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Pyrazine, tetramethyl-

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas54.7 ± 4.5kJ/molCcbRibeiro da Silva, Morais, et al., 1996 

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafsolid-39.9 ± 2.0kJ/molCcbRibeiro da Silva, Morais, et al., 1996 
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacsolid-4823.2 ± 1.7kJ/molCcbRibeiro da Silva, Morais, et al., 1996 

Phase change data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Kenneth Kroenlein director
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil463.2KN/AAldrich Chemical Company Inc., 1990BS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus358.5KN/AAnonymous, 1954Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.3 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltasub94.6 ± 4.0kJ/molCRibeiro da Silva, Morais, et al., 1996ALS
Deltasub94.6kJ/molN/ARibeiro da Silva, Morais, et al., 1996DRB
Deltasub94.6 ± 4.0kJ/molCRibeiro da Silva, Morais, et al., 1996AC

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Gas phase ion energetics data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
8.6PEBischof, Gleiter, et al., 1974Vertical value

Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Gas Chromatography, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Japan AIST/NIMC Database- Spectrum MS-NW-3577
NIST MS number 231868

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


Gas Chromatography

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

View large format table.

Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillarySE-30110.1096.Samusenko and Golovnya, 198825. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He
CapillarySE-3080.1091.Samusenko and Golovnya, 198825. m/0.32 mm/1. «mu»m, He
CapillaryOV-101110.1096.Golovnya, Samusenko, et al., 1987He; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryOV-10180.1091.Golovnya, Samusenko, et al., 1987He; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-1011065.Shibamoto, Kamiya, et al., 1981N2, 1. K/min; Column length: 80. m; Column diameter: 0.28 mm; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryOV-1011068.Shibamoto, Kamiya, et al., 1981N2, 1. K/min; Column length: 80. m; Column diameter: 0.28 mm; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 200. C

Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

View large format table.

Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryPEG-40M110.1462.Golovnya, Samusenko, et al., 1987He; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm
CapillaryPEG-40M80.1449.Golovnya, Samusenko, et al., 1987He; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm

Kovats' RI, polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax1457.Yeo and Shibamoto, 1991He, 60. C @ 4. min, 4. K/min, 180. C @ 30. min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1466.Shibamoto, Kamiya, et al., 1981N2, 2. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.28 mm; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1467.Shibamoto, Kamiya, et al., 1981N2, 2. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.28 mm; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 200. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryCP Sil 8 CB1082.Mahadevan and Farmer, 200660. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 220. C @ 30. min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm
CapillaryBPX-51096.Dickschat J.S., Wagner-Dobler I., et al., 200525. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 50. C @ 5. min, 5. K/min; Tend: 300. C
CapillaryDB-51075.Avsar, Karagul-Yuceer, et al., 200430. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 40. C @ 5. min, 10. K/min, 200. C @ 15. min
CapillaryBPX-51093.Ames, Guy, et al., 200150. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 60. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 250. C @ 10. min
CapillarySE-541093.68Yin, Xiu, et al., 200135. C @ 3. min, 4. K/min, 230. C @ 10. min; Column length: 25. m; Column diameter: 0.31 mm
CapillaryBPX-51105.Aaslyng, Elmore, et al., 199850. m/0.32 mm/0.50 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 280. C
CapillaryHP-11072.Oh, Hartman, et al., 199250. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min, 260. C @ 10. min; Tstart: 40. C
CapillaryOV-1011062.2Golovnya, Samusenko, et al., 1991He, 2. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 100. C
CapillaryOV-1011068.Golovnya, Samusenko, et al., 1991He, 2. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 100. C
CapillaryOV-1011065.6Golovnya, Samusenko, et al., 1991He, 8. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 70. C
CapillaryOV-1011069.3Golovnya, Samusenko, et al., 1991He, 8. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 70. C
CapillaryOV-1011062.9Golovnya, Samusenko, et al., 1991He, 4. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 80. C
CapillaryOV-1011067.7Golovnya, Samusenko, et al., 1991He, 4. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 80. C
CapillarySE-301061.Misharina, Golovnya, et al., 199150. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 4. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 240. C
CapillaryHP-11065.Oh, Shu, et al., 199150. m/0.32 mm/1.05 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min, 260. C @ 10. min; Tstart: 40. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryHP-5MS1087.3Andriamaharavo, 201430. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 60C (1 min) => 5 C/min => 210C => 10 C/min => 280C (15 min)
CapillaryZB-51061.Lu, Hao, et al., 200530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 50C(1min) => 3C/min => 209C => 20C/min => 280C
CapillaryBPX-51098.Owens J.D., Allagheny N., et al., 199750. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He; Program: OC => 60C/min => 60C(5min) => 4C/min => 250C(20min)

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryCP-Wax 52CB1462.Mahadevan and Farmer, 200660. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 220. C @ 30. min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm
CapillaryOV-3511438.Bonvehí, 200550. m/0.32 mm/0.2 «mu»m, He, 5. K/min; Tstart: 60. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillarySupelcowax-101473.Chung, Yung, et al., 200260. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 195. C @ 90. min
CapillarySupelcowax-101473.Chung, Yung, et al., 200160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 195. C @ 90. min
CapillarySupelcowax-101475.Chung, 200060. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min, 195. C @ 90. min; Tstart: 35. C
CapillarySupelcowax-101474.Chung, 199960. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 35. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 195. C @ 90. min
CapillarySupelcowax-101474.Chung and Cadwallader, 199360. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min, 195. C @ 40. min
CapillaryCP-WAX 57CB1483.Salter L.J., Mottram D.S., et al., 198860. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryCP-WAX 57CB1484.Whitfield, Mottram, et al., 1988He, 60. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 200. C @ 10. min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm
CapillaryCP-WAX 57CB1485.Whitfield, Mottram, et al., 1988He, 60. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min, 200. C @ 10. min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySupelcowax-101474.Bianchi, Careri, et al., 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 35C(8min) => 4C/min => 60C => 6C/min => 160C => 20C/min => 200C(1min)
CapillaryDB-Wax1466.Cantergiani, Brevard, et al., 200130. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: 20C(30s) => fast => 60C => 4C/min => 220C (20min)
CapillarySupelcowax-101469.Baek and Cadwallader, 199660. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: 40C => (6C/min) => 80C(6min) => (15C/min) => 200C(10min)

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-51085.Fadel, Mageed, et al., 2006He, 50. C @ 5. min, 4. K/min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Tend: 250. C
CapillaryHP-51090.Wang, Yang, et al., 200630. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 60. C @ 2. min, 10. K/min, 250. C @ 10. min
CapillaryDB-51084.Tellez, Khan, et al., 200430. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 60. C; Tend: 240. C
CapillaryDB-5MS1095.Welty, Marshall, et al., 2001He, 40. C @ 5. min, 5. K/min, 220. C @ 5. min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryOV-1011061.Misharina, Golovnya, et al., 1991, 250. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 250. C
CapillaryOV-1011064.Misharina, Golovnya, et al., 1991, 250. m/0.32 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 250. C
CapillaryOV-1011067.Mihara and Masuda, 1987N2, 2. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryOV-11058.Wu, Liou, et al., 1987Hydrogen, 1. K/min, 200. C @ 35. min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm; Tstart: 50. C
CapillaryDB-51088.Gallois and Grimont, 1985H2, 2. K/min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryOV-1011067.Mihara and Enomoto, 1985N2, 2. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryOV-1011060.del Rosario, de Lumen, et al., 1984He, 0. C @ 1. min, 3. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.31 mm; Tend: 225. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-11053.Chen and Li, 2011Helium; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Program: 40 0C 2 0C/min -> 120 0C 10 0C/min -> 230 0C (15 min)
CapillaryHP-51089.Characterization of Pyrazines in Some Chinese Liquors and Their Approximate Concentrations, 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 50C(2min) => 2C/min => 140C => 10C/min => 280C (10min)
CapillaryCP Sil 5 CB1062.Counet, Ouwerx, et al., 200450. m/0.32 mm/1.2 «mu»m; Program: 36C => 20C/min => 85C => 1C/min => 145C => 3C/min => 250C(30min)
CapillarySE-301069.Vinogradov, 2004Program: not specified
CapillaryCP Sil 5 CB1065.Counet, Callemien, et al., 200250. m/0.32 mm/1.2 «mu»m; Program: 36C => 20C/min => 85C => 1C/min => 145C=3C/min => 250C(30min)
CapillaryHP-5MS1086.Ansorena, Gimeno, et al., 200130. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 40C (10min) => 3C/min => 120C => 10C/min => 250C (5min)
CapillaryHP-51086.Ansorena, Astiasarán, et al., 200030. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 40C (10min) => 3C/min => 120C => 10C/min => 250C (5min)
CapillaryDB-51102.Mateo, Aguirrezábal, et al., 199750. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(10min) => 3C/min => 95C => 10C/min => 270C(10min)
CapillaryDB-11067.Kawai, Ishida, et al., 199160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-11068.Kawai, Ishida, et al., 199160. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.1067.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.1068.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified

Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryCP-Wax1474.Mo, Fan, et al., 200960. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, Helium, 50. C @ 2. min, 6. K/min, 230. C @ 15. min
CapillaryDB-Wax1460.Characterization of Pyrazines in Some Chinese Liquors and Their Approximate Concentrations, 200730. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min, 230. C @ 15. min; Tstart: 50. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1460.Fan and Qian, 200630. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 230. C @ 15. min
CapillaryDB-Wax1459.Fan and Qian, 200530. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, N2, 40. C @ 2. min, 4. K/min, 230. C @ 5. min
CapillaryDB-Wax1478.Tanaka, Yamauchi, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 30. C @ 1. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 250. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1478.Tanaka, Yamauchi, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, 30. C @ 1. min, 4. K/min; Tend: 250. C
CapillaryHP-FFAP1484.Qian and Reineccius, 200225. m/0.32 mm/0.52 «mu»m, 60. C @ 1. min, 5. K/min, 240. C @ 5. min
CapillaryTC-Wax1473.Miyazawa, Kurose, et al., 2001He, 4. K/min, 250. C @ 47. min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 80. C
CapillaryTC-Wax1474.Shuichi, Masazumi, et al., 199680. C @ 5. min, 3. K/min; Column length: 60. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tend: 240. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1449.Hatsuko, Kazuko, et al., 1992He, 60. C @ 10. min, 3. K/min; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tend: 240. C
CapillaryFFAP1460.Vernin, Metzger, et al., 1988He, 60. C @ 5. min, 2. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.28 mm; Tend: 240. C
CapillaryDB-Wax1468.Wong and Bernhard, 1988He, 70. C @ 8. min, 2. K/min; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tend: 160. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1478.Wu, Liou, et al., 1987Hydrogen, 1. K/min, 200. C @ 35. min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm; Tstart: 50. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1439.Mihara and Enomoto, 1985N2, 2. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.22 mm; Tstart: 80. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1464.Liardon and Ledermann, 1980H2, 2. K/min; Column length: 39. m; Column diameter: 0.30 mm; Tstart: 60. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1471.Shibamoto and Russell, 19771. K/min; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 70. C; Tend: 170. C
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1472.Shibamoto and Russell, 19771. K/min; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 70. C; Tend: 170. C

Normal alkane RI, polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax1440.Krings, Zelena, et al., 200630. m/0.32 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 45C(5min) => 5C/min => 150C => 10C/min => 240C (10min)
CapillaryInnowax1486.Ito and Mori, 200430. m/0.25 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 40 0C (2 min) 10 0C/min -> 100 0C 3 0C/min -> 160 0C 5 0C/min -> 260 0C (10 min)
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1458.Vinogradov, 2004Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-Wax1453.Hatsuko, Kazuko, et al., 1992He; Column length: 30. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Program: not specified
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1439.Mihara and Masuda, 1987Program: not specified
CapillaryCarbowax 400, Carbowax 20M, Carbowax 1540, Carbowax 4000, Superox 06, PEG 20M, etc.1467.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Ribeiro da Silva, Morais, et al., 1996
Ribeiro da Silva, M.A.V.; Morais, V.M.F.; Matos, M.A.R.; Rio, C.M.A.; Piedade, G.M.G.S., Thermochemical and theoretical study of some methyldiazines, Struct. Chem., 1996, 7, 329-336. [all data]

Aldrich Chemical Company Inc., 1990
Aldrich Chemical Company Inc., Catalog Handbook of Fine Chemicals, Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc., Milwaukee WI, 1990, 1. [all data]

Anonymous, 1954
Anonymous, R., , Am. Pet. Inst. Res. Proj. 45, Tech. Rep. 13, Ohio State Univ., 1954. [all data]

Bischof, Gleiter, et al., 1974
Bischof, P.; Gleiter, R.; Hofmann, P., Reversal in the sequence of the two highest occupied molecular orbitals in the series pyrazine, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, and tetramethylpyrazine, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 1974, 767. [all data]

Samusenko and Golovnya, 1988
Samusenko, A.L.; Golovnya, R.V., Prediction of the retention indices of methyl pyridines and pyrazines in capillary gas chromatography based on the non-linear additivity of the sorption energy, Chromatographia, 1988, 25, 6, 531-535, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02324828 . [all data]

Golovnya, Samusenko, et al., 1987
Golovnya, R.V.; Samusenko, A.L.; Dmitriev, L.B., Behavior of methyl-substituted pyrazines and use of the principle of nonadditive change in the sorption energy for prediction of the retention indices in capillary gas chromatography, Zh. Anal. Khim., 1987, 42, 4, 558-563. [all data]

Shibamoto, Kamiya, et al., 1981
Shibamoto, T.; Kamiya, Y.; Mihara, S., Isolation and identification of volatile compounds in cooked meat: sukiyaki, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1981, 29, 1, 57-63, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00103a015 . [all data]

Yeo and Shibamoto, 1991
Yeo, H.C.H.; Shibamoto, T., Microwave-induced volatiles of the Maillard model system under different pH conditions, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1991, 39, 2, 370-373, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00002a029 . [all data]

Mahadevan and Farmer, 2006
Mahadevan, K.; Farmer, L., Key Odor Impact Compounds in Three Yeast Extract Pastes, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54, 19, 7242-7250, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf061102x . [all data]

Dickschat J.S., Wagner-Dobler I., et al., 2005
Dickschat J.S.; Wagner-Dobler I.; Schulz S., The chafer pheromone buibuilactone and ant pyrazines are also produced by marine bacteria, J. Chem. Ecol., 2005, 31, 4, 925-947, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10886-005-3553-9 . [all data]

Avsar, Karagul-Yuceer, et al., 2004
Avsar, Y.K.; Karagul-Yuceer, Y.; Drake, M.A.; Singh, T.K.; Yoon, Y.; Cadwallader, K.R., Characterization of nutty flavor in cheddar cheese, J. Dairy Sci., 2004, 87, 7, 1999-2010, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)70017-X . [all data]

Ames, Guy, et al., 2001
Ames, J.M.; Guy, R.C.E.; Kipping, G.J., Effect of pH, temperature, and moisture on the formation of volatile compounds in glycine/glucose model systems, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001, 49, 9, 4315-4323, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf010198m . [all data]

Yin, Xiu, et al., 2001
Yin, W.; Xiu, Z.; Aijin, H., Analysis of the volatile components in trogopterorum feces by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, Fenxi Huaxue, 2001, 29, 2, 195-198. [all data]

Aaslyng, Elmore, et al., 1998
Aaslyng, M.D.; Elmore, J.S.; Mottram, D.S., Comparison of the aroma characteristics of acid-hydrolyzed and enzyme-hydrolyzed vegetable proteins produced from soy, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1998, 46, 12, 5225-5231, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9806816 . [all data]

Oh, Hartman, et al., 1992
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Notes

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