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Toluene

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
GT - Glushko Thermocenter, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas50.1 ± 1.1kJ/molReviewRoux, Temprado, et al., 2008There are sufficient high-quality literature values to make a good evaluation with a high degree of confidence. In general, the evaluated uncertainty limits are on the order of (0.5 to 2.5) kJ/mol.; DRB
Deltafgas50.00 ± 0.63kJ/molCcbProsen, Gilmont, et al., 1945Hf by Prosen, Johnson, et al., 1946; ALS
Deltafgas48.0kJ/molN/ASchmidlin, 1906Value computed using «DELTA»fHliquid° value of 10.0 kj/mol from Schmidlin, 1906 and «DELTA»vapH° value of 38.0 kj/mol from Prosen, Gilmont, et al., 1945.; DRB

Constant pressure heat capacity of gas

Cp,gas (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
69.85200.Draeger, 1985Recommended values agree better with experimental heat capacities than results of calculation [ Chao J., 1984]. All other statistically calculated values [ Pitzer K.S., 1943, Taylor W.J., 1946, Scott D.W., 1962] are in close agreement with selected ones, except for high temperatures.; GT
94.68273.15
103.7 ± 0.4298.15
104.4300.
139.9400.
170.8500.
196.2600.
217.0700.
234.3800.
248.9900.
261.21000.
271.81100.
280.81200.
288.51300.
295.21400.
301.01500.

Constant pressure heat capacity of gas

Cp,gas (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
130.08 ± 0.26371.20Scott D.W., 1962Please also see Montgomery J.B., 1942, Pitzer K.S., 1943, Taylor W.J., 1946.; GT
140.2390.
137.2 ± 1.3393.
138.87 ± 0.27396.20
146.4410.
149.16 ± 0.30427.20
149.4 ± 1.7428.
160.33 ± 0.32462.20
159.0 ± 1.7463.
171.46 ± 0.34500.20

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr.
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafliquid12. ± 1.1kJ/molReviewRoux, Temprado, et al., 2008There are sufficient high-quality literature values to make a good evaluation with a high degree of confidence. In general, the evaluated uncertainty limits are on the order of (0.5 to 2.5) kJ/mol.; DRB
Deltafliquid12.0 ± 0.63kJ/molCcbProsen, Gilmont, et al., 1945Hf by Prosen, Johnson, et al., 1946; ALS
Deltafliquid  CcbSchmidlin, 1906uncertain value: 10. kJ/mol; Undetermine error; ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacliquid-3920. ± 20.kJ/molAVGN/AAverage of 5 out of 6 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
liquid220.96J/mol*KN/AScott, Guthrie, et al., 1962DH
liquid219.2J/mol*KN/AKelley, 1929DH

Constant pressure heat capacity of liquid

Cp,liquid (J/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
157.09298.15Grolier, Roux-Desgranges, et al., 1993DH
155.96298.15Shiohama, Ogawa, et al., 1988DH
159.9303.15Reddy, 1986T = 303.15, 313.15 K.; DH
157.08298.15Roux-Dexgranges, Grolier, et al., 1986DH
158.70298.15Tardajos, Aicart, et al., 1986DH
158.7298.15Stephens and Olson, 1984T = 266 to 318 K. Cp given as 0.4117 cal g-1 C-1.; DH
157.0298.15Grolier, Inglese, et al., 1982DH
157.15298.15Wilhelm, Faradjzadeh, et al., 1982DH
156.0293.15Atalla, El-Sharkawy, et al., 1981DH
157.0294.71Andolenko and Grigor'ev, 1979T = 293 to 373 K. Unsoothed experimental datum given as 1.704 KJ/kg*K.; DH
157.057298.15Fortier and Benson, 1979DH
157.081298.15Fortier and Benson, 1977DH
156.94298.15Wilhelm, Grolier, et al., 1977DH
157.026298.15Fortier and Benson, 1976DH
156.99298.15Holzhauer and Ziegler, 1975T = 165 to 312 K. Cp = 187.43814 - 0.73026493T + 0.0029613602T2 - 2.8661704x10-6T3 J/mol*K.; DH
158.4298.15Pedersen, Kay, et al., 1975T = 298 to 348 K. Cp(liq) = 154.73 + 0.0981(T/K-273.15) + 0.001949(T/K-273.15)2 J/mol*K (298 to 348 K).; DH
156.8298.15Rajagopal and Subrahmanyam, 1974T = 298.15 to 323.15 K.; DH
156.5298.Deshpande and Bhatagadde, 1971T = 298 to 318 K.; DH
158.6293.Rastorguev and Ganiev, 1967T = 293 to 373 K.; DH
157.33298.711Hwa and Ziegler, 1966T = 181 to 304 K. Unsmoothed experimental datum.; DH
157.23298.15Scott, Guthrie, et al., 1962T = 10 to 360 K.; DH
166.9324.Swietoslawski and Zielenkiewicz, 1958Mean value 21 to 81 C.; DH
140.295.Tschamler, 1948DH
158.6298.Kurbatov, 1947T = -76 to 60 C, mean Cp, four temperatures.; DH
156.9298.1Zhdanov, 1941T = 5 to 47 C.; DH
157.07298.2Burlew, 1940T = 281 to 383 K.; DH
156.5298.Vold, 1937DH
142.7227.8Aoyama and Kanda, 1935T = 78 to 228 K. Value is unsmoothed experimental datum.; DH
156.5298.1Richards and Wallace, 1932T = 293 to 333 K.; DH
161.9298.15Smith and Andrews, 1931T = 102 to 299 K. Value is unsmoothed experimental datum.; DH
153.0928.444Kelley, 1929T = 14 to 284 K. Value is unsmoothed experimental datum.; DH
151.0293.2Williams and Daniels, 1925T = 20 to 60 C.; DH
153.6303.Willams and Daniels, 1924T = 303 to 343 K. Equation only.; DH
158.2298.von Reis, 1881T = 292 to 390 K.; DH

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Roux, Temprado, et al., 2008
Roux, M.V.; Temprado, M.; Chickos, J.S.; Nagano, Y., Critically Evaluated Thermochemical Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 2008, 37, 4, 1855-1996. [all data]

Prosen, Gilmont, et al., 1945
Prosen, E.J.; Gilmont, R.; Rossini, F.D., Heats of combustion of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, n-propylbenzene, and styrene, J. Res. NBS, 1945, 34, 65-70. [all data]

Prosen, Johnson, et al., 1946
Prosen, E.J.; Johnson, W.H.; Rossini, F.D., Heats of combustion and formation at 25°C of the alkylbenzenes through C10H14, and of the higher normal monoalkylbenzenes, J. Res. NBS, 1946, 36, 455-461. [all data]

Schmidlin, 1906
Schmidlin, M.J., Recherches chimiques et thermochimiques sur la constitution des rosanilines, Ann. Chim. Phys., 1906, 1, 195-256. [all data]

Draeger, 1985
Draeger, J.A., The methylbenzenes II. Fundamental vibrational shifts, statistical thermodynamic functions, and properties of formation, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1985, 17, 263-275. [all data]

Chao J., 1984
Chao J., Chemical thermodynamic properties of toluene, o-, m- and p-xylenes, Thermochim. Acta, 1984, 72, 323-334. [all data]

Pitzer K.S., 1943
Pitzer K.S., The thermodynamics and molecular structure of benzene and its methyl derivatives, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1943, 65, 803-829. [all data]

Taylor W.J., 1946
Taylor W.J., Heats, equilibrium constants, and free energies of formation of the alkylbenzenes, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand., 1946, 37, 95-122. [all data]

Scott D.W., 1962
Scott D.W., Toluene: thermodynamic properties, molecular vibrations, and internal rotation, J. Phys. Chem., 1962, 66, 911-914. [all data]

Montgomery J.B., 1942
Montgomery J.B., The heat capacity of organic vapors. IV. Benzene, fluorobenzene, toluene, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane and cyclohexene, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1942, 64, 2375-2377. [all data]

Scott, Guthrie, et al., 1962
Scott, D.W.; Guthrie, G.B.; Messerly, J.F.; Todd, S.S.; Berg, W.T.; Hossenlopp, I.A.; McCullough, J.P., Toluene: thermodynamic properties, molecular vibrations, and internal rotation, J. Phys. Chem., 1962, 66, 911-914. [all data]

Kelley, 1929
Kelley, K.K., The heat capacity of toluene from 14K to 298K. The entropy and the free energy of formation, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1929, 51, 2738-2741. [all data]

Grolier, Roux-Desgranges, et al., 1993
Grolier, J.-P.E.; Roux-Desgranges, G.; Berkane, M.; Jimenez, E.; Wilhelm, E., Heat capacities and densities of mixtures of very polar substances 2. Mixtures containing N,N-dimethylformamide, J. Chem. Thermodynam., 1993, 25(1), 41-50. [all data]

Shiohama, Ogawa, et al., 1988
Shiohama, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Murakami, S.; Fujihara, I., Excess molar isobaric heat capacities and isentropic compressibilities of (cis- or trans-decalin + benzene or toluene or iso-octane or n-heptane) at 298.15 K, J. Chem. Thermodynam., 1988, 20, 1183-1189. [all data]

Reddy, 1986
Reddy, K.S., Isentropic compressibilities of binary liquid mixtures at 303.15 and 313.15 K, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1986, 31, 238-240. [all data]

Roux-Dexgranges, Grolier, et al., 1986
Roux-Dexgranges, G.; Grolier, J.-P.E.; Villamanan, M.A.; Casanova, C., Role of alcohol in microemulsions. III. Volumes and heat capacities in the continuious phase water-n-butanol-toluene of reverse micelles, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 1986, 25, 209-230. [all data]

Tardajos, Aicart, et al., 1986
Tardajos, G.; Aicart, E.; Costas, M.; Patterson, D., Liquid structure and second-order mixing functions for benzene, toluene, and p-xylene with n-alkanes, J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans., 1986, 1 82, 2977-2987. [all data]

Stephens and Olson, 1984
Stephens, M.; Olson, J.D., Measurement of excess heat capacities by differential scanning calorimetry, Thermochim. Acta, 1984, 76, 79-85. [all data]

Grolier, Inglese, et al., 1982
Grolier, J.-P.E.; Inglese, A.; Wilhelm, E., Excess volumes and excess heat capacities of tetrachloroethene + cyclohexane, + methylcyclohexane, + benzene, and + toluene at 298.15 K, J. Chem. Thermodynam., 1982, 14, 523-529. [all data]

Wilhelm, Faradjzadeh, et al., 1982
Wilhelm, E.; Faradjzadeh, A.; Grolier, J.-P.E., Excess volumes and excess heat capacities of 2,3-dimethylbutane + butane and + toluene, J. Chem. Thermodynam., 1982, 14, 1199-1200. [all data]

Atalla, El-Sharkawy, et al., 1981
Atalla, S.R.; El-Sharkawy, A.A.; Gasser, F.A., Measurement of thermal properties of liquids with an AC heated-wire technique, Inter. J. Thermophys., 1981, 2(2), 155-162. [all data]

Andolenko and Grigor'ev, 1979
Andolenko, R.A.; Grigor'ev, B.A., Investigation of isobaric heat capacity of aromatic hydrocarbons at atmospheric pressure, Iaz. Vyssh. Ucheb. Zaved., Neft i Gaz (11), 1979, 78, 90. [all data]

Fortier and Benson, 1979
Fortier, J.-L.; Benson, G.C., Heat capacities of some binary aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures containing benzene or toluene, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1979, 24(1), 34-37. [all data]

Fortier and Benson, 1977
Fortier, J.-L.; Benson, G.C., Excess heat capacities of binary mixtures of tetrachloromethane witlh some aromatic liquids at 298.15 K, J. Chem. Thermodynam., 1977, 9, 1181-1188. [all data]

Wilhelm, Grolier, et al., 1977
Wilhelm, E.; Grolier, J.-P.E.; Karbalai Ghassemi, M.H., Molar heat capacities of binary liquid mixtures: 1,2-dichloroethane + benzene, + toluene, and + p-xylene, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., 1977, 81, 925-930. [all data]

Fortier and Benson, 1976
Fortier, J.-L.; Benson, G.C., Excess heat capacities of binary liquid mixtures determined with a Picker flow calorimeter, J. Chem. Thermodynam., 1976, 8, 411-423. [all data]

Holzhauer and Ziegler, 1975
Holzhauer, J.K.; Ziegler, W.T., Temperature dependence of excess thermodynamic properties of n-heptane-toluene, methylcyclohexane-toluene, and n-heptane-methylcyclohexane systems, J. Phys. Chem., 1975, 79(6), 590-604. [all data]

Pedersen, Kay, et al., 1975
Pedersen, M.J.; Kay, W.B.; Hershey, H.C., Excess enthalpies, heat capacities, and excess heat capacities as a function of temperature in liquid mixtures of ethanol + toluene, ethanol + hexamethyldisiloxane, and hexamethyldisiloxane + toluene, J. Chem. Thermodynam., 1975, 7, 1107-1118. [all data]

Rajagopal and Subrahmanyam, 1974
Rajagopal, E.; Subrahmanyam, S.V., Excess function of VE,(dVE/dp)T, and CpE of isooctane + benzene and + toluene, J. Chem. Thermodynam., 1974, 6, 873-876. [all data]

Deshpande and Bhatagadde, 1971
Deshpande, D.D.; Bhatagadde, L.G., Heat capacities at constant volume, free volumes, and rotational freedom in some liquids, Aust. J. Chem., 1971, 24, 1817-1822. [all data]

Rastorguev and Ganiev, 1967
Rastorguev, Yu.L.; Ganiev, Yu.A., Study of the heat capacity of selected solvents, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Neft Gaz. 10, 1967, No.1, 79-82. [all data]

Hwa and Ziegler, 1966
Hwa, S.C.P.; Ziegler, W.T., Temperature dependence of excess thermodynamic properties of ethanol-methylcyclohexane and ethanol-toluene systems, J. Phys. Chem., 1966, 70(8), 2572-2593. [all data]

Swietoslawski and Zielenkiewicz, 1958
Swietoslawski, W.; Zielenkiewicz, A., Mean specific heats of binary positive azeotropes, Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. Ser. Sci. Chim., 1958, 6, 367-369. [all data]

Tschamler, 1948
Tschamler, H., Uber binare flussige Mischungen I. Mischungswarment, Volumseffekte und Zustandsdiagramme von chlorex mit benzol und n-alkylbenzolen, Monatsh. Chem., 1948, 79, 162-177. [all data]

Kurbatov, 1947
Kurbatov, V.Ya., Specific heat of liquids. I. Specific heat of benzenoid hydrocarbons, Zhur. Obshch. Khim., 1947, 17, 1999-2003. [all data]

Zhdanov, 1941
Zhdanov, A.K., Specific heats of some liquids and azeotropic mixtures, Zhur. Obshch. Khim., 1941, 11, 471-482. [all data]

Burlew, 1940
Burlew, J.S., Measurement of the heat capacity of a small volume of liquid by the piezo-thermometric method. III. Heat capacity of benzene and of toluene from 8°C. to the boiling point, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1940, 62, 696-700. [all data]

Vold, 1937
Vold, R.D., A calorimetric test of the solubility equation for regular solutions, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1937, 59, 1515-1521. [all data]

Aoyama and Kanda, 1935
Aoyama, S.; Kanda, E., Studies on the heat capacities at low temperature. Report I. Heat capacities of some organic substances at low temperature, Sci. Rept. Tohoku Imp. Univ. [1]24, 1935, 107-115. [all data]

Richards and Wallace, 1932
Richards, W.T.; Wallace, J.H., Jr., The specific heats of five organic liquids from their adiabatic temperature-pressure coefficients, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1932, 54, 2705-2713. [all data]

Smith and Andrews, 1931
Smith, R.H.; Andrews, D.H., Thermal energy studies. I. Phenyl derivatives of methane, ethane and some related compounds. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1931, 53, 3644-3660. [all data]

Williams and Daniels, 1925
Williams, J.W.; Daniels, F., The specific heats of binary mixtures, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1925, 47, 1490-1503. [all data]

Willams and Daniels, 1924
Willams, J.W.; Daniels, F., The specific heats of certain organic liquids at elevated temperatures, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1924, 46, 903-917. [all data]

von Reis, 1881
von Reis, M.A., Die specifische Wärme flüssiger organischer Verbindungen und ihre Beziehung zu deren Moleculargewicht, Ann. Physik [3], 1881, 13, 447-464. [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, References