Home Symbol which looks like a small house Up Solid circle with an upward pointer in it

Toluene

Data at NIST subscription sites:

NIST subscription sites provide data under the NIST Standard Reference Data Program, but require an annual fee to access. The purpose of the fee is to recover costs associated with the development of data collections included in such sites. Your institution may already be a subscriber. Follow the links above to find out more about the data in these sites and their terms of usage.


Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

Go To: Top, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase HP-5 MSPolydimethyl siloxane with 5 % Ph groupsPolydimethyl siloxane with 5 % Ph groupsVF-5VF-5
Column length (m) 30.  30.30.
Carrier gas Helium  HeliumHelium
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.25  0.250.25
Phase thickness (mum) 0.25  0.250.25
Program not specifiednot specifiednot specified50 0C (2 min) 3 0C/min -> 200 0C (3 min) 10 0C/min -> 220 0C (8 min)not specified
I 760.771.776.764.759.
ReferenceKotowska, Zalikowski, et al., 2012Robinson, Adams, et al., 2012Robinson, Adams, et al., 2012Shivashankar, Roy, et al., 2012Shivashankar, Roy, et al., 2012
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase DB-1HP-5HP-5CP-Sil 5 CbNonpolar
Column length (m) 60.50.60.50. 
Carrier gas HeliumHeliumHeliumNitrogen 
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.320.250.32 
Phase thickness (mum) 0.251.050.251.20 
Program 50 0C (5 min) 3 0C/min -> 120 0C 5 0C/min -> 250 0C (3 min) 15 0C/min -> 300 0C (20 min)not specified30 0C (2 min) 2 0Cmin -> 60 0C 10 0C/min -> 100 0C 20 0C/min -> 140 0C 10 0C/min -> 200 0C (10 min)40 0C 20 0C/min -> 85 0C 1 0C/min -> 145 0C 3 0C/min -> 250 0C (30 min)not specified
I 756.772.761.746.750.
ReferenceDelort and Jaquier, 2009Pugliese, Sirtori, et al., 2009Rotsatschakul, Visesanguan, et al., 2009Collin, Nizet, et al., 2008Staples and Zeiger, 2008
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase HP-5HP-5 MSHP-5HP-5HP-1
Column length (m) 50.30.30.30.50.
Carrier gas HeliumHelium  He
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.320.250.250.250.2
Phase thickness (mum) 1.050.250.250.250.33
Program 40 0C (10 min) 5 0C/min -> 200 0C 15 0C/min -> 250 0C (10 min)40 0C (2 min) 4 0C/min -> 220 0C 20 0C/min -> 280 0C40 0C (2 min) 5 0C/min -> 80 0C 7 oC/min -> 160 0C 9 0C/min -> 200 0C 20 0C/min -> 280 0C (10 min)not specified40C(2min) => 2C/min => 200C => 15C/min => 250C (30min)
I 769.764.763.770.746.
ReferenceVentanas, Estevez, et al., 2008Xie, Sun, et al., 2008Zhao, Li, et al., 2008Zhao, Li, et al., 2008Barra, Baldovini, et al., 2007
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase HP-5 MSDB-5 MSDB-5DB-5OV-101
Column length (m) 30.60.30.30. 
Carrier gas HydrogenHeliumHeliumHelium 
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.320.320.32 
Phase thickness (mum) 0.251.00.250.25 
Program 50 0C (15 min) 2 0C/min -> 150 0C (10 min) 2 0C/min -> 220 0C (20 min)40 0C (2 min) 6 0C/min -> 100 0C 4 0C/min -> 180 0C 8 0C/min -> 250 0C (12 min)not specifiednot specifiednot specified
I 765.776.756.767.772.
ReferenceChuang, Lee, et al., 2007Liu, Xu, et al., 2007Pellicer, 2007Pellicer, 2007Ebrahimi and Hadjmohammadi, 2006
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase RTX-5RTX-5RTX-5RTX-5HP-5MS
Column length (m) 30.30.30.30.30.
Carrier gas N2N2N2N2He
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.250.250.250.25
Phase thickness (mum) 0.250.250.250.250.25
Program not specifiednot specifiednot specifiednot specified40C(3min) => 2C/min => 180C => 10C/min => 250C(5min)
I 780.773.780.780.766.
ReferenceÁdámová, Orinák, et al., 2005Ádámová, Orinák, et al., 2005Ádámová, Orinák, et al., 2005Ádámová, Orinák, et al., 2005Alissandrakis, Kibaris, et al., 2005
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase Methyl SiliconeCP-Sil5 CB MSPolydimethyl siloxane with 5 % Ph groupsHP-5HP-5MS
Column length (m) 60.50.  30.
Carrier gas Helium    
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.320.32  0.25
Phase thickness (mum) 1.01.2  0.25
Program -50 0C (2 min) 8 0C/min -> 200 0C (7.75 min) 25 0C -> 225 0C (8 min)36C(2min) => 20C/min => 85C => 1C/min => 145C => 3C/min => 250C(30min)not specifiednot specified40C(3min) => 4C/min => 75C => 8C/min => 250C
I 759.746.776.774.769.
ReferenceBlunden, Aneja, et al., 2005Iraqi, Vermeulen, et al., 2005Pino, Marbot, et al., 2005Riu-Aumatell, Lopez-Tamames, et al., 2005Vichi, Pizzale, et al., 2005
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase HP-1CP Sil 5 CBHP-5DB-5SPB-5
Column length (m) 12.50.50.50.60.
Carrier gas      
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.320.320.320.320.32
Phase thickness (mum) 0.521.21.051.051.
Program 35C(3min) => 6C/min => 190C => 30C/min => 225C36C => 20C/min => 85C => 1C/min => 145C => 3C/min => 250C(30min)40C(10min) => 5C/min => 200C => 20C/min => 250C(5min)40C(10min) => 5C/min => 200C => 20C/min => 250C (5min)not specified
I 753.752.772.772.766.
ReferenceCarpino, Mallia, et al., 2004Counet, Ouwerx, et al., 2004Garcia-Estaban, Ansorena, et al., 2004Garcia-Estaban, Ansorena, et al., 2004, 2Begnaud, Pérès, et al., 2003
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase Polymethylsiloxane, (PMS-20000)CP Sil 5 CBCP Sil 5 CBHP-5Methyl phenyl siloxane (not specified)
Column length (m)  50.50.30. 
Carrier gas      
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm)  0.320.320.25 
Phase thickness (mum)  1.21.20.25 
Program not specified36C => 20C/min => 85C => 1C/min => 145C=3C/min => 250C(30min)36C => 20C/min => 85C => 1C/min => 145C=3C/min => 250C(30min)40C (6min) => 2.5C/min => 150C => 90C/min => 250Cnot specified
I 760.767.772.770.769.
ReferenceCornwell and Cordano, 2003Counet, Callemien, et al., 2002Counet, Callemien, et al., 2002Jordán, Margaría, et al., 2002Poligne, Collignan, et al., 2002
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase BP-1CP Sil 8 CBDB-5 MSOV-101DB-1
Column length (m) 50.60.30.  
Carrier gas He Helium  
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.250.25  
Phase thickness (mum) 1.0.251.0  
Program -50C => 49.9C/min => 5C(3min) => 3C/min => 50C => 5C/min => 220C(20 min)not specifiednot specifiednot specifiednot specified
I 744.20766.780.766.756.
ReferenceCooke, Hassoun, et al., 2001Duckham, Dodson, et al., 2001Luo and Agnew, 2001Zhu and Wang, 2001Zhu and Wang, 2001
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase BPX-5Methyl SiliconeOV-1OV-1SE-54
Column length (m) 50.    
Carrier gas Helium    
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.32    
Phase thickness (mum) 0.50    
Program 40 0C (5 min) 20 0C/min -> 60 0C (5 min) 4 0C/min -> 250 0C (10 min)not specifiednot specifiednot specifiednot specified
I 769.751.755.756.771.
ReferenceMadruga, Arruda, et al., 2000Spieksma, 1999Zhu and He, 1999Zhu and He, 1999Zhu and He, 1999
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase SE-54SE-54SE-54CP Sil 5 CBHP-5
Column length (m)  25.25.50.50.
Carrier gas    HeHe
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm)  0.310.310.320.32
Phase thickness (mum)    1.20.52
Program not specifiednot specifiednot specified30C => 55C/min => 85C => 1C/min => 145C => 3C/min => 250C35 0C 10 0C/min -> 200 0C (20 min) 5 0C/min -> 230 0C (50 min)
I 773.756.760.751.778.
ReferenceZhu and He, 1999Ding, Deng, et al., 1998Ding, Deng, et al., 1998Guyot, Bouseta, et al., 1998Timón, Ventanas, et al., 1998
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase SPB-1Methyl SiliconeDB-5DB-5DB-1
Column length (m) 60. 50.50.30.
Carrier gas He HeHe 
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.53 0.320.320.53
Phase thickness (mum) 5. 0.250.251.5
Program 40C(6min) => 5C/min => 80C => 10C/min => 200Cnot specified40C (10min) => 3C/min => 95C => 10C/min => 270C (10min)40C (10min) => 3C/min => 95C => 10C/min => 270C (10min)40 0C (4 min) 8 0C/min -> 200 0C (1 min) 5 0C/min -> 280 0C (20 min)
I 763.760.770.768.764.
ReferenceFlanagan, Streete, et al., 1997Zenkevich and Tsibulskaya, 1997Mateo and Zumalacárregui, 1996Mateo and Zumalacárregui, 1996Peng, 1996
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase SE-30SE-30Polydimethyl siloxanesPolydimethyl siloxanesDB-5
Column length (m)     30.
Carrier gas     He
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm)      
Phase thickness (mum)      
Program not specifiednot specifiednot specifiednot specifiednot specified
I 760.766.760.760.765.
ReferenceXiuhua, Zhang, et al., 1996Xiuhua, Zhang, et al., 1996Zenkevich and Chupalov, 1996Zenkevich and Chupalov, 1996Sorimachi, Tanabe, et al., 1995
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase Methyl SiliconeMethyl SiliconeDB-1DB-1DB-1
Column length (m)   60.30.60.
Carrier gas    He 
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm)   0.320.250.32
Phase thickness (mum)   0.251.0.25
Program not specifiednot specifiednot specified40C (4min) => 10C/min => 200C => 50C/min => 250C3 min at 5 C; 5 - 50 C at 3 deg/min; 50 - 220 C at 5 deg/min
I 752.760.749.758.749.
ReferenceXu, Chu, et al., 1995Zenkevich, 1995Ciccioli, Cecinato, et al., 1994Schuberth, 1994Ciccioli, Brancaleoni, et al., 1993
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase SPB-1SPB-1SE-54OV-1OV-1
Column length (m) 60.60.50.60.60.
Carrier gas HeliumHeliumHe  
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.530.530.320.320.32
Phase thickness (mum) 5.05.0   
Program 40 0C (6 min) 5 0C/min -> 80 0C 10 0C/min -> 200 0Cnot specified35 0C (5 min) 8 0C/min -> 200 0C 2 0C/min -> 250 0C1) 1st 30m column temp ramp 4C/min 60-120C 2)2nd 30m column isothermal 100C1) 1st 30m column temp ramp 4C/min 60-120C. 2) 2nd 30m column isothermal 120C.
I 763.768.763.760.7768.5
ReferenceStrete, Ruprah, et al., 1992Strete, Ruprah, et al., 1992Um, Bailey, et al., 1992Engewald and Maurer, 1990Engewald and Maurer, 1990
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase OV-1OV-1SqualaneCP Sil 8 CBSE-30
Column length (m) 60.60. 40.60.
Carrier gas    HeN2
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.320.32 0.250.32
Phase thickness (mum)    0.25 
Program 1) 1st 30m column temp ramp 6C/min 60-120C. 2) 2nd 30m column isothermal 120C.1)1st 30m column temp ramp 3C/min 60-120 2)2nd 30m column isothermal 120Cnot specified30 0C (1 min) 15 0C/min -> 45 0C 3 0C/min -> 120 0C50C(8min) => 3C/min => 150C => 35C/min => 275C (10min)
I 769.768.757.6771.766.
ReferenceEngewald and Maurer, 1990Engewald and Maurer, 1990Dimov and Mekenyan, 1989Weller and Wolf, 1989Ibrahim and Suffet, 1988
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase methyl silicone oil with 5% Igepalmethyl silicone oil with 5% IgepalDB-1DB-1SE-30
Column length (m) 150.150.30.30.25.
Carrier gas   H2H2 
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.750.750.250.250.25
Phase thickness (mum)   0.250.25 
Program not specifiednot specified30C (2min) => 2C/min => 150C => 4C/min => 250C30C (2min) => 2C/min => 150C => 4C/min => 250Cnot specified
I 751.755.739.748.763.
ReferenceSchultz, Flath, et al., 1988Schultz, Flath, et al., 1988Takeoka, Flath, et al., 1988Takeoka, Flath, et al., 1988P'yanova, Zvereva, et al., 1987
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryPackedCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase SE-52SE-30OV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.OV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.OV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.
Column length (m) 100.3.0550.50.50.
Carrier gas  HeHydrogenHydrogenHydrogen
Substrate  Chromosorb AW   
Column diameter (mm) 0.50 0.320.320.32
Phase thickness (mum)      
Program not specifiednot specifiednot specifiednot specifiednot specified
I 771.764.734.745.748.
Referencevan Langenhove and Schamp, 1986Buchman, Cao, et al., 1984Waggott and Davies, 1984Waggott and Davies, 1984Waggott and Davies, 1984
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase OV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.OV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.OV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.OV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.OV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.
Column length (m) 50.50.50.50.50.
Carrier gas HydrogenHydrogenHydrogenHydrogenHydrogen
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.320.320.320.320.32
Phase thickness (mum)      
Program not specifiednot specifiednot specifiednot specifiednot specified
I 751.752.753.761.764.
ReferenceWaggott and Davies, 1984Waggott and Davies, 1984Waggott and Davies, 1984Waggott and Davies, 1984Waggott and Davies, 1984
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryPackedPacked
Active phase OV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.OV-1SE-30SE-30Squalane
Column length (m) 50. 50.6.13.0
Carrier gas Hydrogen HeN2N2
Substrate    Chromosorb WEmbacel
Column diameter (mm) 0.32 0.5  
Phase thickness (mum)      
Program not specifiednot specified-10C (8min) => 12C/min => 26C => 3C/min => 170C (30min)50C910min) => 20C/min => 90(6min) => 10C/min => 150C(hold)25C(5min) => 2C/min => 35 => 4C/min => 95C(hold)
I 767.756.749.770.755.
ReferenceWaggott and Davies, 1984Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982Heydanek and McGorrin, 1981Robinson and Odell, 1971Robinson and Odell, 1971
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type PackedPacked
Active phase SE-30Squalane
Column length (m) 6.13.0
Carrier gas   
Substrate Chrom WEmbacel
Column diameter (mm)   
Phase thickness (mum)   
Program 50C(10min) => 20C/min(2min) => 90C(6min) => 10C/min(6min) => (hold at 150C)25C(5min) => 2C/min(5min) => 4C/min(15min) => (hold at 95C)
I 770.755.
ReferenceRobinson and Odell, 1971, 2Robinson and Odell, 1971, 2
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI

References

Go To: Top, Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Kotowska, Zalikowski, et al., 2012
Kotowska, U.; Zalikowski, M.; Isidorov, V.A., HS-SPME/GC-MS analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted from municipal sewage sludge, Environ. Monit. Asses., 2012, 184, 5, 2893-2907, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-2158-8 . [all data]

Robinson, Adams, et al., 2012
Robinson, A.L.; Adams, D.O.; Boss, P.K.; Heymann, H.; Solomon, P.S.; Trengove, R.D., Influence of geographic origine on the sensory characteristics and wine composition of Vitus viniferas cv. Cabernet Sauvignon wines from Australia (Supplemental data), Am. J. Enol. Vitic., 2012, 64, 4, 467-476, https://doi.org/10.5344/ajev.2012.12023 . [all data]

Shivashankar, Roy, et al., 2012
Shivashankar, S.; Roy, T.K.; Moorthy, P.N.R., Headspace solid phase micro extraction and GC/MS analysis of the volatile components in seed and cake of Azadirachta indica A. juss, Chem. Bull. of Politechnika Univ. Timisoara, Romania, 2012, 57(71), 1, 1-6. [all data]

Delort and Jaquier, 2009
Delort, E.; Jaquier, A., Novel terpenyl esters from Australian finger lime (Citrus australasica) peel extract, Flav. Fragr. J., 2009, 24, 3, 123-132, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1922 . [all data]

Pugliese, Sirtori, et al., 2009
Pugliese, C.; Sirtori, F.; Ruiz, J.; Martin, D.; Parenti, S.; Franci, O., Effect of pasture on chestnut or acorn on fatty acid composition and aromatic profile of fat of China Senece dry-cured ham, Gracas y Aceites, 2009, 60, 3, 271-276, https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.130208 . [all data]

Rotsatschakul, Visesanguan, et al., 2009
Rotsatschakul, P.; Visesanguan, W.; Smitinont, T.; Chaiseri, S., Changes in volatile compounds during fermentation of nham (Thai fermented sausage), Int. Food Res. J., 2009, 16, 391-414. [all data]

Collin, Nizet, et al., 2008
Collin, S.; Nizet, S.; Muls, S.; Iraqi, R.; Bouseta, A., Characterization of odor-active compounds in extracts obtained by simultaneous extraction/distillation from Moroccan black olives, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2008, 56, 9, 3273-3278, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf073488x . [all data]

Staples and Zeiger, 2008
Staples, E.; Zeiger, K., On-Site Measurements of VOCs and Odors from Metal Casting Operations Using an Ultra-Fast Gas Chromatograph, 2008, retrieved from http://www.estcal.com/TechPapers/Industrial/FoundryOdors.doc. [all data]

Ventanas, Estevez, et al., 2008
Ventanas, S.; Estevez, M.; Andres, A.I.; Ruiz, J., Analysis of volatile compounds of Iberian dry-cured loins with different intramuscular fat contents using SPME-DED, Meat Sci., 2008, 79, 1, 172-180, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.08.011 . [all data]

Xie, Sun, et al., 2008
Xie, J.; Sun, B.; Zheng, F.; Wang, S., Volatile flavor constituents in roasted pork of mini-pig, Food Chem., 2008, 109, 3, 506-514, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.12.074 . [all data]

Zhao, Li, et al., 2008
Zhao, Y.; Li, J.; Xu, Y.; Duan, H.; Fan, W.; Zhao, G., EXtraction, preparation and identification of volatile compounds in Changyu XO brandy, Chinese J. Chromatogr., 2008, 26, 2, 212-222, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1872-2059(08)60014-0 . [all data]

Barra, Baldovini, et al., 2007
Barra, A.; Baldovini, N.; Loiseau, A.-M.; Albino, L.; Lesecq, C.; Cuvelier, L.L., Chemical analysis of French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and simultaneous distillation/extraction (SDE), Food Chem., 2007, 101, 3, 1279-1284, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.12.027 . [all data]

Chuang, Lee, et al., 2007
Chuang, P.-H.; Lee, C.-W.; Chou, J.-Y.; Murugan, M.; Shieh, B.-J.; Chen, H.-M., Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam, Bioresource Technol., 2007, 98, 1, 232-236, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2005.11.003 . [all data]

Liu, Xu, et al., 2007
Liu, Y.; Xu, X.-L.; Zhou, G.-H., Comparative study of volatile compounds in traditional Chinese Nanjing marinated duck by different extraction techniques, Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 2007, 42, 5, 543-550, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2006.01264.x . [all data]

Pellicer, 2007
Pellicer, L.V., Comparison of Sensory Characteristics, and Instrumental flavor Compounds Analysis of Milk Produced by Three Proction Methods. A Thesis presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School University of Missouri-Columbia, 2007, retrieved from http://edit.missouri,edu/Winter2007/Theses/ValverdePellicerL-053107-T6722/research.pdf. [all data]

Ebrahimi and Hadjmohammadi, 2006
Ebrahimi, P.; Hadjmohammadi, M.R., Simultaneous modeling of the Kovats retention indices on phenyl OV stationary phases with different polarity using MLR and ANN, QSAR Comb. Sci., 2006, 25, 10, 836-845, https://doi.org/10.1002/qsar.200530145 . [all data]

Ádámová, Orinák, et al., 2005
Ádámová, M.; Orinák, A.; Halás, L., Retention indices as identification tool in pyrolysis-capillary gas chromatography, J. Chromatogr. A, 2005, 1087, 1-2, 131-141, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2005.01.003 . [all data]

Alissandrakis, Kibaris, et al., 2005
Alissandrakis, E.; Kibaris, A.C.; Tarantilis, P.A.; Harizanis, P.C.; Polissiou, M., Flavour compounds of Greek cotton honey, J. Sci. Food Agric., 2005, 85, 9, 1444-1452, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2124 . [all data]

Blunden, Aneja, et al., 2005
Blunden, J.; Aneja, V.P.; Lonneman, W.A., Characterization of non-methane volatile organic compounds at swine facilities in eastern North Carolina, Atm. Environ., 2005, 39, 36, 6707-6718, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.03.053 . [all data]

Iraqi, Vermeulen, et al., 2005
Iraqi, R.; Vermeulen, C.; Benzekri, A.; Bouseta, A.; Collin, S., Screening for key odorants in Moroccan green olives by gas chromatography-olfactometry/aroma extract dilution analysis, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53, 4, 1179-1184, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf040349w . [all data]

Pino, Marbot, et al., 2005
Pino, J.A.; Marbot, R.; Rosado, A.; Vázquez, C., Volatile constituents of Malay rose apple [Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. Perry], Flavour Fragr. J., 2005, 20, 98-100. [all data]

Riu-Aumatell, Lopez-Tamames, et al., 2005
Riu-Aumatell, M.; Lopez-Tamames, E.; Buxaderas, S., Assessment of the Volatile Composition of Juices of Apricot, Peach, and Pear According to Two Pectolytic Treatments, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53, 20, 7837-7843, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf051397z . [all data]

Vichi, Pizzale, et al., 2005
Vichi, S.; Pizzale, L.; Conte, L.S.; Buxaderas, S.; L´opez-Tamames, E., Simultaneous determination of volatile and semi-volatile aromatic hydrocarbons in virgin olive oil by headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, J. Chromatogr. A, 2005, 1090, 1-2, 146-154, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2005.07.007 . [all data]

Carpino, Mallia, et al., 2004
Carpino, S.; Mallia, S.; Licitra, G.; van Soest, P.J.; Acree, T.E., Aroma compounds of some Hyblean pasture species, Flavour Fragr. J., 2004, 19, 4, 293-297, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1346 . [all data]

Counet, Ouwerx, et al., 2004
Counet, C.; Ouwerx, C.; Rosoux, D.; Collin, S., Relationship between procyanidin and flavor contents of cocoa liquors from different origins, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52, 20, 6243-6249, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf040105b . [all data]

Garcia-Estaban, Ansorena, et al., 2004
Garcia-Estaban, M.; Ansorena, D.; Astiasaran, I.; Martin, D.; Ruiz, J., Comparison of simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the analysis of volatile compounds in dry-cured ham, J. Sci. Food Agric., 2004, 84, 11, 1364-1370, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1826 . [all data]

Garcia-Estaban, Ansorena, et al., 2004, 2
Garcia-Estaban, M.; Ansorena, D.; Astiasarán, I.; Ruiz, J., Study of the effect of different fiber coatings and extraction conditions on dry cured ham volatile compounds extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME), Talanta, 2004, 64, 2, 458-466, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2004.03.007 . [all data]

Begnaud, Pérès, et al., 2003
Begnaud, F.; Pérès, C.; Berdagué, J.-L., Characterization of volatile effluents of livestock buildings by solid-phase microextraction, Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem., 2003, 83, 10, 837-849, https://doi.org/10.1080/03067310310001603349 . [all data]

Cornwell and Cordano, 2003
Cornwell, E.; Cordano, G., Nueva proposicion para predecir datos de retencion obtenidos mediante cromatografia de gases de hidrocarburos derivados de las naftas, Revista de la Sociedad Quimica de Mexico, 2003, 47, 1, 38-43. [all data]

Counet, Callemien, et al., 2002
Counet, C.; Callemien, D.; Ouwerx, C.; Collin, S., Use of gas chromatography-olfactometry to identify key odorant compounds in dark chocolate. Comparison of samples before and after conching, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50, 8, 2385-2391, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0114177 . [all data]

Jordán, Margaría, et al., 2002
Jordán, M.J.; Margaría, C.A.; Shaw, P.E.; Goodner, K.L., Aroma active components in aqueous kiwi fruit essence and kiwi fruit puree by GC-MS and multidimensional GC/GC-O, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50, 19, 5386-5390, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf020297f . [all data]

Poligne, Collignan, et al., 2002
Poligne, I.; Collignan, A.; Trystram, G., Effects of salting, drying, cooking, and smoking operations on volatile compound formation and collor patterns in pork, Food Eng. Physical Properties, 2002, 67, 8, 2976-2986. [all data]

Cooke, Hassoun, et al., 2001
Cooke, K.M.; Hassoun, S.; Sanders, S.M.; Pilling, M.J., Identification and quantification of volatile organic compounds found in a eucalyptus forest during FIELDVOC'94 in Portugal, Chemosphere Global Change Science, 2001, 3, 3, 249-257, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1465-9972(01)00008-3 . [all data]

Duckham, Dodson, et al., 2001
Duckham, S.C.; Dodson, A.T.; Bakker, J.; Ames, J.M., Volatile flavour components of baked potato flesh. A comparison of eleven potato cultivars, Nahrung/Food, 2001, 45, 5, 317-323, https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-3803(20011001)45:5<317::AID-FOOD317>3.0.CO;2-4 . [all data]

Luo and Agnew, 2001
Luo, J.; Agnew, M.P., Gas characteristics before and after biofiltration treating odorous emissions from animal rendering processes, Environ. Technol., 2001, 22, 9, 1091-1103, https://doi.org/10.1080/09593332208618220 . [all data]

Zhu and Wang, 2001
Zhu, X.; Wang, W., The relationship between partition coefficients of hydrocarbons and their retention indices, Acta Scientific Circumstantiae, 2001, 21, 5, 631-633. [all data]

Madruga, Arruda, et al., 2000
Madruga, M.S.; Arruda, S.G.B.; Narain, N.; Souza, J.G., Castration and slaughter age effects on panel assessment and aroma compounds of the mestico goat meat, Meat Sci., 2000, 56, 2, 117-125, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(00)00025-5 . [all data]

Spieksma, 1999
Spieksma, W., Determination of vapor liquid equilibrium from the Kovats retention index on dimethylsilicone using the Wilson mixing tool, J. Hi. Res. Chromatogr., 1999, 22, 10, 565-588, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1521-4168(19991001)22:10<565::AID-JHRC565>3.0.CO;2-2 . [all data]

Zhu and He, 1999
Zhu, X.; He, L., Derivation of isothermal retention indices from a retention values under multiple-ramp temperature-programmed conditions, J. Instrum. Anal. (Chinese), 1999, 18, 6, 10-12. [all data]

Ding, Deng, et al., 1998
Ding, Q.; Deng, Y.; Sun, Y.; Huagn, A.; Sun, Y., Analysis of volatile components in ox feces by capillary gas chromatography, Beijing Daxue Xuebao Ziran Kexueban, 1998, 34, 6, 720-725. [all data]

Guyot, Bouseta, et al., 1998
Guyot, C.; Bouseta, A.; Scheirman, V.; Collin, S., Floral origin markers of chestnut and lime tree honeys, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1998, 46, 2, 625-633, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf970510l . [all data]

Timón, Ventanas, et al., 1998
Timón, M.L.; Ventanas, J.; Martín, L.; Tejeda, J.F.; García, C., Volatile compounds in supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of Iberian ham, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1998, 46, 12, 5143-5150, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf980652v . [all data]

Flanagan, Streete, et al., 1997
Flanagan, R.J.; Streete, P.J.; Ramsey, J.D., Volatile Substance Abuse, UNODC Technical Series, No 5, United Nations, Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna International Centre, PO Box 500, A-1400 Vienna, Austria, 1997, 56, retrieved from http://www.odccp.org/pdf/technicalseries1997-01-011.pdf. [all data]

Zenkevich and Tsibulskaya, 1997
Zenkevich, I.G.; Tsibulskaya, I.A., Group identification of organic compounds by gas-chromatographic retention indices and partition coefficients in the hexane-nitromethane system, Zh. Fiz. Khim., 1997, 71, 2, 341-346. [all data]

Mateo and Zumalacárregui, 1996
Mateo, J.; Zumalacárregui, J.M., Volatile compounds in chorizo and their changes during ripening, Meat Sci., 1996, 44, 4, 255-273, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(96)00028-9 . [all data]

Peng, 1996
Peng, C.T., Gas chromatographic identification of aromatic hydrocarbons in Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry, Cook, G.T.; Harkness, D.D.; MacKenzie, A.B.; Miller, B.F.; Scott, E.M., ed(s)., 1996, 221-232. [all data]

Xiuhua, Zhang, et al., 1996
Xiuhua, Zh.; Zhang, L.; Che, X., Prediction of the Kovats retention indexes of polysubstituted alkylbenzenes, Chin. J. Chromatogr., 1996, 14, 4, 244-248. [all data]

Zenkevich and Chupalov, 1996
Zenkevich, I.G.; Chupalov, A.A., New Possibilities of Chromato Mass Pectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds Using Increments of Gas Chromatographic Retention Indices of Molecular Structural Fragments, Zh. Org. Khim. (Rus.), 1996, 32, 5, 656-666. [all data]

Sorimachi, Tanabe, et al., 1995
Sorimachi, J.; Tanabe, A.; Mitobe, H.; Kuniaki, K.; Masaaki, S., Programmed temperature retention indices for volatile organic compounds on headspace GC/MS analysis, Niigata-ken Eisei Kogai Kenkyusho Nenpo, 1995, 11, 75-79. [all data]

Xu, Chu, et al., 1995
Xu, X.; Chu, S.; Song, N., Application of chromatographic studies of air pollution in China, J. Chromatogr. A, 1995, 710, 1, 21-37, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(95)00173-K . [all data]

Zenkevich, 1995
Zenkevich, I.G., Calculation of Gas-Chromatographic Retention Indices from Physico-Chemical Constants of Organic Compounds, Z. Anal. Chem., 1995, 50, 10, 1048-1056. [all data]

Ciccioli, Cecinato, et al., 1994
Ciccioli, P.; Cecinato, A.; Brancaleoni, E.; Brachetti, A.; Frattoni, M.; Sparapani, R., Composition and Distribution of Polar and Non-Polar VOCs in Urban, Rural, Forest and Remote Areas, Eur Commission EUR, 1994, 549-568. [all data]

Schuberth, 1994
Schuberth, J., Joint use of retention index and mass spectrum in postmortem tests for volatile organics by headspace capillary gas chromatography with ion-trap detection, J. Chromatogr. A, 1994, 674, 1-2, 63-71, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(94)85217-0 . [all data]

Ciccioli, Brancaleoni, et al., 1993
Ciccioli, P.; Brancaleoni, E.; Cecinato, A.; Sparapani, R.; Frattoni, M., Identification and determination of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds in forest areas of Northern and Southern Europe and a remote site of the Himalaya region by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. Chromatogr., 1993, 643, 1-2, 55-69, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(93)80541-F . [all data]

Strete, Ruprah, et al., 1992
Strete, P.J.; Ruprah, M.; Ramsey, J.D.; Flanagan, R.J., Detection and identification of volatile substances by headspace capillary gas chromatography to aid the diagnosis of acute poisoning, Analyst, 1992, 117, 7, 1111-1127, https://doi.org/10.1039/an9921701111 . [all data]

Um, Bailey, et al., 1992
Um, K.W.; Bailey, M.E.; Clarke, A.D.; Chao, R.R., Concentration and identification of volatile compounds from heated beef fat using supercritical CO2 extraction-gas liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1992, 40, 9, 1641-1646, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00021a033 . [all data]

Engewald and Maurer, 1990
Engewald, W.; Maurer, T., Enhanced possibilities for identification by the use of series-coupled capillary gas chromatographic columns. I. General exposition and application of the retention index concept, J. Chromatogr., 1990, 520, 3-13, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(90)85078-A . [all data]

Dimov and Mekenyan, 1989
Dimov, N.; Mekenyan, Ov., Quantitative Relationships Between the Structure of Alkylbenzenes and Their Gas Chromatographic Retention on Stationary Phasses with Different Polarity, J. Chromatogr., 1989, 471, 227-236, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)94170-0 . [all data]

Weller and Wolf, 1989
Weller, J.-P.; Wolf, M., Massenspektroskopie und Headspace-GC, Beitr. Gerichtl. Med., 1989, 47, 525-532. [all data]

Ibrahim and Suffet, 1988
Ibrahim, E.A.; Suffet, I.H., Freon FC-113, an Alternative to Methylene Chloride for Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Trace Organics from Chlorinated Drinking Water, J. Chromatogr., 1988, 454, 217-232, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)88615-X . [all data]

Schultz, Flath, et al., 1988
Schultz, T.H.; Flath, R.A.; Stern, D.J.; Mon, T.R.; Teranishi, R.; McKenna Kruse, S.; Butlder, B.; Howard, W.E., Coyote estrous urine volatiles, J. Chem. Ecol., 1988, 14, 2, 701-712, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01013917 . [all data]

Takeoka, Flath, et al., 1988
Takeoka, G.R.; Flath, R.A.; Güntert, M.; Jennings, W., Nectarine volatiles: vacuum steam distillation versus headspace sampling, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1988, 36, 3, 553-560, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00081a037 . [all data]

P'yanova, Zvereva, et al., 1987
P'yanova, V.P.; Zvereva, M.N.; Tsypysheva, LG.; Portnova, T.V.; Kruglov, E.A., Investigating the products of thiophane synthesis, Abstr. IX All-Union Conference on Gas Chromatography, Kuibyshev State University, Kuibyshev, 1987, 308. [all data]

van Langenhove and Schamp, 1986
van Langenhove, H.; Schamp, N., Identification of Volatiles in the Head Space of Acid-Treated Phosphate Rock by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectromety, J. Chromatogr., 1986, 351, 65-75, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)83473-7 . [all data]

Buchman, Cao, et al., 1984
Buchman, O.; Cao, G.-Y.; Peng, C.T., Structure assignment by retention index in gas-liquid radiochromatography of substituted cyclohexenes, J. Chromatogr., 1984, 312, 75-90, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)92765-7 . [all data]

Waggott and Davies, 1984
Waggott, A.; Davies, I.W., Identification of organic pollutants using linear temperature programmed retention indices (LTPRIs) - Part II, 1984, retrieved from http://dwi.defra.gov.uk/research/completed-research/reports/dwi0383.pdf. [all data]

Ramsey and Flanagan, 1982
Ramsey, J.D.; Flanagan, R.J., Detection and Identification of Volatile Organic Compounds in Blood by Headspace Gas Chromatography as an Aid to the Diagnosis of Solvent Abuse, J. Chromatogr., 1982, 240, 2, 423-444, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)99622-5 . [all data]

Heydanek and McGorrin, 1981
Heydanek, M.G.; McGorrin, R.J., Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy investigations on the flavor chemistry of oat groats, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1981, 29, 5, 950-954, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00107a016 . [all data]

Robinson and Odell, 1971
Robinson, P.G.; Odell, A.L., A system of standard retention indices and its uses. The characterisation of stationary phases and the prediction of retention indices, J. Chromatogr., 1971, 57, 1-10, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(71)80001-8 . [all data]

Robinson and Odell, 1971, 2
Robinson, P.G.; Odell, A.L., Comparison of isothermal and non-linear temperature programmed gas chromatography. The temperature dependence of the retention indices of a number of hydrocarbons on squalane and SE-30, J. Chromatogr., 1971, 57, 11-17, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(71)80002-X . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program, References