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Toluene

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Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

Go To: Top, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase ZB-WaxZB-WaxDB-WaxDB-WaxDB-Wax
Column length (m) 60.60.30.30.30.
Carrier gas      
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.250.320.320.32
Phase thickness (mum) 0.250.25   
Temperature (C) 100.120.40.50.60.
I 1077.51088.31043.091049.501057.61
ReferencePérez-Parajón, Santiuste, et al., 2004Pérez-Parajón, Santiuste, et al., 2004Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 2003Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 2003Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 2003
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase DB-WaxDB-WaxDB-WaxCarbowax 20MCarbowax 20M
Column length (m) 30.30.30.15.15.
Carrier gas    HeHe
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.320.320.320.50.5
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 70.80.90.150.150.
I 1068.531076.251084.201026.1030.
ReferenceCiaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 2003Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 2003Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 2003Egazaryants and Maximov, 1998Egazaryants and Maximov, 1998
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase PEG-20MPEG-20MPEG-20MSupelcowax-10Carbowax 20M
Column length (m) 50.50.50.60. 
Carrier gas HeHeHeN2 
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.20.20.20.75 
Phase thickness (mum) 0.130.190.22  
Temperature (C) 80.80.80.60.100.
I 1039.51052.31054.21057.1067.04
ReferenceOrav, Kuningas, et al., 1994Orav, Kuningas, et al., 1994Orav, Kuningas, et al., 1994Castello, Vezzani, et al., 1991Podmaniczky, Szepesy, et al., 1985
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase Carbowax 20MCarbowax 20MCarbowax 20MCarbowax 20MCarbowax 20M
Column length (m)      
Carrier gas      
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm)      
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 110.120.70.80.90.
I 1071.621076.101053.891057.981062.76
ReferencePodmaniczky, Szepesy, et al., 1985Podmaniczky, Szepesy, et al., 1985Podmaniczky, Szepesy, et al., 1985Podmaniczky, Szepesy, et al., 1985Podmaniczky, Szepesy, et al., 1985
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryPackedPackedPackedPacked
Active phase PEG-20MCarbowax 20MCarbowax 20MCarbowax 20MCarbowax 20M
Column length (m) 30.2.2.2.2.
Carrier gas N2HeHeHeHe
Substrate  A silanized white supportA silanized white supportA silanized white supportA silanized white support
Column diameter (mm) 0.3    
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 70.100.110.120.130.
I 1049.51068.21073.31078.41083.4
ReferenceTóth, 1983Vernon and Suratman, 1983Vernon and Suratman, 1983Vernon and Suratman, 1983Vernon and Suratman, 1983
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type PackedPackedCapillaryPackedPacked
Active phase Carbowax 20MCarbowax 20MPEG-20MCarbowax 20MCarbowax 20M
Column length (m) 2.2.75.  
Carrier gas HeN2   
Substrate A silanized white supportKieselgur (60-100 mesh) Chromosorb W, AW-DMCSChromosorb G
Column diameter (mm)   0.25  
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 140.75.100.150.115.
I 1088.51054.1054.1069.71072.9
ReferenceVernon and Suratman, 1983Goebel, 1982Morishita, Okano, et al., 1980Ellis and Still, 1979Ellis and Still, 1979
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type PackedPackedPackedCapillaryCapillary
Active phase Carbowax 20MCarbowax 20MCarbowax 20MCarbowax 20MCarbowax 20M
Column length (m)    100.100.
Carrier gas    N2 
Substrate Chromosorb GChromosorb W, AW-DMCSChromosorb W, AW-DMCS  
Column diameter (mm)    0.230.2
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 115.150.165.100.90.
I 1073.41069.71090.91043.21027.1
ReferenceEllis and Still, 1979Ellis and Still, 1979Ellis and Still, 1979, 2Engewald and Wennrich, 1976Döring, Estel, et al., 1974
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type PackedPackedPackedPackedPacked
Active phase PEG-2000PEG-2000PEG-2000Polyethylene Glycol 4000Polyethylene Glycol 4000
Column length (m) 3.3.3.6.6.
Carrier gas HeHeHe  
Substrate Celite 545 (44-60 mesh)Celite 545 (44-60 mesh)Celite 545 (44-60 mesh)Chromosorb PChromosorb P
Column diameter (mm)      
Phase thickness (mum)      
Temperature (C) 150.152.180.100.120.
I 1077.1077.1093.1071.1078.
ReferenceAnderson, Jurel, et al., 1973Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973Bonastre and Grenier, 1967Bonastre and Grenier, 1967
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type PackedPackedPacked
Active phase Polyethylene Glycol 4000Polyethylene Glycol 4000Carbowax 20M
Column length (m) 6.6.2.
Carrier gas    
Substrate Chromosorb PChromosorb P 
Column diameter (mm)    
Phase thickness (mum)    
Temperature (C) 140.80.100.
I 1085.1064.1066.
ReferenceBonastre and Grenier, 1967Bonastre and Grenier, 1967Rohrschneider, 1966
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI

References

Go To: Top, Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Pérez-Parajón, Santiuste, et al., 2004
Pérez-Parajón, J.M.; Santiuste, J.M.; Takács, J.M., Sensitivity of the methylbenzenes and chlorobenzenes retention index to column temperature, stationary phase polarity, and number and chemical nature of substituents, J. Chromatogr. A, 2004, 1048, 2, 223-232, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2004.07.028 . [all data]

Ciaznska-Halarewicz and Kowalska, 2003
Ciaznska-Halarewicz, K.; Kowalska, T., A study of the dependence of the Kováts retention index on the temperature of analysis on stationary phases of different polarity, Acta Chromatogr., 2003, 13, 69-80. [all data]

Egazaryants and Maximov, 1998
Egazaryants, S.V.; Maximov, A.L., Analysis of Gasoline Fractions by Capillary GC in 20th International Symposium on Capillary Chromatography, 1998, 1-6. [all data]

Orav, Kuningas, et al., 1994
Orav, A.; Kuningas, K.; Kailas, T.; Koplimets, E.; Rang, S., Effect of adsorption on the retention values in capillary columns coated with OV-225 and PEG 20M, J. Chromatogr. A, 1994, 659, 1, 143-150, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(94)85016-X . [all data]

Castello, Vezzani, et al., 1991
Castello, G.; Vezzani, S.; Gerbino, T., Gas chromatographic separation and automatic identification of complex mixtures of organic solvents in indrustrial wates, J. Chromatogr., 1991, 585, 2, 273-280, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(91)85088-W . [all data]

Podmaniczky, Szepesy, et al., 1985
Podmaniczky, L.; Szepesy, L.; Lakszner, K.; Schomburg, G., Relationship between thermodynamic characteristics and isothermal retention indices, Chromatographia, 1985, 20, 10, 623-628, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02263223 . [all data]

Tóth, 1983
Tóth, T., Use of capillary gas chromatography in collecting retention and chemical information for the analysis of complex petrochemical mixtures, J. Chromatogr., 1983, 279, 157-165, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)93614-3 . [all data]

Vernon and Suratman, 1983
Vernon, F.; Suratman, J.B., The retention index system applied to alkylbenzenes and monosubstituted derivatives, Chromatographia, 1983, 17, 11, 600-604, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02261943 . [all data]

Goebel, 1982
Goebel, K.-J., Gaschromatographische Identifizierung Niedrig Siedender Substanzen Mittels Retentionsindices und Rechnerhilfe, J. Chromatogr., 1982, 235, 1, 119-127, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)95793-5 . [all data]

Morishita, Okano, et al., 1980
Morishita, F.; Okano, T.; Kojima, T., Retention indices of monocyclic monoterpene hydrocarbons, Bunseki Kagaku, 1980, 29, 1, 48-53, https://doi.org/10.2116/bunsekikagaku.29.48 . [all data]

Ellis and Still, 1979
Ellis, T.S.; Still, R.H., Thermal degradation of polymers. XXI. Vacuum pyrolysis of poly(m-N,N-dimethylaminostyrene); the products volatile at pyrolysis temperature, liquid at room temperature, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 1979, 23, 10, 2837-2854, https://doi.org/10.1002/app.1979.070231002 . [all data]

Ellis and Still, 1979, 2
Ellis, T.S.; Still, R.H., Thermal degradation of polymers. XXIII. Vacuum pyrolysis of poly(p-N,N-dimethylaminostyrene); the products volatile at pyrolysis temperature, liquid or gaseous at room temperature, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 1979, 23, 10, 2871-2880, https://doi.org/10.1002/app.1979.070231004 . [all data]

Engewald and Wennrich, 1976
Engewald, W.; Wennrich, L., Molekülstruktur und Retentionsverhalten. VIII. Zum Retentionsverhalten höherer Alkylbenzole bei der Gas-Verteilungs-Chromatographie, Chromatographia, 1976, 9, 11, 540-547, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02275960 . [all data]

Döring, Estel, et al., 1974
Döring, C.E.; Estel, D.; Fischer, R., Kapillar-gaschromatographische Charakterisierung von C10-bis C12-Aromaten, J. Prakt. Chem., 1974, 316, 1, 1-12, https://doi.org/10.1002/prac.19743160102 . [all data]

Anderson, Jurel, et al., 1973
Anderson, A.; Jurel, S.; Shymanska, M.; Golender, L., Gas-liquid chromatography of some aliphatic and heterocyclic mono- and pollyfunctional amines. VII. Retention indices of amines in some polar and unpolar stationary phases, Latv. PSR Zinat. Akad. Vestis Kim. Ser., 1973, 1, 51-63. [all data]

Bonastre and Grenier, 1967
Bonastre, J.; Grenier, P., Contribution à l'étude de la polarité des phases stationnaires en chromatographie gas-liquide. I. Calcul des coefficients d'activité relatifs et des indices de rétention de quelques hydrocarbures aromatiques, Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr., 1967, 4, 1395-1405. [all data]

Rohrschneider, 1966
Rohrschneider, L., Eine methode zur charakterisierung von gaschromatographischen trennflüssigkeiten, J. Chromatogr., 1966, 22, 6-22, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)97064-5 . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal, References