Home Symbol which looks like a small house Up Solid circle with an upward pointer in it

Nonanoic acid

Data at NIST subscription sites:

NIST subscription sites provide data under the NIST Standard Reference Data Program, but require an annual fee to access. The purpose of the fee is to recover costs associated with the development of data collections included in such sites. Your institution may already be a subscriber. Follow the links above to find out more about the data in these sites and their terms of usage.


Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp

Go To: Top, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase FFAPRTX-WaxVF-Wax MSCP-WaxHP-Innowax
Column length (m) 60.60.60.60.50.
Carrier gas HeliumHeliumHeliumHeliumHelium
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.220.250.250.20
Phase thickness (mum) 0.250.250.250.250.20
Tstart (C) 45.60.60.50.45.
Tend (C) 220.230.220.230.190.
Heat rate (K/min) 5.2.3.6.4.
Initial hold (min) 1. 5.2.2.
Final hold (min) 5.30.25.15.50.
I 2145.2119.2174.2178.2152.
ReferencePiyachaiseth, Jirapakkul, et al., 2011Dib, Djabou, et al., 2010Duarte, Dias, et al., 2010Mo, Fan, et al., 2009Soria, Sanz, et al., 2008
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase CP-Wax 52CBStabilwaxRTX-WaxBP-20DB-Wax
Column length (m) 30.60.30.30.30.
Carrier gas HeHeliumHeHeHe
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm)  0.250.250.250.25
Phase thickness (mum) 0.320.250.50.250.25
Tstart (C) 50.40.40.70.40.
Tend (C) 220.240.220.220.230.
Heat rate (K/min) 6.3.10.4.4.
Initial hold (min) 2.5.5.4.2.
Final hold (min) 20.10.10.5.5.
I 2163.2173.2146.2181.2168.
ReferenceAudino, Alzogaray, et al., 2007Cros, Vandanjon, et al., 2007Prososki, Etzel, et al., 2007Rawat, Gulati, et al., 2007Xu, Fan, et al., 2007
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase DB-WaxDB-WaxCarbowax 20MZB-WaxZB-Wax
Column length (m) 30.30.50.30.30.
Carrier gas HeHeHeliumHeliumHelium
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.320.250.320.32
Phase thickness (mum) 0.250.250.250.250.25
Tstart (C) 40.40.40.40.40.
Tend (C) 230.230.190.250.250.
Heat rate (K/min) 4.4.4.5.5.
Initial hold (min) 2.2.2.2.2.
Final hold (min) 5.15.30.5.5.
I 2168.2168.2153.2169.2170.
ReferenceXu, Fan, et al., 2007Fan and Qian, 2006de la Fuente, Martinez-Castro, et al., 2005N/AN/A
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase ZB-WaxZB-WaxZB-WaxZB-WaxZB-Wax
Column length (m) 30.30.30.30.30.
Carrier gas HeliumHeliumHeliumHeliumHelium
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.320.320.320.320.32
Phase thickness (mum) 0.250.250.250.250.25
Tstart (C) 40.40.40.40.40.
Tend (C) 250.250.250.250.250.
Heat rate (K/min) 5.5.5.5.5.
Initial hold (min) 2.2.2.2.2.
Final hold (min) 5.5.5.5.5.
I 2176.2180.2182.2198.2210.
ReferenceN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase ZB-WaxDB-WaxHP-InnowaxStabilwaxDB-Wax
Column length (m) 30.60.50.60.60.
Carrier gas HeN2HeHeliumH2
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.320.250.20.250.32
Phase thickness (mum) 0.250.250.20.250.25
Tstart (C) 40.70.45.40.40.
Tend (C) 250.230.190.240.230.
Heat rate (K/min) 5.2.4.3.4.
Initial hold (min) 2.2.2.5.5.
Final hold (min) 10.20.50.10.25.
I 2176.2196.2211.2173.2165.
ReferenceWu, Krings, et al., 2005Choi, 2004Soria, Gonzalez, et al., 2004Cros, Vandanjon, et al., 2003Dregus and Engel, 2003
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase TC-WaxInnowaxDB-WaxDB-WaxDB-Wax
Column length (m) 60.60.30.30.60.
Carrier gas HeHe  N2
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.250.250.250.25
Phase thickness (mum)   0.250.250.25
Tstart (C) 80.60.30.30.70.
Tend (C) 250.220.250.250.230.
Heat rate (K/min) 4.4.4.4.2.
Initial hold (min)  10.1.1. 
Final hold (min) 30.10.   
I 2150.2192.2172.2173.2196.
ReferenceMiyazawa and Okuno, 2003Suleimenov, Atazharova, et al., 2003Tanaka, Yamauchi, et al., 2003Tanaka, Yamauchi, et al., 2003Tu, Thanh, et al., 2002
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase DB-WaxTC-WaxDB-WaxDB-WaxDB-Wax
Column length (m) 60.60.30.60.30.
Carrier gas HeHeHe He
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.250.250.250.25
Phase thickness (mum) 0.25 0.250.250.25
Tstart (C) 40.80.50.30.50.
Tend (C) 200.250.220.170.180.
Heat rate (K/min) 2.4.4.2.3.
Initial hold (min) 2. 3.4. 
Final hold (min)  47. 30.40.
I 2155.2165.2149.2175.2167.
ReferenceUmano, Hagi, et al., 2002Miyazawa, Kurose, et al., 2001Weckerle, Bastl-Borrmann, et al., 2001Buttery, Light, et al., 2000Lee and Shibamoto, 2000
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase DB-WaxDB-WaxDB-WaxDB-WaxHP Innowax FSP
Column length (m) 30.30.30.30.60.
Carrier gas HeHe  He
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.250.530.530.25
Phase thickness (mum) 0.250.25  0.25
Tstart (C) 50.50.60.60.60.
Tend (C) 240.240.210.210.220.
Heat rate (K/min) 4.4.4.4. 
Initial hold (min) 3.3.  10.
Final hold (min) 10.10.  10.
I 2124.2153.2137.2130.2192.
ReferenceParada, Duque, et al., 2000Parada, Duque, et al., 2000Iwatsuki, Mizota, et al., 1999Iwatsuki, Mizota, et al., 1999Kaya, Baser, et al., 1999
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase InnowaxHP-InnowaxHP-InnowaxHP-Innowax FSCDB-Wax
Column length (m) 60.60.60.60.60.
Carrier gas HeHeHeHeHe
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.250.250.250.25
Phase thickness (mum) 0.250.250.250.25 
Tstart (C) 60.60.60.60.60.
Tend (C) 220.220.220.220.180.
Heat rate (K/min)    4.2.
Initial hold (min) 10.10.10.10. 
Final hold (min)    10. 
I 2192.2192.2192.2192.2165.
ReferenceKaya, Baser, et al., 1999, 2Kaya, Baser, et al., 1999, 3Kaya, Baser, et al., 1999, 3Tümen, Baser, et al., 1998Sekiwa, Kubota, et al., 1997
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase PEG-20MTC-WaxPEG-20MPEG-20MDB-Wax
Column length (m) 50.60.50.50.60.
Carrier gas Nitrogen HeHe 
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.250.250.250.25
Phase thickness (mum) 0.25 0.150.15 
Tstart (C) 60.80.60.60.60.
Tend (C) 180.240.180.180.220.
Heat rate (K/min) 2.3.2.2.3.
Initial hold (min)  5.4.4.4.
Final hold (min)      
I 2127.2180.2123.2127.2194.
ReferenceKubota, Matsujage, et al., 1996Shuichi, Masazumi, et al., 1996Togari, Kobayashi, et al., 1995Togari, Kobayashi, et al., 1995Chung, Eiserich, et al., 1993
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase DB-WaxCarbowax 20MCarbowax 20M
Column length (m) 30.50.150.
Carrier gas He  
Substrate    
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.310.64
Phase thickness (mum)    
Tstart (C) 60.50.50.
Tend (C) 240.210.170.
Heat rate (K/min) 3.3.1.
Initial hold (min) 10. 30.
Final hold (min)    
I 2131.2140.2200.
ReferenceHatsuko, Kazuko, et al., 1992Habu, Flath, et al., 1985Buttery, Parker, et al., 1981
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI

References

Go To: Top, Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Piyachaiseth, Jirapakkul, et al., 2011
Piyachaiseth, T.; Jirapakkul, W.; Chaiseri, S., Aroma compounds of flash-fried rice, Kasetsart J. (Nat. Sci.), 2011, 45, 717-729. [all data]

Dib, Djabou, et al., 2010
Dib, M.ElA.; Djabou, N.; Desjobert, L.-M.; Allali, H.; Tabti, B.; Muselli, A.; Costa, J., Characterization of volatile compounds of Daucus crinitus Desf. headspace solid phase microextraction as alternative technique to hydrodistillation, Chem, Centr. J., 2010, 4, 16, 1-15. [all data]

Duarte, Dias, et al., 2010
Duarte, W.F.; Dias, D.R.; Oliveira, J.M.; Teixeira, J.A.; de Almeida e Silva, J.B.; Schwan, R.F., Characterization of different fruit wines made from cacao,cupuassu, gabiroba, jaboticaba and umbu, Food Sci. Technol., 2010, 43, 1564-1572. [all data]

Mo, Fan, et al., 2009
Mo, X.; Fan, W.; Xu, Y., Changes in volatile compounds of Chinese rice wine wheat qu during fermentation and storage, J. of the Institute of Brewing, 2009, 115, 4, 300-307, https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2050-0416.2009.tb00385.x . [all data]

Soria, Sanz, et al., 2008
Soria, A.C.; Sanz, J.; Martinez-Castro, I., SPME followed by GC-MS: a powerful technique for qualitative analysis of honey volatiles, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 2008, 1-12. [all data]

Audino, Alzogaray, et al., 2007
Audino, P.G.; Alzogaray, R.A.; Vassena, C.; Masuh, H.; Fontán, A.; Gatti, P.; Martínez, A.; Camps, F.; Cork, A.; Zerba, E., Volatile compounds secreted by Brindley's glands of adult Triatoma infestans: identification and biological activity of previously unidentified compounds, Journal of Vector Ecology, 2007, 32, 1, 75-82, https://doi.org/10.3376/1081-1710(2007)32[75:VCSBBO]2.0.CO;2 . [all data]

Cros, Vandanjon, et al., 2007
Cros, S.; Vandanjon, L.; Jaouen, P.; Bourseau, P., Processing of Industrial Mussel Cooking Juices by Reverse Osmotis: Pollution Abatement and Aromas Recovery, 2007, retrieved from title of Internet file: [imstec064]. [all data]

Prososki, Etzel, et al., 2007
Prososki, R.A.; Etzel, M.R.; Rankin, S.A., Solvent type affects the number, distribution, and relative quantities of volatile compounds found in sweet whey powder, J. Dairy Sci., 2007, 90, 2, 523-531, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(07)71535-7 . [all data]

Rawat, Gulati, et al., 2007
Rawat, R.; Gulati, A.; Babu, G.D.K.; Acharya, R.; Kaul, V.K.; Singh, B., Characterization of volatile components of Kangra orthodox black tea by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Food Chem., 2007, 105, 1, 229-235, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.03.071 . [all data]

Xu, Fan, et al., 2007
Xu, Y.; Fan, W.; Qian, M.C., Characterization of Aroma Compounds in Apple Cider Using Solvent-Assisted Flavor Evaporation and Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55, 8, 3051-3057, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0631732 . [all data]

Fan and Qian, 2006
Fan, W.; Qian, M.C., Characterization of Aroma Compounds of Chinese Wuliangye and Jiannanchun Liquors by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54, 7, 2695-2704, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf052635t . [all data]

de la Fuente, Martinez-Castro, et al., 2005
de la Fuente, E.; Martinez-Castro, I.; Sanz, J., Characterization of Spanish unifloral honeys by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. Sep. Sci., 2005, 28, 9-10, 1093-1100, https://doi.org/10.1002/jssc.200500018 . [all data]

Wu, Krings, et al., 2005
Wu, S.; Krings, U.; Zorn, H.; Berger, R.G., Volatile compounds from the fruiting bodies of beefsteak fungus Fistulina hepatica (Schaeffer: Fr.) Fr., Food Chem., 2005, 92, 2, 221-226, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.07.013 . [all data]

Choi, 2004
Choi, H.-S., Volatile constituents of satsuma mandarins growing in Korea, Flavour Fragr. J., 2004, 19, 5, 406-412, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1283 . [all data]

Soria, Gonzalez, et al., 2004
Soria, A.C.; Gonzalez, M.; de Lorenzo, C.; Martinez-Castro, I.; Sanza, J., Characterization of artisanal honeys from Madrid (Central Spain) on the basis of their melissopalynological, physicochemical and volatile composition data, Food Chem., 2004, 85, 1, 121-130, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2003.06.012 . [all data]

Cros, Vandanjon, et al., 2003
Cros, S.; Vandanjon, L.; Jaouen, P.; Bourseau, P., IMSTEC'03 Conference Proceedings, Processing of industrial mussel cooking juices by reverse osmosis: pollution abatement and aromas recovery, Universoty of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, 2003, 6. [all data]

Dregus and Engel, 2003
Dregus, M.; Engel, K.-H., Volatile constituents of uncooked Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum L.) stalks, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2003, 51, 22, 6530-6536, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf030399l . [all data]

Miyazawa and Okuno, 2003
Miyazawa, M.; Okuno, Y., Volatile components from the roots of Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl., Flavour Fragr. J., 2003, 18, 5, 398-400, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1232 . [all data]

Suleimenov, Atazharova, et al., 2003
Suleimenov, E.M.; Atazharova, G.A.; Demirchi, B.; Baser, K.H.C.; Adekenov, S.M., Essential oil composition of Artemisia Lercheana and A. Sieversiana of Kazakhstan flora in Recent problems of development of new medicines of natural origin, Proceedings of symposium, St.Petersburg - Pushkin, 2003, 382-385. [all data]

Tanaka, Yamauchi, et al., 2003
Tanaka, T.; Yamauchi, T.; Katsumata, R.; Kiuchi, K., Comparison of volatile components in commercial Itohiki-Natto by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography, Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi, 2003, 50, 6, 278-285, https://doi.org/10.3136/nskkk.50.278 . [all data]

Tu, Thanh, et al., 2002
Tu, N.T.M.; Thanh, L.X.; Une, A.; Ukeda, H.; Sawamura, M., Volatile constituents of Vietnamese pummelo, orange, tangerine and lime peel oils, Flavour Fragr. J., 2002, 17, 3, 169-174, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1076 . [all data]

Umano, Hagi, et al., 2002
Umano, K.; Hagi, Y.; Shibamoto, T., Volatile chemicals identified in extracts from newly hybrid citrus, dekopon (Shiranuhi mandarin Suppl. J.), J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50, 19, 5355-5359, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0203951 . [all data]

Miyazawa, Kurose, et al., 2001
Miyazawa, M.; Kurose, K.; Itoh, A.; Hiraoka, N., Comparison of the essential oils of Glehnia littoralis from Northern and Southern Japan, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001, 49, 11, 5433-5436, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf010219c . [all data]

Weckerle, Bastl-Borrmann, et al., 2001
Weckerle, B.; Bastl-Borrmann, R.; Richling, E.; Hör, K.; Ruff, C.; Schreier, P., Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) flavour constituents - chiral evaluation (MDGC-MS) and isotope ratio (HRGC-IRMS) analysis, Flavour Fragr. J., 2001, 16, 5, 360-363, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1012 . [all data]

Buttery, Light, et al., 2000
Buttery, R.G.; Light, D.M.; Nam, Y.; Merrill, G.B.; Roitman, J.N., Volatile components of green walnut husks, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2000, 48, 7, 2858-2861, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf000288b . [all data]

Lee and Shibamoto, 2000
Lee, K.-G.; Shibamoto, T., Antioxidant properties of aroma compounds isolated from soybeans and mung beans, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2000, 48, 9, 4290-4293, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf000442u . [all data]

Parada, Duque, et al., 2000
Parada, F.; Duque, C.; Fujimoto, Y., Free and bound volatile composition and characterization of some glucoconjugates as aroma precursors in Melón de olor fruit pulp (Sicana odorifera), J. Agric. Food Chem., 2000, 48, 12, 6200-6204, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0007232 . [all data]

Iwatsuki, Mizota, et al., 1999
Iwatsuki, K.; Mizota, Y.; Kubota, T.; Nishimura, O.; Masuda, H.; Sotoyama, K.; Tomita, M., Aroma extract dilution analysis. Evluation of aroma of pasteurized and UHT processed milk by aroma extract dilution analysis, Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi, 1999, 46, 9, 587-597, https://doi.org/10.3136/nskkk.46.587 . [all data]

Kaya, Baser, et al., 1999
Kaya, A.; Baser, K.H.C.; Koca, F., Essential oils of Acinos troodi (Post) Leblebici subsp. vardaranus Leblebici and subsp. grandiflorus Hartvig Strid, Flavour Fragr. J., 1999, 14, 1, 50-54, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1026(199901/02)14:1<50::AID-FFJ783>3.0.CO;2-7 . [all data]

Kaya, Baser, et al., 1999, 2
Kaya, A.; Baser, K.H.C.; Demirci, B.; Koca, F., The essential oil of Acinos alpinus (L.) Moench growing in Turkey, Flavour Fragr. J., 1999, 14, 1, 55-59, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1026(199901/02)14:1<55::AID-FFJ784>3.0.CO;2-Q . [all data]

Kaya, Baser, et al., 1999, 3
Kaya, A.; Baser, K.H.C.; Tümen, G.; Koca, F., The essential oil of Acinos suaveolens (Sm.) G. Don fil. Acinos arvensis (Lam.) Dandy and Acinos rotundifolius Pers. growing wild in Turkey, Flavour Fragr. J., 1999, 14, 1, 60-64, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1026(199901/02)14:1<60::AID-FFJ785>3.0.CO;2-0 . [all data]

Tümen, Baser, et al., 1998
Tümen, G.; Baser, K.H.C.; Demirci, B.; Ermin, N., The essential oils of Satureja coerulea Janka and Thymus aznavourii Velen., Flavour Fragr. J., 1998, 13, 1, 65-67, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1026(199801/02)13:1<65::AID-FFJ695>3.0.CO;2-Q . [all data]

Sekiwa, Kubota, et al., 1997
Sekiwa, Y.; Kubota, K.; Kobayashi, A., Characteristic flavor components in the brew of cooked clam (Meretrix lusoria) and the effect of storage on flavor formation, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1997, 45, 3, 826-830, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf960433e . [all data]

Kubota, Matsujage, et al., 1996
Kubota, K.; Matsujage, Y.; Sekiwa, Y.; Kobayashi, A., Identification of the characteristic volatile flavor compounds formed by cooking squid (Todarodes pacificus Steenstrup), Food Sci. Technol., 1996, 2, 3, 163-166. [all data]

Shuichi, Masazumi, et al., 1996
Shuichi, H.; Masazumi, N.; Hiromu, K.; Kiyoshi, F., Comparison of volatile compounds berween the crude drugs, Onji-tsutsu and Onji-niki, Nippon nogei kagaku kaishi, 1996, 70, 2, 151-160. [all data]

Togari, Kobayashi, et al., 1995
Togari, N.; Kobayashi, A.; Aishima, T., Pattern recognition applied to gas chromatographic profiles of volatile components in three tea categories, Food Res. Int., 1995, 28, 5, 495-502, https://doi.org/10.1016/0963-9969(95)00029-1 . [all data]

Chung, Eiserich, et al., 1993
Chung, T.Y.; Eiserich, J.P.; Shibamoto, T., Volatile compounds identified in headspace samples of peanut oil heated under temperatures ranging from 50 to 200 °C, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1993, 41, 9, 1467-1470, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00033a022 . [all data]

Hatsuko, Kazuko, et al., 1992
Hatsuko, S.; Kazuko, H.; Masayoshi, K.; Yoshiaki, I., Improvement of quality of likorine extract by heat treatment, J. Food Sci. Technol., 1992, 39, 11, 976-983, https://doi.org/10.3136/nskkk1962.39.976 . [all data]

Habu, Flath, et al., 1985
Habu, T.; Flath, R.A.; Mon, T.R.; Morton, J.F., Volatile components of Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis), J. Agric. Food Chem., 1985, 33, 2, 249-254, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00062a024 . [all data]

Buttery, Parker, et al., 1981
Buttery, R.G.; Parker, F.D.; Teranishi, R.; Mon, T.R.; Ling, L.C., Volatile components of alfalfa leaf-cutter bee cells, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1981, 29, 5, 955-958, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00107a017 . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp, References