Home Symbol which looks like a small house Up Solid circle with an upward pointer in it

Pyrazine, methyl-

Data at NIST subscription sites:

NIST subscription sites provide data under the NIST Standard Reference Data Program, but require an annual fee to access. The purpose of the fee is to recover costs associated with the development of data collections included in such sites. Your institution may already be a subscriber. Follow the links above to find out more about the data in these sites and their terms of usage.


Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp

Go To: Top, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase HP-FFAPHP-FFAPHP-InnowaxFFAPFFAP
Column length (m) 25.25.15.30.60.
Carrier gas HeliumHeliumHeliumNitrogenHelium
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.320.320.320.320.25
Phase thickness (mum) 0.500.500.500.500.25
Tstart (C) 45.45.40.35.45.
Tend (C) 220.220.250.250.220.
Heat rate (K/min) 15.15.3.4.5.
Initial hold (min)    5.1.
Final hold (min)    45.5.
I 1283.1287.1264.1285.1257.
ReferenceWanakhachornkrai and Lertsiri, 9999Wanakhachornkrai and Lertsiri, 9999Puvipirom and Chaisei, 2012Budryn, Nebesny, et al., 2011Piyachaiseth, Jirapakkul, et al., 2011
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase DB-WaxDB-WaxHP-InnowaxZB-WaxDB-Wax
Column length (m) 60.60.50.60.30.
Carrier gas HeliumHeliumHeliumHeliumHe
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.250.200.320.25
Phase thickness (mum) 0.500.500.330.500.25
Tstart (C) 40.40.50.40.50.
Tend (C) 210.210.250.220.230.
Heat rate (K/min) 2.2.10.4.4.
Initial hold (min) 5.5. 5. 
Final hold (min) 70.70.6.5.15.
I 1288.1286.1254.1297.1265.
ReferenceMoon and Shibamoto, 2010Moon and Shibamoto, 2009Du, Clery, et al., 2008Marin, Pozrl, et al., 2008Characterization of Pyrazines in Some Chinese Liquors and Their Approximate Concentrations, 2007
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase StabilwaxDB-WaxFFAPBP-20BP-20
Column length (m) 60.30.30.30.30.
Carrier gas HeliumHeN2HeHe
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.320.320.250.25
Phase thickness (mum) 0.250.50.50.250.25
Tstart (C) 40.40.35.70.70.
Tend (C) 240.240.320.220.220.
Heat rate (K/min) 3.5.4.4.4.
Initial hold (min) 5. 5.4.4.
Final hold (min) 10. 45.5.5.
I 1252.1275.1285.1276.1276.
ReferenceCros, Vandanjon, et al., 2007Dury-Brun, Fournier, et al., 2007Nebesny, Budryn, et al., 2007Rawat, Gulati, et al., 2007Rawat, Gulati, et al., 2007
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase DB-WaxDB-WaxTC-WaxDB-WaxDB-Wax
Column length (m) 60.30.60.30.30.
Carrier gas HeHeHeHeHe
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.250.250.250.25
Phase thickness (mum) 0.25 0.50.250.25
Tstart (C) 50.60.40.50.50.
Tend (C) 200.180.230.180.180.
Heat rate (K/min) 2.2.3.3.3.
Initial hold (min)  5.8.  
Final hold (min) 90.30. 40.40.
I 1247.1271.1276.1276.1276.
ReferenceFujioka and Shibamoto, 2006Osada and Shibamoto, 2006Ishikawa, Ito, et al., 2004Yanagimoto, Ochi, et al., 2004Yanagimoto, Ochi, et al., 2004
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase StabilwaxDB-WaxDB-WaxHP-FFAPHP-FFAP
Column length (m) 60.30.30.25.25.
Carrier gas Helium  HeHe
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.250.250.320.32
Phase thickness (mum) 0.250.250.250.50.5
Tstart (C) 40.30.30.45.45.
Tend (C) 240.250.250.220.220.
Heat rate (K/min) 3.4.4.15.15.
Initial hold (min) 5.1.1.  
Final hold (min) 10.    
I 1252.1264.1264.1283.1287.
ReferenceCros, Vandanjon, et al., 2003Tanaka, Yamauchi, et al., 2003Tanaka, Yamauchi, et al., 2003Wanakhachornkrai and Lertsiri, 2003Wanakhachornkrai and Lertsiri, 2003
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase HP-WaxHP-WaxHP-WaxDB-WaxDB-Wax
Column length (m) 60.60.60.60.30.
Carrier gas HeHeHeHeHe
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.250.250.250.25
Phase thickness (mum) 0.50.50.50.250.25
Tstart (C) 40.40.40.40.50.
Tend (C) 190.190.190.200.180.
Heat rate (K/min) 3.3.3.2.3.
Initial hold (min) 6.6.6.  
Final hold (min)     40.
I 1288.1288.1288.1252.1276.
ReferenceSanz, Maeztu, et al., 2002Maeztu, Sanz, et al., 2001Sanz, Ansorena, et al., 2001Wei, Mura, et al., 2001Lee and Shibamoto, 2000
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase DB-WaxDB-WaxDB-WaxDB-WaxCP-Wax 52CB
Column length (m) 60.60.30.60.50.
Carrier gas He   He
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.320.530.250.32
Phase thickness (mum) 0.25   0.25
Tstart (C) 40.30.60.30.50.
Tend (C) 200.170.210.170.210.
Heat rate (K/min) 2.2.4.2.1.5
Initial hold (min) 2.4. 4.5.
Final hold (min)  60. 30.10.
I 1264.1262.1272.1262.1275.
ReferenceUmano, Hagi, et al., 2000Buttery, Orts, et al., 1999Iwatsuki, Mizota, et al., 1999Buttery and Ling, 1998Chyau, Lin, et al., 1997
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase DB-WaxPEG-20MDB-WaxPEG-20MDB-Wax
Column length (m) 60.50.30.50.60.
Carrier gas HeNitrogenHeHeHe
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.250.320.250.25
Phase thickness (mum)  0.250.50.15 
Tstart (C) 60.60.40.60.40.
Tend (C) 180.180.210.180.200.
Heat rate (K/min) 2.2.3.2.2.
Initial hold (min)   1.4.2.
Final hold (min)   25.  
I 1269.1238.1258.1238.1262.
ReferenceSekiwa, Kubota, et al., 1997Kubota, Matsujage, et al., 1996Pollak and Berger, 1996Togari, Kobayashi, et al., 1995Umano, Hagi, et al., 1995
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase DB-WaxCarbowax 20MCarbowax 20MPEG-20MDB-Wax
Column length (m) 60.50.50.50. 
Carrier gas HeHeHeN230
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.330.250.250.25
Phase thickness (mum)      
Tstart (C) 60.60.60.60.30.
Tend (C) 180.200.180.180.240.
Heat rate (K/min) 4.3.2.2.50.
Initial hold (min) 4. 4. 10.
Final hold (min) 30.    
I 1268.1250.1258.1241.1238.
ReferenceEiserich, Macku, et al., 1992Vernin, Metzger, et al., 1992Kawakami and Kobayashi, 1991Kubota, Nakamoto, et al., 1991Pfannhauser, 1990
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase Carbowax 20MFFAPFFAPDB-WaxCarbowax 20M
Column length (m) 50.50.50.30.50.
Carrier gas  HeHeHeHydrogen
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.220.280.280.250.20
Phase thickness (mum)      
Tstart (C) 80.60.60.70.50.
Tend (C) 200.240.240.160.200.
Heat rate (K/min) 2.2.2.2.1.
Initial hold (min)  5.5.8. 
Final hold (min)     35.
I 1309.1235.1235.1266.1266.
ReferenceMihara and Masuda, 1988Vernin, Metzger, et al., 1988Vernin, Metzger, et al., 1988Wong and Bernhard, 1988Wu, Liou, et al., 1987
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase Carbowax 20MCarbowax 20MCarbowax 20MCarbowax 20M
Column length (m) 50.39.100.100.
Carrier gas N2H2  
Substrate     
Column diameter (mm) 0.220.300.250.25
Phase thickness (mum)     
Tstart (C) 80.60.70.70.
Tend (C) 200.220.170.170.
Heat rate (K/min) 2.2.1.1.
Initial hold (min)     
Final hold (min)     
I 1235.1254.1254.1255.
ReferenceMihara and Enomoto, 1985Liardon and Ledermann, 1980Shibamoto and Russell, 1977Shibamoto and Russell, 1977
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI

References

Go To: Top, Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Wanakhachornkrai and Lertsiri, 9999
Wanakhachornkrai, P.; Lertsiri, S., Comparison of determination method for volatile compounds in Thai soy sauce, Analytical, Nutritional and Clinical Methods, 9999, 1-11. [all data]

Puvipirom and Chaisei, 2012
Puvipirom, J.; Chaisei, S., Contribution of roasted grains and seeds in aroma of oleang (Thai coffee drink), Int. Food Res. J., 2012, 19, 2, 583-588. [all data]

Budryn, Nebesny, et al., 2011
Budryn, G.; Nebesny, E.; Kula, J.; Majda, T.; Krysiak, W., HS-SPME/GC/MS Profiles of convectively and microwave roasted Ivory Coast Robusta coffee brews, Czech. J. Food Sci., 2011, 29, 2, 151-160. [all data]

Piyachaiseth, Jirapakkul, et al., 2011
Piyachaiseth, T.; Jirapakkul, W.; Chaiseri, S., Aroma compounds of flash-fried rice, Kasetsart J. (Nat. Sci.), 2011, 45, 717-729. [all data]

Moon and Shibamoto, 2010
Moon, J.-K.; Shibamoto, T., Formation of volatile chemicals from thermal degradation of less volatile cofee components: quinic acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2010, 58, 9, 5465-5470, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf1005148 . [all data]

Moon and Shibamoto, 2009
Moon, J.-K.; Shibamoto, T., Role of roasting conditions in the profile of volatile flavor chemicals formed from coffee beans, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2009, 57, 13, 5823-5831, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf901136e . [all data]

Du, Clery, et al., 2008
Du, Z.; Clery, R.; Hammond, C.J., Volatile organic nitrogen-containing constituents in ambrette seed Abelmoschus moschatus Medik (Malvaceae), J. Agric. Food Chem., 2008, 56, 16, 7388-7392, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf800958d . [all data]

Marin, Pozrl, et al., 2008
Marin, K.; Pozrl, T.; Zlatic, E.; Plestenjak, A., A new aroma index to determine the aroma quality of roasted and ground coffee during storage, Food Technol. Biotechnol., 2008, 46, 4, 442-447. [all data]

Characterization of Pyrazines in Some Chinese Liquors and Their Approximate Concentrations, 2007
Characterization of Pyrazines in Some Chinese Liquors; Their Approximate Concentrations, W. Fan; Y. Xu; Y. Zhang, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55, 9956-9962. [all data]

Cros, Vandanjon, et al., 2007
Cros, S.; Vandanjon, L.; Jaouen, P.; Bourseau, P., Processing of Industrial Mussel Cooking Juices by Reverse Osmotis: Pollution Abatement and Aromas Recovery, 2007, retrieved from title of Internet file: [imstec064]. [all data]

Dury-Brun, Fournier, et al., 2007
Dury-Brun, C.; Fournier, N.; Pernin, K.; Guichard, E.; Voilley, A., A new approach to studying sponge cake aroma after storage in treated paper and plastic packaging by direct gas chromatography?olfactometry (D-GC-O), Flavour Fragr. J., 2007, 22, 4, 255-264, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1788 . [all data]

Nebesny, Budryn, et al., 2007
Nebesny, E.; Budryn, G.; Kula, J.; Majda, T., The effect of roasting method on headspace composition of robusta coffee bean aroma, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 2007, 225, 1, 9-19, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-006-0375-0 . [all data]

Rawat, Gulati, et al., 2007
Rawat, R.; Gulati, A.; Babu, G.D.K.; Acharya, R.; Kaul, V.K.; Singh, B., Characterization of volatile components of Kangra orthodox black tea by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Food Chem., 2007, 105, 1, 229-235, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.03.071 . [all data]

Fujioka and Shibamoto, 2006
Fujioka, K.; Shibamoto, T., Quantitation of volatiles and nonvolatile acids in an extract from coffee beverages: correlation with antioxidant activity, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54, 16, 6054-6058, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf060460x . [all data]

Osada and Shibamoto, 2006
Osada, Y.; Shibamoto, T., Antioxidative activity of volatile extracts from Maillard model systems, Food Chem., 2006, 98, 3, 522-528, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.05.084 . [all data]

Ishikawa, Ito, et al., 2004
Ishikawa, M.; Ito, O.; Ishizaki, S.; Kurobayashi, Y.; Fujita, A., Solid-phase aroma concentrate extraction (SPACE ): a new headspace technique for more sensitive analysis of volatiles, Flavour Fragr. J., 2004, 19, 3, 183-187, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1322 . [all data]

Yanagimoto, Ochi, et al., 2004
Yanagimoto, K.; Ochi, H.; Lee, K.-G.; Shibamoto, T., Antioxidative activities of fractions obtained from brewed coffee, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52, 3, 592-596, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf030317t . [all data]

Cros, Vandanjon, et al., 2003
Cros, S.; Vandanjon, L.; Jaouen, P.; Bourseau, P., IMSTEC'03 Conference Proceedings, Processing of industrial mussel cooking juices by reverse osmosis: pollution abatement and aromas recovery, Universoty of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, 2003, 6. [all data]

Tanaka, Yamauchi, et al., 2003
Tanaka, T.; Yamauchi, T.; Katsumata, R.; Kiuchi, K., Comparison of volatile components in commercial Itohiki-Natto by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography, Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi, 2003, 50, 6, 278-285, https://doi.org/10.3136/nskkk.50.278 . [all data]

Wanakhachornkrai and Lertsiri, 2003
Wanakhachornkrai, P.; Lertsiri, S., Analytical, nutritional, and clinical methods. Comparison of determination method for volatile compounds in Thai soy sauce, Food Chem., 2003, 83, 4, 619-629, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00256-5 . [all data]

Sanz, Maeztu, et al., 2002
Sanz, C.; Maeztu, L.; Zapelena, M.J.; Bello, J.; Cid, C., Profiles of volatile compounds and sensory analysis of three blends of coffee: influence of different proportions of Arabica and Robusta and influence of roasting coffee with sugar, J. Sci. Food Agric., 2002, 82, 8, 840-847, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1110 . [all data]

Maeztu, Sanz, et al., 2001
Maeztu, L.; Sanz, C.; Andueza, S.; de Peña, M.P.; Bello, J.; Cid, C., Characterization of espresso coffee aroma by static headspace GC-MS and sensory flavor profile, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001, 49, 11, 5437-5444, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0107959 . [all data]

Sanz, Ansorena, et al., 2001
Sanz, C.; Ansorena, D.; Bello, J.; Cid, C., Optimizing headspace temperature and time sampling for identification of volatile compounds in ground roasted Arabica coffee, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001, 49, 3, 1364-1369, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf001100r . [all data]

Wei, Mura, et al., 2001
Wei, A.; Mura, K.; Shibamoto, T., Antioxidative activity of volatile chemicals extracted from beer, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001, 49, 8, 4097-4101, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf010325e . [all data]

Lee and Shibamoto, 2000
Lee, K.-G.; Shibamoto, T., Antioxidant properties of aroma compounds isolated from soybeans and mung beans, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2000, 48, 9, 4290-4293, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf000442u . [all data]

Umano, Hagi, et al., 2000
Umano, K.; Hagi, Y.; Nakahara, K.; Shoji, A.; Shibamoto, T., Volatile chemicals identified in extracts from leaves of Japanese mugwort (Artemisia princeps Pamp.), J. Agric. Food Chem., 2000, 48, 8, 3463-3469, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0001738 . [all data]

Buttery, Orts, et al., 1999
Buttery, R.G.; Orts, W.J.; Takeoka, G.R.; Nam, Y., Volatile flavor components of rice cakes, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1999, 47, 10, 4353-4356, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf990140w . [all data]

Iwatsuki, Mizota, et al., 1999
Iwatsuki, K.; Mizota, Y.; Kubota, T.; Nishimura, O.; Masuda, H.; Sotoyama, K.; Tomita, M., Aroma extract dilution analysis. Evluation of aroma of pasteurized and UHT processed milk by aroma extract dilution analysis, Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi, 1999, 46, 9, 587-597, https://doi.org/10.3136/nskkk.46.587 . [all data]

Buttery and Ling, 1998
Buttery, R.G.; Ling, L.C., Additional studies on flavor components of corn tortilla chips, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1998, 46, 7, 2764-2769, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf980125b . [all data]

Chyau, Lin, et al., 1997
Chyau, C.-C.; Lin, Y.-C.; Mau, J.-L., Storage stability of deep-fried shallot flavoring, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1997, 45, 8, 3211-3215, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf970109z . [all data]

Sekiwa, Kubota, et al., 1997
Sekiwa, Y.; Kubota, K.; Kobayashi, A., Characteristic flavor components in the brew of cooked clam (Meretrix lusoria) and the effect of storage on flavor formation, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1997, 45, 3, 826-830, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf960433e . [all data]

Kubota, Matsujage, et al., 1996
Kubota, K.; Matsujage, Y.; Sekiwa, Y.; Kobayashi, A., Identification of the characteristic volatile flavor compounds formed by cooking squid (Todarodes pacificus Steenstrup), Food Sci. Technol., 1996, 2, 3, 163-166. [all data]

Pollak and Berger, 1996
Pollak, F.C.; Berger, R.G., Geosmin and Related Volatiles in Bioreactor-Cultured Streptomyces citreus CBS 109.60, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 1996, 62, 4, 1295-1299. [all data]

Togari, Kobayashi, et al., 1995
Togari, N.; Kobayashi, A.; Aishima, T., Pattern recognition applied to gas chromatographic profiles of volatile components in three tea categories, Food Res. Int., 1995, 28, 5, 495-502, https://doi.org/10.1016/0963-9969(95)00029-1 . [all data]

Umano, Hagi, et al., 1995
Umano, K.; Hagi, Y.; Nakahara, K.; Shyoji, A.; Shibamoto, T., Volatile chemicals formed in the headspace of a heated D-glucose/L-cysteine Maillard model system, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1995, 43, 8, 2212-2218, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00056a046 . [all data]

Eiserich, Macku, et al., 1992
Eiserich, J.P.; Macku, C.; Shibamoto, T., Volatile antioxidants formed from an L-cysteine/D-glucose Maillard model system, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1992, 40, 10, 1982-1988, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00022a050 . [all data]

Vernin, Metzger, et al., 1992
Vernin, G.; Metzger, J.; Boniface, C.; Murello, M.-H.; Siouffi, A.; Larice, J.-L.; Parkanyi, C., Kinetics and thermal degradation of the fructose-methionine Amadori intermediates. GC-MS/SPECMA data bank identification of volatile aroma compounds, Carbohyd. Res., 1992, 230, 1, 15-29, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6215(00)90510-X . [all data]

Kawakami and Kobayashi, 1991
Kawakami, M.; Kobayashi, A., Volatitle constituents of greem mate and roasted mate, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1991, 39, 7, 1275-1279, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00007a016 . [all data]

Kubota, Nakamoto, et al., 1991
Kubota, K.; Nakamoto, A.; Moriguchi, M.; Kobayashi, A.; Ishii, H., Formation of pyrrolidino[1,2-e]-4H-2,4-dimethyl-1,3,5-dithiazine in the volatiles of boiled short-necked clam, clam, and corbicula, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1991, 39, 6, 1127-1130, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00006a027 . [all data]

Pfannhauser, 1990
Pfannhauser, W., Fluchtige Verbindungen aus extrudaten von triticale, Deutsche Lebensmittel-Rundschau, 1990, 86, 3, 69-72. [all data]

Mihara and Masuda, 1988
Mihara, S.; Masuda, H., Structure-odor relationships for disubstituted pyrazines, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1988, 36, 6, 1242-1247, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00084a029 . [all data]

Vernin, Metzger, et al., 1988
Vernin, G.; Metzger, J.; Obretenov, T.; Suon, K.-N.; Fraisse, D., GC/MS (EI,PCI,SIM)-data bank analysis of volatile compounds arising from thermal degradation of glucose-valine amadori intermediates in Flavors and Fragrances: A World Perspective. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Essential Oils, Fragrances and Flavors, Lawrence,B.M.; Mookherjee,B.D.; Willis,B.J., ed(s)., Elsevier, New York, 1988, 999-1028. [all data]

Wong and Bernhard, 1988
Wong, J.M.; Bernhard, R.A., Effect of nitrogen source on pyrazine formation, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1988, 36, 1, 123-129, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00079a032 . [all data]

Wu, Liou, et al., 1987
Wu, C.-M.; Liou, S.-E.; Chang, Y.-H.; Chiang, W., Volatile compounds of the wax gourd (Benincasa hispida, Cogn) and a wax gourd beverage, J. Food Sci., 1987, 52, 1, 132-134, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1987.tb13988.x . [all data]

Mihara and Enomoto, 1985
Mihara, S.; Enomoto, N., Calculation of retention indices of pyrazines on the basis of molecular structure, J. Chromatogr., 1985, 324, 428-430, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)81342-X . [all data]

Liardon and Ledermann, 1980
Liardon, R.; Ledermann, S., volatile components of fermented soya hydrolysate. II. Composition of basic fraction, Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch., 1980, 170, 3, 208-213, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01042542 . [all data]

Shibamoto and Russell, 1977
Shibamoto, T.; Russell, G.F., A study of the volatiles isolated from a D-glucose-hydrogen sulfide-ammonia model system, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1977, 25, 1, 109-112, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60209a054 . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp, References