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Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Kenneth Kroenlein director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil616.2KN/AWeast and Grasselli, 1989BS
Tboil582.9KN/ATsakalotos, 1906Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 5. K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus310. ± 1.KAVGN/AAverage of 26 out of 30 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple309.64KN/AMarsh, 1987Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.01 K; recommended as fixed point for thermometry; TRC
Ttriple309.7KN/AParks, Huffman, et al., 1930Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.2 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc768. ± 8.KN/AAmbrose and Tsonopoulos, 1995 
Tc767.5KN/ANikitin, Pavlov, et al., 1994Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 3. K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Pc11. ± 2.atmN/AAmbrose and Tsonopoulos, 1995 
Pc10.56atmN/ANikitin, Pavlov, et al., 1994Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.39 atm; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap24.4 ± 0.4kcal/molAVGN/AAverage of 6 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltasub40.73kcal/molCMorawetz, 1972AC

Reduced pressure boiling point

Tboil (K) Pressure (atm) Reference Comment
493.20.039Aldrich Chemical Company Inc., 1990BS

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
23.8 ± 0.26343.N/ARazzouk, Naccoul, et al., 2009Based on data from 313. - 373. K.; AC
18.6448.N/AMorgan and Kobayashi, 1994Based on data from 433. - 583. K.; AC
26.3 ± 0.5368.TEPiacente, Fontana, et al., 1994Based on data from 347. - 388. K.; AC
18.9360.TE,ME,GSPiacente, Pompili, et al., 1991Based on data from 345. - 470. K.; AC
19.31 ± 0.02440.VChirico, Nguyen, et al., 1989ALS
19.3440.EB,IPChirico, Nguyen, et al., 1989Based on data from 388. - 625. K.; AC
16.3540.EB,IPChirico, Nguyen, et al., 1989Based on data from 388. - 625. K.; AC
21.4378.N/ASasse, Jose, et al., 1988Based on data from 363. - 460. K.; AC
17.0543.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 528. - 620. K.; AC
22.3359.A,GSStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 344. - 380. K. See also Macknick and Prausnitz, 1979.; AC

Enthalpy of sublimation

DeltasubH (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
41.30 ± 0.72305.N/ARazzouk, Naccoul, et al., 2009Based on data from 302. - 308. K.; AC
42.90 ± 0.48367.BPiacente, Fontana, et al., 1994AC

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
16.491309.6N/ABarbillon, Schuffenecker, et al., 1991DH
16.205308.8N/AKolesnikov and Syunyaev, 1985DH
16.700309.75N/ACompany, 1973DH
16.7310.2N/AKhimeche, Boumrah, et al., 2006See also Genovese, Amarasinghe, et al., 2006.; AC
16.3309.7DSCMondieig, Rajabalee, et al., 2004AC
16.2309.7N/ADomalski and Hearing, 1996AC
16.946308.5N/ASyunyaev, Tumanyan, et al., 1984Relative error in determination ± 5%.; DH
14.693309.7N/AParks, Huffman, et al., 1930, 2DH

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (cal/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
52.49308.8Kolesnikov and Syunyaev, 1985DH
53.92309.75Company, 1973DH
54.92308.5Syunyaev, Tumanyan, et al., 1984Relative; DH
47.443309.7Parks, Huffman, et al., 1930, 2DH

Temperature of phase transition

Ttrs (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
309.63crystaline, «alpha»liquidKsiazczak, 1989DH
309.32crystaline, «beta»liquidKsiazczak, 1989DH
309.24crystaline, «alpha»crystaline, «beta»Ksiazczak, 1989DH
309.35crystaline, IIcrystaline, ISchaerer, Busso, et al., 1955DH

Enthalpy of phase transition

DeltaHtrs (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
11.035309.2crystaline, IIliquidClaudy and Letoffe, 1991DH
15.998310.0crystaline, IliquidClaudy and Letoffe, 1991DH
16.700309.75crystaline, IliquidSchaerer, Busso, et al., 1955DH

Entropy of phase transition

DeltaStrs (cal/mol*K) Temperature (K) Initial Phase Final Phase Reference Comment
53.92309.75crystaline, IliquidSchaerer, Busso, et al., 1955DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Go To: Top, Phase change data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Weast and Grasselli, 1989
CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds, 2nd Editon, Weast,R.C and Grasselli, J.G., ed(s)., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1989, 1. [all data]

Tsakalotos, 1906
Tsakalotos, D.E., C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci., 1906, 143, 1235. [all data]

Marsh, 1987
Marsh, K.N., Recommended Reference Materials for the Realization of Physicochemical Properties, Blackwell Sci. Pub., Oxford, 1987. [all data]

Parks, Huffman, et al., 1930
Parks, G.S.; Huffman, H.M.; Thomas, S.B., Thermal Data on Organic Compounds VI. The Heat Capacities, Entropies and Free Energies of Some Saturated, Non-Benzenoid Hydrocarbons, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1930, 52, 1032-41. [all data]

Ambrose and Tsonopoulos, 1995
Ambrose, D.; Tsonopoulos, C., Vapor-Liquid Critical Properties of Elements and Compounds. 2. Normal Alkenes, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1995, 40, 531-546. [all data]

Nikitin, Pavlov, et al., 1994
Nikitin, E.D.; Pavlov, P.A.; Bessonova, N.V., Critical constants of n-alkanes with from 17 to 24 carbon atoms, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1994, 26, 177-82. [all data]

Morawetz, 1972
Morawetz, Ernst, Correlation of sublimation enthalpies at 298.15 K with molecular structure for planar aromatic hydrocarbons, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 1972, 4, 3, 461-467, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9614(72)90030-4 . [all data]

Aldrich Chemical Company Inc., 1990
Aldrich Chemical Company Inc., Catalog Handbook of Fine Chemicals, Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc., Milwaukee WI, 1990, 1. [all data]

Razzouk, Naccoul, et al., 2009
Razzouk, Antonio; Naccoul, Ramy Abou; Mokbel, Ilham; Saab, Joseph; Jose, Jacques, Vapor and Sublimation Pressures of Three Normal Alkanes: C 20 , C 24 , and C 28, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 2009, 54, 4, 1214-1219, https://doi.org/10.1021/je800534x . [all data]

Morgan and Kobayashi, 1994
Morgan, David L.; Kobayashi, Riki, Direct vapor pressure measurements of ten n-alkanes m the 10-C28 range, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 1994, 97, 211-242, https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(94)85017-8 . [all data]

Piacente, Fontana, et al., 1994
Piacente, Vincenzo; Fontana, Danilo; Scardala, Paolo, Enthalpies of Vaporization of a Homologous Series of n-Alkanes Determined from Vapor Pressure Measurements, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1994, 39, 2, 231-237, https://doi.org/10.1021/je00014a009 . [all data]

Piacente, Pompili, et al., 1991
Piacente, Vincenzo; Pompili, Tiziano; Scardala, Paolo; Ferro, Daniela, Temperature dependence of the vaporization enthalpies of n-alkanes from vapour-pressure measurements, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 1991, 23, 4, 379-396, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9614(05)80092-8 . [all data]

Chirico, Nguyen, et al., 1989
Chirico, R.D.; Nguyen, A.; Steele, W.V.; Strube, M.M., Vapor pressure of n-alkanes revisited. New high-precision vapor pressure data on n-decane, n-eicosane, and n-octacosane, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1989, 34, 149-156. [all data]

Sasse, Jose, et al., 1988
Sasse, Karim; Jose, Jacques; Merlin, Jean-Claude, A static apparatus for measurement of low vapor pressures. Experimental results on high molecular-weight hydrocarbons, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 1988, 42, 287-304, https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(88)80065-7 . [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Macknick and Prausnitz, 1979
Macknick, A. Brian; Prausnitz, John M., Vapor pressures of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1979, 24, 3, 175-178, https://doi.org/10.1021/je60082a012 . [all data]

Barbillon, Schuffenecker, et al., 1991
Barbillon, P.; Schuffenecker, L.; Dellacherie, J.; Balesdent, D.; Dirande, M., Variation d'enthalpie subie de 260 K a 340 K par les n-paraffines, comprises entrel'octadecane et l'hexacosane, J. Chim. Phys. Phys.-Chim. Biol., 1991, 88, 91-113. [all data]

Kolesnikov and Syunyaev, 1985
Kolesnikov, S.I.; Syunyaev, Z.I., Phase transitions in the melting and crystallization of n-C18H38 and n-C20H42, Zhur. Prikl. Khim. (Leningrad), 1985, 58(10), 2267-2271. [all data]

Company, 1973
Company, J.C., Measurement and interpretation of crystallization equilibriums of heavy paraffin and aromatic hydrocarbon solutions, Chem. Eng. Sci., 1973, 28, 318-323. [all data]

Khimeche, Boumrah, et al., 2006
Khimeche, Kamel; Boumrah, Yacine; Benziane, Mokhtar; Dahmani, Abdallah, Solid--liquid equilibria and purity determination for binary n-alkane+naphthalene systems, Thermochimica Acta, 2006, 444, 2, 166-172, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2006.03.011 . [all data]

Genovese, Amarasinghe, et al., 2006
Genovese, A.; Amarasinghe, G.; Glewis, M.; Mainwaring, D.; Shanks, Robert A., Crystallisation, melting, recrystallisation and polymorphism of n-eicosane for application as a phase change material, Thermochimica Acta, 2006, 443, 2, 235-244, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2006.02.008 . [all data]

Mondieig, Rajabalee, et al., 2004
Mondieig, D.; Rajabalee, F.; Metivaud, V.; Oonk, H.A.J.; Cuevas-Diarte, M.A., n -Alkane Binary Molecular Alloys, Chem. Mater., 2004, 16, 5, 786-798, https://doi.org/10.1021/cm031169p . [all data]

Domalski and Hearing, 1996
Domalski, Eugene S.; Hearing, Elizabeth D., Heat Capacities and Entropies of Organic Compounds in the Condensed Phase. Volume III, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1996, 25, 1, 1, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555985 . [all data]

Syunyaev, Tumanyan, et al., 1984
Syunyaev, Z.I.; Tumanyan, B.P.; Kolesnikov, S.I.; Zhokhova, N.I., Some anomalies in melting points of binary mixtures of solid hydrocarbons, Zhur. Prikl. Khim. (Leningrad), 1984, 57, 666-669. [all data]

Parks, Huffman, et al., 1930, 2
Parks, G.S.; Huffman, H.M.; Thomas, S.B., Thermal data on organic compounds. VI. The heat capacities, entropies and free energies of some saturated, non-benzenoid hydrocarbons, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1930, 52, 1032-1041. [all data]

Ksiazczak, 1989
Ksiazczak, A., Vapour pressures of binary three phase (solid+liquid+vapour) mixtures III. Melting temperatures of the solid phases of n-eicosane, J. Chem. Thermodynam., 1989, 21, 789-792. [all data]

Schaerer, Busso, et al., 1955
Schaerer, A.A.; Busso, C.J.; Smith, A.E.; Skinner, L.B., Properties of pure normal alkanes in the C17 to C36 range, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1955, 77, 2017-2019. [all data]

Claudy and Letoffe, 1991
Claudy, P.; Letoffe, J.M., Phase transitions in even n-alkanes CnH2n+2, n = 16-28. Characterization by differential calorimetric analysis and by thermooptical analysis. Effect of deuteration, Calorim. Anal. Therm., 1991, 22, 281-290. [all data]


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