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Formic acid, propyl ester

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Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafsolid-500. ± 42.kJ/molCcbDelafontaine, Sabbah, et al., 1973%hf298 calculated possible error by the authors; ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacsolid-2217. ± 42.kJ/molCcbDelafontaine, Sabbah, et al., 1973%hf298 calculated possible error by the authors; Corresponding «DELTA»fsolid = -500. kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS

Constant pressure heat capacity of liquid

Cp,liquid (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
172.10298.15Pintos, Bravo, et al., 1988DH
171.42298.15Jimenez, Romani, et al., 1986DH
172.07298.15Baluja, Bravo, et al., 1985DH

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Kenneth Kroenlein director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil354.1 ± 0.3KAVGN/AAverage of 17 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus180.3KN/ATimmermans, 1922Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.4 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc538.KN/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
Tc538.00KN/AYoung, 1910Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 1. K; TRC
Tc538.00KN/AYoung and Thomas, 1893Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 1. K; TRC
Tc533.7KN/ADe Heen, 1888Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 4. K; TRC
Tc534.0KN/ANadezhdin, 1887Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 4. K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Pc40.61barN/AYoung, 1910Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.6079 bar; TRC
Pc40.610barN/AYoung and Thomas, 1893Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.40 bar; TRC
Pc43.30barN/ANadezhdin, 1887Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 3.0398 bar; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
rhoc3.511mol/lN/AYoung, 1910Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.06 mol/l; TRC
rhoc3.513mol/lN/AYoung and Thomas, 1893Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.05 mol/l; TRC
rhoc3.46mol/lN/ANadezhdin, 1887Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.06 mol/l; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap37.61kJ/molN/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
Deltavap37.5 ± 0.1kJ/molCSvoboda, Uchytilová, et al., 1980AC
Deltavap32.5 ± 0.04kJ/molVMathews, 1926ALS

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
33.61354.N/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
35.3317.N/AFárková and Wichterle, 1993Based on data from 302. - 353. K.; AC
32.7369.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 354. - 518. K.; AC
36.8245.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 230. - 355. K.; AC
36.5 ± 0.1313.CSvoboda, Uchytilová, et al., 1980AC
35.8 ± 0.1326.CCihlár, Hynek, et al., 1976AC
35.4 ± 0.1331.CCihlár, Hynek, et al., 1976AC
34.4 ± 0.1344.CCihlár, Hynek, et al., 1976AC
33.8 ± 0.1351.CCihlár, Hynek, et al., 1976AC
33.5 ± 0.1355.CCihlár, Hynek, et al., 1976AC
32.9 ± 0.1363.CCihlár, Hynek, et al., 1976AC
35.6314.N/ANelson, 1928Based on data from 299. - 355. K. See also Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984.; AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

ΔvapH = A exp(-βTr) (1 − Tr)β
    ΔvapH = Enthalpy of vaporization (at saturation pressure) (kJ/mol)
    Tr = reduced temperature (T / Tc)

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Temperature (K) A (kJ/mol) beta Tc (K) Reference Comment
298. - 363.56.410.2992538.Majer and Svoboda, 1985 

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

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Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
299.4 - 355.54.033951159.609-65.815Nelson, 1928Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Henry's Law data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Rolf Sander

Henry's Law constant (water solution)

kH(T) = H exp(d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) ((1/T) - 1/(298.15 K)))
H = Henry's law constant for solubility in water at 298.15 K (mol/kg*bar)
d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) = Temperature dependence constant (K)

H (mol/kg*bar) d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) (K) Method Reference
2.7 VN/A

Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron

View reactions leading to C4H8O2+ (ion structure unspecified)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)10.54 ± 0.05eVN/AN/AL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)804.9kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity773.9kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
10.3 ± 0.2CEMSJalonen, Tedder, et al., 1980LLK
10.50 ± 0.05PEBenoit, Harrison, et al., 1977LLK
10.50PEBenoit and Harrison, 1977LLK
10.62PESweigart and Turner, 1972LLK
10.54 ± 0.01PIWatanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962RDSH

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
CHO+11.56 ± 0.06?EIBrion and Dunning, 1963RDSH
CHO2+12.34 ± 0.04C3H7EIBrion and Dunning, 1963RDSH
CH3+11.94 ± 0.02?EIBrion and Dunning, 1963RDSH
CH3O+11.10 ± 0.05C2H5+COEISelim and Helal, 1981LLK
CH3O+11.9 ± 0.3?CEMSJalonen, Tedder, et al., 1980LLK
CH3O2+10.7 ± 0.2?CEMSJalonen, Tedder, et al., 1980LLK
CH3O2+10.45 ± 0.05CH2=CHCH2EIBenoit, Harrison, et al., 1977LLK
CH3O2+11.0 ± 0.1?EIMunson and Franklin, 1964RDSH
C3H6+10.7 ± 0.2HCOOHCEMSJalonen, Tedder, et al., 1980LLK
C3H7+11.63 ± 0.05?EIBrion and Dunning, 1963RDSH
C3H7O+11.0 ± 0.1HCOCEMSJalonen, Tedder, et al., 1980LLK

IR Spectrum

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Gas Phase Spectrum

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IR spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Standard Reference Data Program
Collection (C) 2018 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Sadtler Research Labs Under US-EPA Contract
State gas

This IR spectrum is from the NIST/EPA Gas-Phase Infrared Database .


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

View image of digitized spectrum (can be printed in landscape orientation).

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Japan AIST/NIMC Database- Spectrum MS-NW- 35
NIST MS number 228296

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


Gas Chromatography

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
PackedSqualane50.564.Becerra, Sánchez, et al., 1982N2, Chromosorb W-AM; Column length: 6. m
PackedApiezon L120.572.Bogoslovsky, Anvaer, et al., 1978Celite 545
PackedApiezon L160.576.Bogoslovsky, Anvaer, et al., 1978Celite 545
PackedApiezon L70.570.Bogoslovsky, Anvaer, et al., 1978 
PackedSE-30150.602.Ashes and Haken, 1974Celaton (62-72 mesh); Column length: 3.7 m
PackedSqualane50.559.Mira and Sanchez, 1970Chromosorb G
PackedSE-30150.592.Germaine and Haken, 1969Celite 560; Column length: 3.7 m
PackedApiezon L130.574.Wehrli and Kováts, 1959Celite; Column length: 2.25 m
PackedApiezon L70.570.Wehrli and Kováts, 1959Celite; Column length: 2.25 m

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySE-30602.Chretien and Dubois, 1978Program: not specified

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryFFAP892.Yasuhara, 198750. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He; Program: 20C (5min) => 2C/min => 70C => 4C/min => 210C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

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Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane105.604.Tello, Lebron-Aguilar, et al., 2009 
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane75.605.Tello, Lebron-Aguilar, et al., 2009 
CapillaryPolydimethyl siloxane90.604.Tello, Lebron-Aguilar, et al., 2009 

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

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Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryMethyl Silicone602.Du and Feng, 2008Program: not specified
CapillaryMethyl Silicone602.Chen and Feng, 2007Program: not specified
CapillarySE-30606.Vinogradov, 2004Program: not specified
CapillaryMethyl Silicone602.N/AProgram: not specified
CapillarySPB-1606.Flanagan, Streete, et al., 199760. m/0.53 mm/5. «mu»m, He; Program: 40C(6min) => 5C/min => 80C => 10C/min => 200C
CapillarySPB-1606.Strete, Ruprah, et al., 199260. m/0.53 mm/5.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: 40 0C (6 min) 5 0C/min -> 80 0C 10 0C/min -> 200 0C
CapillarySPB-1603.Strete, Ruprah, et al., 199260. m/0.53 mm/5.0 «mu»m, Helium; Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1603.Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982Program: not specified

Normal alkane RI, polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryCarbowax 20M907.Vinogradov, 2004Program: not specified
CapillaryCarbowax 20M916.Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Delafontaine, Sabbah, et al., 1973
Delafontaine, J.; Sabbah, R.; Laffitte, M., Mesures microcalorimetriques des enthalpies de reference de formation (a l'etat condense) de composes volatils - mise au point de la technique, Z. Phys. Chem. (Neue Folge), 1973, 84, 157-172. [all data]

Pintos, Bravo, et al., 1988
Pintos, M.; Bravo, R.; Baluja, M.C.; Paz Andrade, M.I.; Roux-Desgranges, G.; Grolier, J.-P.E., Can. J. Chem., 1988, 1179. [all data]

Jimenez, Romani, et al., 1986
Jimenez, E.; Romani, L.; Paz Andrade, M.I.; Roux-Desgranges, G.; Grolier, J.-P.E., Molar excess heat capacities and volumes for mixtures of alkanoates with cyclohexane at 25°C, J. Solution Chem., 1986, 15(11), 879-890. [all data]

Baluja, Bravo, et al., 1985
Baluja, M.C.; Bravo, R.; Pintos, M.; Paz Andrade, M.I.; Roux-Desgranges, G.; Grolier, J.-P.E., Unusual dependence on concentration of the excess heat capacities of ester solutions in alkanes, Calorim. Anal. Therm., 1985, 16, 138-144. [all data]

Timmermans, 1922
Timmermans, J., Investigation of the Freezing Point of Organic Substances VII, Bull. Soc. Chim. Belg., 1922, 31, 389. [all data]

Majer and Svoboda, 1985
Majer, V.; Svoboda, V., Enthalpies of Vaporization of Organic Compounds: A Critical Review and Data Compilation, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1985, 300. [all data]

Young, 1910
Young, S., The Internal Heat of Vaporization constants of thirty pure substances, Sci. Proc. R. Dublin Soc., 1910, 12, 374. [all data]

Young and Thomas, 1893
Young, S.; Thomas, G.L., The vapour pressures, molecular volumes, and critical constants of ten of the lower esters, J. Chem. Soc., 1893, 63, 1191. [all data]

De Heen, 1888
De Heen, P., Research on Physics and Theory of Liquids, Experimental Part Paris, 1888. [all data]

Nadezhdin, 1887
Nadezhdin, A., Rep. Phys., 1887, 23, 708. [all data]

Svoboda, Uchytilová, et al., 1980
Svoboda, Václav; Uchytilová, Vera; Majer, Vladimír; Pick, Jirí, Heats of vaporization of alkyl esters of formic, acetic and propionic acids, Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun., 1980, 45, 12, 3233-3240, https://doi.org/10.1135/cccc19803233 . [all data]

Mathews, 1926
Mathews, J.H., The accurate measurement of heats of vaporization of liquids, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1926, 48, 562-576. [all data]

Fárková and Wichterle, 1993
Fárková, J.; Wichterle, I., Vapour pressures of some ethyl and propyl esters of fatty acids, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 1993, 90, 1, 143-148, https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(93)85009-B . [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Cihlár, Hynek, et al., 1976
Cihlár, J.; Hynek, V.; Svoboda, V.; Holub, R., Heats of vaporization of alkyl esters of formic acid, Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun., 1976, 41, 1, 1-6, https://doi.org/10.1135/cccc19760001 . [all data]

Nelson, 1928
Nelson, O.A., Vapor Pressures of Fumigants: II---Methyl, Ethyl, n-Propyl, Isopropyl, n-Butyl, Secondary Butyl and Isobutyl Formates 1, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1928, 20, 12, 1382-1384, https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50228a035 . [all data]

Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984
Boublik, T.; Fried, V.; Hala, E., The Vapour Pressures of Pure Substances: Selected Values of the Temperature Dependence of the Vapour Pressures of Some Pure Substances in the Normal and Low Pressure Region, 2nd ed., Elsevier, New York, 1984, 972. [all data]

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556018 . [all data]

Jalonen, Tedder, et al., 1980
Jalonen, J.; Tedder, J.M.; Nidaud, P.H., Charge-exchange mass spectra of ethyl acetate, methyl proprionate and propyl formate, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2, 1980, 76, 1450. [all data]

Benoit, Harrison, et al., 1977
Benoit, F.M.; Harrison, A.G.; Lossing, F.P., Hydrogen migrations in mass spectrometry III-Energetics of formation of [R'CO2H2]+ in the mass spectra of R'CO2R, Org. Mass Spectrom., 1977, 12, 78. [all data]

Benoit and Harrison, 1977
Benoit, F.M.; Harrison, A.G., Predictive value of proton affinity. Ionization energy correlations involving oxygenated molecules, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1977, 99, 3980. [all data]

Sweigart and Turner, 1972
Sweigart, D.A.; Turner, D.W., Lone pair orbitals and their interactions studied by photoelectron spectroscopy. I. Carboxylic acids and their derivatives, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1972, 94, 5592. [all data]

Watanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962
Watanabe, K.; Nakayama, T.; Mottl, J., Ionization potentials of some molecules, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer, 1962, 2, 369. [all data]

Brion and Dunning, 1963
Brion, C.E.; Dunning, W.J., Electron impact studies of simple carboxylic esters, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans., 1963, 59, 647. [all data]

Selim and Helal, 1981
Selim, E.T.M.; Helal, A.I., Heat of formation of CH2=OH+ fragment ion, Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys., 1981, 19, 977. [all data]

Munson and Franklin, 1964
Munson, M.S.B.; Franklin, J.L., Energetics of some gaseous oxygenated organic ions, J. Phys. Chem., 1964, 68, 3191. [all data]

Becerra, Sánchez, et al., 1982
Becerra, M.R.; Sánchez, E.F.; Domínguez, J.A.G.; Muñoz, J.G.; Molera, M.J., The use of gaseous and liquid n-paraffins in GC identification of oxidation products of acetondimethyl acetal, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 1982, 20, 8, 363-366, https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/20.8.363 . [all data]

Bogoslovsky, Anvaer, et al., 1978
Bogoslovsky, Yu.N.; Anvaer, B.I.; Vigdergauz, M.S., Chromatographic constants in gas chromatography (in Russian), Standards Publ. House, Moscow, 1978, 192. [all data]

Ashes and Haken, 1974
Ashes, J.R.; Haken, J.K., Gas chromatography of homologous esters. VI. Structure-retention increments of aliphatic esters, J. Chromatogr., 1974, 101, 1, 103-123, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)94737-5 . [all data]

Mira and Sanchez, 1970
Mira, J.M.; Sanchez, L.G., Polarity of the Gas Chromatographic Stationary Phases and Retention Indices of Aliphatic Esters, Ketones and Alcohols, Anal. Chim. Acta., 1970, 50, 2, 315-321, https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2670(70)80071-X . [all data]

Germaine and Haken, 1969
Germaine, R.W.; Haken, J.K., Gas chromatography of homologous esters. Part 1. Simple aliphatic esters, J. Chromatogr., 1969, 43, 33-42, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)99162-3 . [all data]

Wehrli and Kováts, 1959
Wehrli, A.; Kováts, E., Gas-chromatographische Charakterisierung ogranischer Verbindungen. Teil 3: Berechnung der Retentionsindices aliphatischer, alicyclischer und aromatischer Verbindungen, Helv. Chim. Acta, 1959, 7, 7, 2709-2736, https://doi.org/10.1002/hlca.19590420745 . [all data]

Chretien and Dubois, 1978
Chretien, J.R.; Dubois, J-E., Topological Analysis: A Technique for the Physico-Chemical Exploitation of Retention Data in Gas-Liquid Chromatography, J. Chromatogr., 1978, 158, 43-56, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)89954-9 . [all data]

Yasuhara, 1987
Yasuhara, A., Identification of Volatile Compounds in Poultry Manure by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, J. Chromatogr., 1987, 387, 371-378, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)94539-X . [all data]

Tello, Lebron-Aguilar, et al., 2009
Tello, A.M.; Lebron-Aguilar, R.; Quintanilla-Lopez, J.E.; Santiuste, J.M., Isothermal retention indices on poly93-cyanopropylmethyl)siloxane stationary phases, J. Chromatogr. A, 2009, 1216, 10, 1630-1639, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2008.10.025 . [all data]

Du and Feng, 2008
Du, X.; Feng, C., Correlativity research between topological dyeing index and gas chromatography retention index of fatty esters, J. Petrochem. Univ. (Chinese), 2008, 21, 1, 16-20. [all data]

Chen and Feng, 2007
Chen, Y.; Feng, C., QSPR study on gas chromatography retention index of some organic pollutants, Comput. Appl. Chem. (China), 2007, 24, 10, 1404-1408. [all data]

Vinogradov, 2004
Vinogradov, B.A., Production, composition, properties and application of essential oils, 2004, retrieved from http://viness.narod.ru. [all data]

Flanagan, Streete, et al., 1997
Flanagan, R.J.; Streete, P.J.; Ramsey, J.D., Volatile Substance Abuse, UNODC Technical Series, No 5, United Nations, Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna International Centre, PO Box 500, A-1400 Vienna, Austria, 1997, 56, retrieved from http://www.odccp.org/pdf/technicalseries1997-01-011.pdf. [all data]

Strete, Ruprah, et al., 1992
Strete, P.J.; Ruprah, M.; Ramsey, J.D.; Flanagan, R.J., Detection and identification of volatile substances by headspace capillary gas chromatography to aid the diagnosis of acute poisoning, Analyst, 1992, 117, 7, 1111-1127, https://doi.org/10.1039/an9921701111 . [all data]

Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982
Ramsey, J.D.; Flanagan, R.J., Detection and Identification of Volatile Organic Compounds in Blood by Headspace Gas Chromatography as an Aid to the Diagnosis of Solvent Abuse, J. Chromatogr., 1982, 240, 2, 423-444, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)99622-5 . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, NIST Free Links, References