Home Symbol which looks like a small house Up Solid circle with an upward pointer in it

Piperidine

Data at NIST subscription sites:

NIST subscription sites provide data under the NIST Standard Reference Data Program, but require an annual fee to access. The purpose of the fee is to recover costs associated with the development of data collections included in such sites. Your institution may already be a subscriber. Follow the links above to find out more about the data in these sites and their terms of usage.


Gas phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas-47.15 ± 0.63kJ/molCcbGood, 1972Author was aware that data differs from previously reported values
Deltafgas-47.15 ± 0.63kJ/molCcbBedford, Beezer, et al., 1963Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -48.8 ± 2.6 kJ/mol

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafliquid-86.44 ± 0.59kJ/molCcbGood, 1972Author was aware that data differs from previously reported values; ALS
Deltafliquid-88.1 ± 2.3kJ/molCcbBedford, Beezer, et al., 1963ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacliquid-3453.2 ± 0.50kJ/molCcbGood, 1972Author was aware that data differs from previously reported values; ALS
Deltacliquid-3451.5 ± 2.3kJ/molCcbBedford, Beezer, et al., 1963ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
liquid209.972J/mol*KN/AMesserly, Todd, et al., 1988DH
liquid209.94J/mol*KN/AMesserly, Todd, et al., 1987DH
liquid209.94J/mol*KN/ASteele, Chirico, et al., 1986DH

Constant pressure heat capacity of liquid

Cp,liquid (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
179.857298.150Messerly, Todd, et al., 1988T = 10 to 400 K.; DH
179.85298.15Messerly, Todd, et al., 1987T = 10 to 370 K.; DH
179.86298.15Steele, Chirico, et al., 1986T = 10 to 370 K.; DH
181.6298.Conti, Gianni, et al., 1976DH
182.76297.39Moelwyn-Hughes and Thorpe, 1964T = 297 to 327 K.; DH
186.2290.Kurnakov and Voskresenskaya, 1936DH
170.7290.Radulescu and Jula, 1934DH

Phase change data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Chris Muzny, director
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil379.2 ± 0.5KAVGN/AAverage of 16 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus262. ± 5.KAVGN/AAverage of 7 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple262.100KN/AMesserly, Todd, et al., 1988, 2Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.03 K; TRC
Ttriple262.120KN/AMesserly, Todd, et al., 1988, 2Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.02 K; TRC
Ttriple262.12KN/AAnonymous, 1960Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.05 K; measured by Project 52c at Bartlesville OK; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc594.1KN/AAmbrose, 1963Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.02 K; TRC
Tc594.KN/ACheng, McCoubrey, et al., 1962Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.3 K; Visual (5-cm 2-mm bore tubes) in nitrate-nitrite bath, TE or TH cal. vs NPL thermometer J.C.McCoubrey, A.R.Ubbelohde Trans. Faraday Soc. 1960,56,114; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Pc46.5588barN/AGuye and Mallet, 1902Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 2.0265 bar; rapid decomposition at critical temp.; TRC
Pc46.4575barN/AGuye and Mallet, 1902Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 2.0265 bar; rapid decomposition at critical temp.; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap39.3kJ/molN/AGood, 1972DRB
Deltavap39.3 ± 0.2kJ/molVBedford, Beezer, et al., 1963ALS
Deltavap41.0kJ/molN/ABedford, Beezer, et al., 1963DRB

Reduced pressure boiling point

Tboil (K) Pressure (bar) Reference Comment
290.90.027Weast and Grasselli, 1989BS

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
36.6338.N/AHossenlopp and Archer, 1988AC
35.3357.N/AHossenlopp and Archer, 1988AC
37.6330.A,EB,IPStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 315. - 417. K. See also Osborn and Douslin, 1968.; AC

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

View plot Requires a JavaScript / HTML 5 canvas capable browser.

Temperature (K) A B C Reference
315.51 - 416.763.981891239.577-67.622Osborn and Douslin, 1968

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
14.85369262.124Messerly, Todd, et al., 1988DH
14.8479262.124Messerly, Todd, et al., 1987DH
14.85262.1Domalski and Hearing, 1996AC

Entropy of fusion

DeltafusS (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
56.67262.124Messerly, Todd, et al., 1988DH
56.64262.124Messerly, Todd, et al., 1987DH

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Reaction thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

Pyridine + 3Hydrogen = Piperidine

By formula: C5H5N + 3H2 = C5H11N

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-193.8 ± 0.75kJ/molEqkHales and Herington, 1957gas phase; Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -202.2 ± 0.75 kJ/mol; At 400-550 K
Deltar-193.0 ± 2.1kJ/molEqkBurrows and King, 1935liquid phase; Reanalyzed by Cox and Pilcher, 1970, Original value = -188.3 kJ/mol; At 423-443 K

3Hydrogen + Dodecahydro-1H,6H,11H-tripyrido[1,2-a:1',2'-c:1",2"-e][1,3,5]triazine = 3Piperidine

By formula: 3H2 + C15H27N3 = 3C5H11N

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar-126. ± 2.kJ/molChydWiberg, Nakaji, et al., 1993liquid phase; solvent: Acetic acid

Henry's Law data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Rolf Sander

Henry's Law constant (water solution)

kH(T) = H exp(d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) ((1/T) - 1/(298.15 K)))
H = Henry's law constant for solubility in water at 298.15 K (mol/kg*bar)
d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) = Temperature dependence constant (K)

H (mol/kg*bar) d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) (K) Method Reference
220.7900.MN/A

Gas phase ion energetics data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
LBLHLM - Sharon G. Lias, John E. Bartmess, Joel F. Liebman, John L. Holmes, Rhoda D. Levin, and W. Gary Mallard
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)8.03 ± 0.11eVN/AN/AL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)954.0kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity921.kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
8.20 ± 0.05PERozeboom and Houk, 1982LBLHLM
8.05 ± 0.05PEPesterev, Gabdrakipov, et al., 1979LLK
7.8PEAue and Bowers, 1979LLK
7.9 ± 0.1PEAue, Webb, et al., 1976LLK
8.7EIKiser and Gallegos, 1962RDSH
9.15CTSCollin, 1960RDSH
8.65 ± 0.10PEGan and Peel, 1979Vertical value; LLK
8.67PEDaamen and Oskam, 1978Vertical value; LLK
8.64 ± 0.05PEMorishima, Yoshikawa, et al., 1975Vertical value; LLK
8.66 ± 0.03PEColonna, Distefano, et al., 1975Vertical value; LLK
8.660PEAue, Webb, et al., 1975Vertical value; LLK
8.64 ± 0.02PEYoshikawa, Hashimoto, et al., 1974Vertical value; LLK

IR Spectrum

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compiled by: Coblentz Society, Inc.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

Notice: This spectrum may be better viewed with a Javascript and HTML 5 enabled browser.

Mass spectrum
For Zoom
1.) Enter the desired X axis range (e.g., 100, 200)
2.) Check here for automatic Y scaling
3.) Press here to zoom

Additional Data

View image of digitized spectrum (can be printed in landscape orientation).

View spectrum image in SVG format.

Download spectrum in JCAMP-DX format.

Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Japan AIST/NIMC Database- Spectrum MS-NW- 539
NIST MS number 228351

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


UV/Visible spectrum

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Victor Talrose, Eugeny B. Stern, Antonina A. Goncharova, Natalia A. Messineva, Natalia V. Trusova, Margarita V. Efimkina

Spectrum

Notice: This spectrum may be better viewed with a Javascript and HTML 5 enabled browser.

UVVis spectrum
For Zoom
1.) Enter the desired X axis range (e.g., 100, 200)
2.) Check here for automatic Y scaling
3.) Press here to zoom

Additional Data

View image of digitized spectrum (can be printed in landscape orientation).

View spectrum image in SVG format.

Download spectrum in JCAMP-DX format.

Source Pickett, Corning, et al., 1953
Owner INEP CP RAS, NIST OSRD
Collection (C) 2007 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin INSTITUTE OF ENERGY PROBLEMS OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, RAS
Source reference RAS UV No. 819
Instrument Fluorite prism vacuum spectrograph or Beckman DU
Melting point -11.03
Boiling point 106.2

Gas Chromatography

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, NIST Free Links, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

View large format table.

Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
PackedC78, Branched paraffin130.762.0Dallos, Sisak, et al., 2000He; Column length: 3.3 m
CapillaryOV-101110.769.Zhuravleva, 200050. m/0.3 mm/0.4 «mu»m, He
CapillaryOV-101110.771.Zhuravleva, Golovnya, et al., 199350. m/0.30 mm/0.40 «mu»m, He
PackedC78, Branched paraffin130.762.0Reddy, Dutoit, et al., 1992Chromosorb G HP; Column length: 3.3 m
PackedApolane130.766.Dutoit, 1991Column length: 3.7 m
PackedOV-101120.764.Litvinenko, Isakova, et al., 1988He, Chromaton W AW; Column length: 2.4 m
PackedSE-30150.775.Tiess, 1984Ar, Gas Chrom Q (80-100 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedApiezon L100.770.Zhuravleva, Kapustin, et al., 1976N2 or He, Chromosorb G, AW; Column length: 2.7 m
PackedPMS-100130.742.Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973He, Celite 545 (44-60 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedPMS-100150.751.Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973He, Celite 545 (44-60 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedPMS-100180.761.Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973He, Celite 545 (44-60 mesh); Column length: 3. m

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
PackedSE-30790.Ramsey, Lee, et al., 1980He, Chromosorb G HP (80-100 mesh); Column length: 1.5 m; Program: not specified

Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

View large format table.

Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
PackedPEG-2000150.1074.Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973He, Celite 545 (44-60 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedPEG-2000152.1097.Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973He, Celite 545 (44-60 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedPEG-2000179.1115.Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973He, Celite 545 (44-60 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedPEG-2000180.1088.Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973He, Celite 545 (44-60 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedPEG-2000200.1100.Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973He, Celite 545 (44-60 mesh); Column length: 3. m
PackedPEG-2000200.1125.Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973He, Celite 545 (44-60 mesh); Column length: 3. m

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
PackedSE-30775.Peng, Ding, et al., 1988He, Supelcoport and Chromosorb, 40. C @ 4. min, 10. K/min, 250. C @ 60. min; Column length: 3.05 m

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryMethyl Silicone767.Farkas, Héberger, et al., 2004Program: not specified
CapillarySE-30750.Vinogradov, 2004Program: not specified
CapillarySPB-1755.Flanagan, Streete, et al., 199760. m/0.53 mm/5. «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(6min) => 5C/min => 80C => 10C/min => 200C
CapillarySPB-1755.Strete, Ruprah, et al., 199260. m/0.53 mm/5.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 40 0C (6 min) 5 0C/min -> 80 0C 10 0C/min -> 200 0C
CapillarySPB-1782.Strete, Ruprah, et al., 199260. m/0.53 mm/5.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.790.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified
OtherMethyl Silicone790.Ardrey and Moffat, 1981Program: not specified

Normal alkane RI, polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1042.Vinogradov, 2004Program: not specified
CapillaryDB-Wax1049.Peng, Yang, et al., 1991Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Good, 1972
Good, W.D., Enthalpies of combustion of nine organic nitrogen compounds related to petroleum, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1972, 17, 28-31. [all data]

Bedford, Beezer, et al., 1963
Bedford, A.F.; Beezer, A.E.; Mortimer, C.T., Heats of formation and bond energies. Part X. 1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine, piperidine, and piperazine, J. Chem. Soc., 1963, 2039-2043. [all data]

Cox and Pilcher, 1970
Cox, J.D.; Pilcher, G., Thermochemistry of Organic and Organometallic Compounds, Academic Press, New York, 1970, 1-636. [all data]

Messerly, Todd, et al., 1988
Messerly, J.F.; Todd, S.S.; Finke, H.L.; Good, W.D.; Gammon, B.E., Condensed-phase heat-capacity studies and derived thermodynamic properties for six cyclic nitrogen compounds, J. Chem. Thermodynam., 1988, 20, 209-224. [all data]

Messerly, Todd, et al., 1987
Messerly, J.F.; Todd, S.S.; Finke, H.L.; Gammon, B.E., Thermodynamic properties of organic nitrogen compounds that occur in shale oil and heavy petroleum-topical report, NIPER Report, 1987, 83, 37p. [all data]

Steele, Chirico, et al., 1986
Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Collier, W.B.; Hossenlopp, I.A.; Nguyen, A.; Strube, M.M., Thermochemical and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen compounds found in fossil materials, NIPER Report, 1986, 188, 112p. [all data]

Conti, Gianni, et al., 1976
Conti, G.; Gianni, P.; Matteoli, E.; Mengheri, M., Capacita termiche molari di alcuni composti organici mono- e bifunzionali nel liquido puro e in soluzione acquosa a 25C, Chim. Ind. (Milan), 1976, 58, 225. [all data]

Moelwyn-Hughes and Thorpe, 1964
Moelwyn-Hughes, E.A.; Thorpe, P.L., The physical and thermodynamic properties of some associated solutions. II. Heat capacities and compressibilities, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), 1964, 278A, 574-587. [all data]

Kurnakov and Voskresenskaya, 1936
Kurnakov, N.S.; Voskresenskaya, N.K., Calorimetry of liquid binary systems, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Otdel. Mat. i Estestv. Nauk. Ser. Khim, 1936, 1936, 439-461. [all data]

Radulescu and Jula, 1934
Radulescu, D.; Jula, O., Beiträge zur Bestimmung der Abstufung der Polarität des Aminstickstoffes in den organischen Verbindungen, Z. Phys. Chem., 1934, B26, 390-393. [all data]

Messerly, Todd, et al., 1988, 2
Messerly, J.F.; Todd, s.S.; Finke, H.L.; Good, W.D.; Gammon, B.E., Condensed-phase heat-capacity studies and derived thermodynamic properties for six cyclic nitrogen compounds, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1988, 20, 209. [all data]

Anonymous, 1960
Anonymous, R., , Natl. Bur. Stand. (U. S.), Tech. News Bull. 44, 1960. [all data]

Ambrose, 1963
Ambrose, D., Critical Temperatures of Some Phenols and Other Organic Compounds, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1963, 59, 1988. [all data]

Cheng, McCoubrey, et al., 1962
Cheng, D.C.H.; McCoubrey, J.C.; Phillips, D.G., Critical Temperatures of Some Organic Cyclic Compounds, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1962, 58, 224. [all data]

Guye and Mallet, 1902
Guye, P.A.; Mallet, E., Measurement of Critical Constants, Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat., 1902, 13, 274-296. [all data]

Weast and Grasselli, 1989
CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds, 2nd Editon, Weast,R.C and Grasselli, J.G., ed(s)., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1989, 1. [all data]

Hossenlopp and Archer, 1988
Hossenlopp, I.A.; Archer, D.G., Enthalpies of vaporization of piperidine and 1,2-dimethylbenzene; gas-phase isobaric heat capacities of piperidine, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 1988, 20, 9, 1061-1068, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9614(88)90112-7 . [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Osborn and Douslin, 1968
Osborn, Ann G.; Douslin, Donald R., Vapor pressure relations of 13 nitrogen compounds related to petroleum, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1968, 13, 4, 534-537, https://doi.org/10.1021/je60039a024 . [all data]

Domalski and Hearing, 1996
Domalski, Eugene S.; Hearing, Elizabeth D., Heat Capacities and Entropies of Organic Compounds in the Condensed Phase. Volume III, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1996, 25, 1, 1, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555985 . [all data]

Hales and Herington, 1957
Hales, J.L.; Herington, E.F.G., Equilibrium between pyridine and piperidine, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1957, 53, 616-622. [all data]

Burrows and King, 1935
Burrows, G.H.; King, L.A., Jr., The free energy change that accompanies hydrogenation of pyridine to piperidine, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1935, 57, 1789-1791. [all data]

Wiberg, Nakaji, et al., 1993
Wiberg, K.B.; Nakaji, D.Y.; Morgan, K.M., Heat of hydrogenation of a cis imine. An experimental and theoretical study, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1993, 115, 3527-3532. [all data]

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556018 . [all data]

Rozeboom and Houk, 1982
Rozeboom, M.D.; Houk, K.N., Stereospecific alkyl group effects on amine lone-pair ionization potentials: Photoelectron spectra of alkylpiperidines, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1982, 104, 1189. [all data]

Pesterev, Gabdrakipov, et al., 1979
Pesterev, V.I.; Gabdrakipov, V.Z.; Artyukhin, V.I.; Agashkin, O.V., The ionisation and excitation of the conformers of piperidine and its alkyl derivatives, Russ. J. Phys. Chem., 1979, 53, 845. [all data]

Aue and Bowers, 1979
Aue, D.H.; Bowers, M.T., Chapter 9. Stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas phase basicity measurements in Ions Chemistry,, ed. M.T. Bowers, 1979. [all data]

Aue, Webb, et al., 1976
Aue, D.H.; Webb, H.M.; Bowers, M.T., Quantitative proton affinities, ionization potentials, and hydrogen affinities of alkylamines, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1976, 98, 311. [all data]

Kiser and Gallegos, 1962
Kiser, R.W.; Gallegos, E.J., A technique for the rapid determination of ionization and appearance potentials, J. Phys. Chem., 1962, 66, 947. [all data]

Collin, 1960
Collin, J.E., Relations between charge-transfer spectra and ionization potentials of some electron-donor organic molecules, Z. Elektrochem., 1960, 64, 936. [all data]

Gan and Peel, 1979
Gan, T.-H.; Peel, J.B., Photoelectron spectroscopic studies of piperidine and its N-halo derivatives, Aust. J. Chem., 1979, 32, 475. [all data]

Daamen and Oskam, 1978
Daamen, H.; Oskam, A., Bonding properties of some monosubstituted chromium and tungsten hexacarbonyls M(CO)5L (L=amine, substituted pyridine, azine), Inorg. Chim. Acta, 1978, 26, 81. [all data]

Morishima, Yoshikawa, et al., 1975
Morishima, I.; Yoshikawa, K.; Hashimoto, M.; Bekki, K., Homoallylic interaction between the nitrogen lone pair and the nonadjacent «pi» bond in cyclic and bicyclic amines. I. Photoelectron spectroscopic study, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1975, 97, 4283. [all data]

Colonna, Distefano, et al., 1975
Colonna, F.P.; Distefano, G.; Pignataro, S.; Pitacco, G.; Valentin, E., Ionization energies of some amines and enamines and an estimation of their relative basicity in gaseous phase, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2, 1975, 71, 1572. [all data]

Aue, Webb, et al., 1975
Aue, D.H.; Webb, H.M.; Bowers, M.T., Proton affinities, ionization potentials, and hydrogen affinities of nitrogen and oxygen bases. Hybridization effects, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1975, 97, 4137. [all data]

Yoshikawa, Hashimoto, et al., 1974
Yoshikawa, K.; Hashimoto, M.; Morishima, I., Photoelectron spectroscopic study of cyclic amines. The relation between ionization potentials, basicities, and s character of the nitrogen lone pair electrons, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1974, 96, 288. [all data]

Pickett, Corning, et al., 1953
Pickett, L.W.; Corning, M.E.; Wieder, G.M.; Semenow, D.A.; Buckley, J.M., The vacuum ultraviolet spectra of cyclic compounds. III. Amines, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1953, 75, 1618-1622. [all data]

Dallos, Sisak, et al., 2000
Dallos, A.; Sisak, A.; Kulcsár, Z.; Kováts, E., Pair-wise interactions by gas chromatography VII. Interaction free enthalpies of solutes with secondary alcohol groups, J. Chromatogr. A, 2000, 904, 2, 211-242, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00908-0 . [all data]

Zhuravleva, 2000
Zhuravleva, I.L., Evaluation of the polarity and boiling points of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds by gas chromatography, Russ. Chem. Bull. (Engl. Transl.), 2000, 49, 2, 325-328, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02494682 . [all data]

Zhuravleva, Golovnya, et al., 1993
Zhuravleva, I.L.; Golovnya, R.V.; Kuzmenko, T.E., The regularities of the gas-chromatographic behavior of methyl-substituted N-alkylpiperidines, Russ. Chem. Bull. (Engl. Transl.), 1993, 42, 10, 1677-1679, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00697038 . [all data]

Reddy, Dutoit, et al., 1992
Reddy, K.S.; Dutoit, J.-Cl.; Kovats, E. sz., Pair-wise interactions by gas chromatography. I. Interaction free enthalpies of solutes with non-associated primary alcohol groups, J. Chromatogr., 1992, 609, 1-2, 229-259, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(92)80167-S . [all data]

Dutoit, 1991
Dutoit, J., Gas chromatographic retention behaviour of some solutes on structurally similar polar and non-polar stationary phases, J. Chromatogr., 1991, 555, 1-2, 191-204, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)87179-X . [all data]

Litvinenko, Isakova, et al., 1988
Litvinenko, G.S.; Isakova, L.A.; Rubanyk, N.N., Quantitative correlation between structure of stereoisomeric saturated cyclic compounds and gas-chromatographic retention indices. I. Methysubstituted, Izv. AN Kaz. SSR, Ser. Khim., 1988, 5, 54-66. [all data]

Tiess, 1984
Tiess, D., Gaschromatographische Retentionsindices von 125 leicht- bis mittelflüchtigen organischen Substanzen toxikologisch-analytischer Relevanz auf SE-30, Wiss. Z. Wilhelm-Pieck-Univ. Rostock Math. Naturwiss. Reihe, 1984, 33, 6-9. [all data]

Zhuravleva, Kapustin, et al., 1976
Zhuravleva, I.L.; Kapustin, Yu.P.; Golovnya, P.B., Retention indices of some isoaliphatic and heterocyclic nitrogenous bases, Zh. Anal. Khim., 1976, 31, 1378-1380. [all data]

Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973
Anderson, A.; Jurel, S.; Shymanska, M.; Golender, L., Gas-liquid chromatography of some aliphatic and heterocyclic mono- and pollyfunctional amines. VII. Retention indices of amines in some polar and unpolar stationary phases, Latv. PSR Zinat. Akad. Vestis Kim. Ser., 1973, 1, 51-63. [all data]

Ramsey, Lee, et al., 1980
Ramsey, J.D.; Lee, T.D.; Osselton, M.D.; Moffat, A.C., Gas-liquid chromatographic retention indices of 296 non-drug substances on SE-30 or OV-1 likely to be encountered in toxicological analyses, J. Chromatogr., 1980, 184, 2, 185-206, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)85641-1 . [all data]

Peng, Ding, et al., 1988
Peng, C.T.; Ding, S.F.; Hua, R.L.; Yang, Z.C., Prediction of Retention Indexes I. Structure-Retention Index Relationship on Apolar Columns, J. Chromatogr., 1988, 436, 137-172, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)94575-8 . [all data]

Farkas, Héberger, et al., 2004
Farkas, O.; Héberger, K.; Zenkevich, I.G., Quantitative structure-retention relationships. XIV. Prediction of gas chromatographic retention indices for saturated O-, N-, and S-heterocyclic compounds, Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst., 2004, 72, 2, 173-184, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemolab.2004.01.012 . [all data]

Vinogradov, 2004
Vinogradov, B.A., Production, composition, properties and application of essential oils, 2004, retrieved from http://viness.narod.ru. [all data]

Flanagan, Streete, et al., 1997
Flanagan, R.J.; Streete, P.J.; Ramsey, J.D., Volatile Substance Abuse, UNODC Technical Series, No 5, United Nations, Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna International Centre, PO Box 500, A-1400 Vienna, Austria, 1997, 56, retrieved from http://www.odccp.org/pdf/technicalseries1997-01-011.pdf. [all data]

Strete, Ruprah, et al., 1992
Strete, P.J.; Ruprah, M.; Ramsey, J.D.; Flanagan, R.J., Detection and identification of volatile substances by headspace capillary gas chromatography to aid the diagnosis of acute poisoning, Analyst, 1992, 117, 7, 1111-1127, https://doi.org/10.1039/an9921701111 . [all data]

Waggott and Davies, 1984
Waggott, A.; Davies, I.W., Identification of organic pollutants using linear temperature programmed retention indices (LTPRIs) - Part II, 1984, retrieved from http://dwi.defra.gov.uk/research/completed-research/reports/dwi0383.pdf. [all data]

Ardrey and Moffat, 1981
Ardrey, R.E.; Moffat, A.C., Gas-liquid chromatographic retention indices of 1318 substances of toxicological interest on SE-30 or OV-1 stationary phase, J. Chromatogr., 1981, 220, 3, 195-252, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)81925-1 . [all data]

Peng, Yang, et al., 1991
Peng, C.T.; Yang, Z.C.; Ding, S.F., Prediction of rentention idexes. II. Structure-retention index relationship on polar columns, J. Chromatogr., 1991, 586, 1, 85-112, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(91)80028-F . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References