilibria in the system tert.-butyl chloride, isobutene, hydrogen chloride, J. Chem. Soc., 1951, 1409-1412. [all data]

Kistiakowsky and Stauffer, 1937
Kistiakowsky, G.B.; Stauffer, C.H., The kinetics of gaseous addition of halogen acids to isobutene, 1937, 165-170. [all data]

Sola, Pericas, et al., 1995
Sola, L.; Pericas, M.A.; Cunill, F.; Tejero, J., Thermodynamic and kinetic studies of the liquid phase synthesis of tert-butyl ethyl ether using a reaction calorimeter, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 1995, 34, 3718-3725. [all data]

Iborra, Izquierdo, et al., 1989
Iborra, M.; Izquierdo, J.F.; Tejero, J.; Cunill, F., Equilibrium constant for ethyl tert-butyl ether vapor-phase synthesis, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1989, 34, 1-5. [all data]

Li and Stone, 1989
Li, X.; Stone, J.A., Determination of the beta silicon effect from a mass spectrometric study of the association of trimethylsilylium ion with alkenes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1989, 111, 15, 5586, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00197a013 . [all data]

Kistiakowsky, Ruhoff, et al., 1935, 2
Kistiakowsky, G.B.; Ruhoff, J.R.; Smith, H.A.; Vaughan, W.E., Heats of organic reactions. II. Hydrogenation of some simpler olefinic hydrocarbons, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1935, 57, 876-882. [all data]

Cox and Pilcher, 1970
Cox, J.D.; Pilcher, G., Thermochemistry of Organic and Organometallic Compounds, Academic Press, New York, 1970, 1-636. [all data]

Benson and Amano, 1962
Benson, S.W.; Amano, A., Thermodynamic properties of tertiary iodides, J. Chem. Phys., 1962, 37, 197-198. [all data]

Jones and Ogg, 1937
Jones, J.L.; Ogg, R.A., Jr., The equilibrium (CH3)3CI = (CH3)2C = CH2 + HI, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1937, 59, 1943-1945. [all data]

Calderon, Tejero, et al., 1997
Calderon, A.; Tejero, J.; Izuierdo, J.F.; Iborra, M.; Cunill, F., Equilibrium Constants for the liquid-phase synthesis of isopropyl tert-butyl ether from 2-propanol and isobutene, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 1997, 36, 896-902. [all data]

Sola, Pericas, et al., 1997
Sola, L.; Pericas, M.A.; Cunill, F.; Izquierdo, J.F., A comparative thermodynamic and kinetic study of the reaction between olefins and light alcohols leading to branced ethers. Reaction calorimetry study of the formation of tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) and tert-butyl isopropyl ether (IPTBE), Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 1997, 36, 2012-2018. [all data]

Staley and Beauchamp, 1975
Staley, R.H.; Beauchamp, J.L., Intrinsic Acid - Base Properties of Molecules. Binding Energies of Li+ to pi - and n - Donor Bases, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1975, 97, 20, 5920, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00853a050 . [all data]

Dzidic and Kebarle, 1970
Dzidic, I.; Kebarle, P., Hydration of the Alkali Ions in the Gas Phase. Enthalpies and Entropies of Reactions M+(H2O)n-1 + H2O = M+(H2O)n, J. Phys. Chem., 1970, 74, 7, 1466, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100702a013 . [all data]

Arnett and Pienta, 1980
Arnett, E.M.; Pienta, N.J., Stabilities of carbonium ions in solution. 12. Heats of formation of alkyl chlorides as an entree to heats of solvation of aliphatic carbonium ions, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1980, 102, 3329-3334. [all data]

Eberz and Lucas, 1934
Eberz, W.F.; Lucas, H.J., The hydration of unsaturated compounds. II. The equilibrium between i-butene and t-butanol and the free energy of hydration of i-butene, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1934, 56, 1230-1234. [all data]

McMahon and Ohanessian, 2000
McMahon, T.B.; Ohanessian, G., An Experimental and Ab Initio Study of the Nature of the Binding in Gas-Phase Complexes of Sodium Ions, Chem. Eur. J., 2000, 6, 16, 2931, https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-3765(20000818)6:16<2931::AID-CHEM2931>3.0.CO;2-7 . [all data]

DePuy, Gronert, et al., 1989
DePuy, C.H.; Gronert, S.; Barlow, S.E.; Bierbaum, V.M.; Damrauer, R., The Gas Phase Acidities of the Alkanes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1989, 111, 6, 1968, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00188a003 . [all data]

Arntz and Gottlieb, 1985
Arntz, H.; Gottlieb, K., High-pressure heat-flow calorimeter determination of the enthalpy of reaction for the synthesis of methyl t-butyl ether from methanol and 2-methylpropene, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1985, 17, 967-972. [all data]

Sunner and Wulff, 1974
Sunner, S.; Wulff, C.A., The enthalpy of formation of 1,1-dibromo-2-methylpropane, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1974, 6, 287-292. [all data]

Sharonov, Mishentseva, et al., 1991
Sharonov, K.G.; Mishentseva, Y.B.; Rozhnov, A.M.; Miroshnichenko, E.A.; Korchatova, L.I., Molar enthalpies of formation and vaporizqation of t-butoxybutanes and thermodynamics of their synthesis from a butanol and 2-methylpropene I. Equilibria of synthesis reactions of t-butoxybutanes in the liquid phase, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1991, 23, 141-145. [all data]

Sharonov, Rozhnov, et al., 1995
Sharonov, K.G.; Rozhnov, A.M.; Korol'kov, A.V.; Karaseva, S.Y., Enthalpies of formation of 2-methyl-2-ethoxypropane and 2-ethyl-2-ethoxypropane from equilibrium measurements, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1995, 27, 751-753. [all data]

Howlett, 1957
Howlett, K.E., The use of equilibrium constants to calculate thermodynamic quantities. Part III. Equilibria in the system tert.-butyl bromideisobutene-hydrogen bromide, J. Chem. Soc., 1957, 2834-2836. [all data]

Sol, Perics, et al., 1994
Sol, L.; Perics, M.A.; Cunill, F.; Iborra, M., Reaction calorimetry study of the liquid-phase synthesis of tert-butyl methyl ether, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 1994, 33, 2578-2583. [all data]

Taft and Riesz, 1955
Taft, R.W., Jr.; Riesz, P., Thermodynamic properties for the system isobutene-t-butyl alcohol, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1955, 77, 902-904. [all data]

Verevkin, Nesterova, et al., 1984
Verevkin, S.P.; Nesterova, T.N.; Rozhnov, A.M., The equilibrium in the dealkylation of o-t-butyl-p-cresol, Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.), 1984, 58, 284. [all data]

Verevkin, 1982
Verevkin, S.P., Study of equilibrium of tert-butylphenol dealkylation in the gas phase, Termodin. Organ. Soedin., 1982, 67-70. [all data]

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556018 . [all data]

Bouchoux and Salpin, 1999
Bouchoux, J.; Salpin, J.Y., Re-evaluated gas-phase basicity and proton affinity data from the thermokinetic method, Rapid Com. Mass Spectrom., 1999, 13, 932. [all data]

Cleven, Hoke, et al., 1996
Cleven, C.D.; Hoke, S.H.; Cooks, R.G.; Hrovat, D.A.; Smith, J.M.; Lee, M.S.; Borden, W.T., Effect of Olefin Pyramidalization on the Proton Affinity of Tricyclo[3.3.3.03,7]undec-3(7)-ene as Determined by ab Initio Calculations and Kinetic Method Measurements, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1996, 118, 10872. [all data]

Traeger, 1986
Traeger, J.C., Heat of formation for the 1-methylallyl cation by photoionization mass spectrometry, J. Phys. Chem., 1986, 90, 4114. [all data]

Holmes and Lossing, 1983
Holmes, J.L.; Lossing, F.P., The need for adequate thermochemical data for the interpretation of fragmentation mechanisms and ion structure assignments, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 1983, 47, 133. [all data]

Bieri, Burger, et al., 1977
Bieri, G.; Burger, F.; Heilbronner, E.; Maier, J.P., Valence ionization enrgies of hydrocarbons, Helv. Chim. Acta, 1977, 60, 2213. [all data]

Masclet, Grosjean, et al., 1973
Masclet, P.; Grosjean, D.; Mouvier, G., Alkene ionization potentials. Part I. Quantitative determination of alkyl group structural effects, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1973, 2, 225. [all data]

Lossing, 1972
Lossing, F.P., Free radicals by mass spectrometry. XLV. Ionization potentials and heats of formation of C3H3, C3H5, and C4H7 radicals and ions, Can. J. Chem., 1972, 50, 3973. [all data]

Frost and Sandhu, 1971
Frost, D.C.; Sandhu, J.S., Ionization potentials of ethylene and some methyl-substituted ethylenes as determined by photoelectron spectroscopy, Indian J. Chem., 1971, 9, 1105. [all data]

Dewar and Worley, 1969
Dewar, M.J.S.; Worley, S.D., Photoelectron spectra of molecules. I. Ionization potentials of some organic molecules and their interpretation, J. Chem. Phys., 1969, 50, 654. [all data]

Watanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962
Watanabe, K.; Nakayama, T.; Mottl, J., Ionization potentials of some molecules, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer, 1962, 2, 369. [all data]

Bralsford, Harris, et al., 1960
Bralsford, R.; Harris, P.V.; Price, W.C., The effect of fluorine on the electronic spectra and ionization potentials of molecules, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), 1960, A258, 459. [all data]

Wiberg, Ellison, et al., 1976
Wiberg, K.B.; Ellison, G.B.; Wendoloski, J.J.; Brundle, C.R.; Kuebler, N.A., Electronic states of organic molecules. 3. Photoelectron spectra of cycloalkenes and methylenecycloalkanes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1976, 98, 7179. [all data]

Koenig, Balle, et al., 1975
Koenig, T.; Balle, T.; Snell, W., Helium(I) photoelectron spectra of organic radicals, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1975, 97, 662. [all data]

Kimura, Katsumata, et al., 1975
Kimura, K.; Katsumata, S.; Yamazaki, T.; Wakabayashi, H., UV photoelectron spectra and sum rule consideration; out-of-plane orbitals of unsaturated compounds with planar-skeleton structure, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1975, 6, 41. [all data]

SenSharma and Franklin, 1973
SenSharma, D.K.; Franklin, J.L., Heat of formation of free radicals by mass spectrometry, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1973, 95, 6562. [all data]

Meisels, Park, et al., 1970
Meisels, G.G.; Park, J.Y.; Giessner, B.G., Ionization and dissociation of C4H8 isomers, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1970, 92, 254. [all data]

Traeger, 1984
Traeger, J.C., A study of the allyl cation thermochemistry by photoionization mass spectrometry, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes, 1984, 58, 259. [all data]

Holmes, Weese, et al., 1977
Holmes, J.L.; Weese, G.M.; Blair, A.S.; Terlouw, J.K., Metastable ion studies IX-Thermochemistry and ion structures among fragmenting [C4H8]+ ions, an electron impact and field ionization investigation, Org. Mass Spectrom., 1977, 12, 424. [all data]

Jones and Taylor, 1955
Jones, L.C., Jr.; Taylor, L.W., Far ultraviolet absorption spectra of unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, Anal. Chem., 1955, 27, 2, 228-237. [all data]

Shimanouchi, 1972
Shimanouchi, T., Tables of Molecular Vibrational Frequencies Consolidated Volume I, National Bureau of Standards, 1972, 1-160. [all data]

Aflalaye, Sternberg, et al., 1995
Aflalaye, A.; Sternberg, R.; Raulin, F.; Vidal-Madjar, C., Gas chromatography of Titan's atmosphere. VI. Analysis of low-molecular-mass hydrocarbons and nitriles with BPX5 capillary columns, J. Chromatogr. A, 1995, 708, 2, 283-291, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(95)00410-O . [all data]

Do and Raulin, 1992
Do, L.; Raulin, F., Gas chromatography of Titan's atmosphere. III. Analysis of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons and nitriles with a CP-Sil-5 CB WCOT capillary column, J. Chromatogr., 1992, 591, 1-2, 297-301, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(92)80247-R . [all data]

Do and Raulin, 1989
Do, L.; Raulin, F., Gas chromatography of Titan's atmosphere. I. Analysis of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons and nitriles with a PoraPLOT Q porous polymer coated open-tubular capillary column, J. Chromatogr., 1989, 481, 45-54, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)96751-2 . [all data]

Lubeck and Sutton, 1984
Lubeck, A.J.; Sutton, D.L., Kovats Retention Indices of Selected Olefins on Bonded Phase Fused Silica Capillaries, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1984, 7, 9, 542-544, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240070913 . [all data]

Bredael, 1982
Bredael, P., Retention indices of hydrocarbons on SE-30, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr. Chromatogr. Comm., 1982, 5, 6, 325-328, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240050610 . [all data]

Nijs and Jacobs, 1981
Nijs, H.H.; Jacobs, P.A., On-Line Single Run Analysis of Effluents from a Fischer-Tropsch Reactor, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 1981, 19, 1, 40-45, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/19.1.40 . [all data]

Chrétien and Dubois, 1977
Chrétien, J.R.; Dubois, J.E., Topological analysis of gas-liquid chromatographic behavior of alkenes, Anal. Chem., 1977, 49, 6, 747-756, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac50014a021 . [all data]

Matukuma, 1969
Matukuma, A., Retention indices of alkanes through C10 and alkenes through C8 and relation between boiling points and retention data, Gas Chromatogr., Int. Symp. Anal. Instrum. Div Instrum Soc. Amer., 1969, 7, 55-75. [all data]

Hively and Hinton, 1968
Hively, R.A.; Hinton, R.E., Variation of the retention index with temperature on squalane substrates, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1968, 6, 4, 203-217, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/6.4.203 . [all data]

Widmer, 1967
Widmer, H., Gas chromatographic identification of hydrocarbons using retention indices, J. Gas Chromatogr., 1967, 5, 10, 506-510, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/5.10.506 . [all data]

Zulaïca and Guiochon, 1966
Zulaïca, J.; Guiochon, G., Analyse des hauts polymères par chromatographie en phase gazeuse de leurs produits de pyrolyse. II. Application à quelques hydrocarbures macromoléculaires purs, Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr., 1966, 4, 1351-1363. [all data]

Haagen-Smit Laboratory, 1997
Haagen-Smit Laboratory, Procedure for the detailed hydrocarbon analysis of gasolines by single column high efficiency (capillary) column gas chromatography, SOP NO. MLD 118, Revision No. 1.1, California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board, El Monte, California, 1997, 22. [all data]

Hoekman, 1993
Hoekman, S.K., Improved gas chromatography procedure for speciated hydrocarbon measurements of vehicle emissions, J. Chromatogr., 1993, 639, 2, 239-253, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(93)80260-F . [all data]

White, Hackett, et al., 1992
White, C.M.; Hackett, J.; Anderson, R.R.; Kail, S.; Spock, P.S., Linear temperature programmed retention indices of gasoline range hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons on cross-linked polydimethylsiloxane, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1992, 15, 2, 105-120, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240150211 . [all data]

Huguet, 1961
Huguet, M., Kovats retention indices in the qualitative analysis of light hydrocarbons by gas chromatography, Journees internationales d'etude des methodes de separation immediate et de chromatographie, 1961, 69. [all data]

Bramston-Cook, 2013
Bramston-Cook, R., Kovats indices for C2-C13 hydrocarbons and selected oxygenated/halocarbons with 100 % dimethylpolysiloxane columns, 2013, retrieved from http://lotusinstruments.com/monographs/List .... [all data]

Supelco, 2012
Supelco, CatalogNo. 24160-U, Petrocol DH Columns. Catalog No. 24160-U, 2012, retrieved from http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/etc/medialib/docs/Supelco/Datasheet/1/w97949.Par.0001.File.tmp/w97949.pdf. [all data]

Chupalov and Zenkevich, 1996
Chupalov, A.A.; Zenkevich, I.G., Chromatographic Characterization of Structural Transformations of Organic Compounds in Diels-Alder Reaction. Aliphatic Dienes and Dienophyls, Zh. Org. Khim., 1996, 32, 6, 675-684. [all data]

Ciccioli, Cecinato, et al., 1992
Ciccioli, P.; Cecinato, A.; Brancaleoni, E.; Frattoni, M.; Liberti, A., Use of carbon adsorption traps combined with high resolution gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for the analysis of polar and non-polar C4-C14 hydrocarbons involved in photochemical smog formation, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1992, 15, 2, 75-84, https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240150205 . [all data]

Chen and Feng, 2007
Chen, Y.; Feng, C., QSPR study on gas chromatography retention index of some organic pollutants, Comput. Appl. Chem. (China), 2007, 24, 10, 1404-1408. [all data]

Blunden, Aneja, et al., 2005
Blunden, J.; Aneja, V.P.; Lonneman, W.A., Characterization of non-methane volatile organic compounds at swine facilities in eastern North Carolina, Atm. Environ., 2005, 39, 36, 6707-6718, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.03.053 . [all data]

Junkes, Castanho, et al., 2003
Junkes, B.S.; Castanho, R.D.M.; Amboni, C.; Yunes, R.A.; Heinzen, V.E.F., Semiempirical Topological Index: A Novel Molecular Descriptor for Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationship Studies, Internet Electronic Journal of Molecular Design, 2003, 2, 1, 33-49. [all data]

Spieksma, 1999
Spieksma, W., Determination of vapor liquid equilibrium from the Kovats retention index on dimethylsilicone using the Wilson mixing tool, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1999, 22, 10, 565-588, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1521-4168(19991001)22:10<565::AID-JHRC565>3.0.CO;2-2 . [all data]

Zenkevich, Chupalov, et al., 1996
Zenkevich, I.G.; Chupalov, A.A.; Herzschuh, R., Correlation of the Increments of Gas Chromatographic Retention Indices with the Differences of Innermolecular Energies of Reagents and Products of Chemical Reactions, Zh. Org. Khim. (Rus.), 1996, 32, 11, 1685-1691. [all data]

Kojima, Fujii, et al., 1980
Kojima, T.; Fujii, T.; Hosaka, Y., Thermal decomposition products of sterepisomeric polypropylenes, Mass Spectrometry, 1980, 28, 4, 335-341. [all data]

Robinson and Odell, 1971
Robinson, P.G.; Odell, A.L., A system of standard retention indices and its uses. The characterisation of stationary phases and the prediction of retention indices, J. Chromatogr., 1971, 57, 1-10, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(71)80001-8 . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Ion clustering data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Vibrational and/or electronic energy levels, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References