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Pyridine, 2,4-dimethyl-

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Gas phase thermochemistry data

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Donald R. Burgess, Jr.

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafgas15.3kcal/molN/ACox and Gundry, 1958Value computed using «DELTA»fHliquid° value of 16.1 kj/mol from Cox and Gundry, 1958 and «DELTA»vapH° value of 47.78 kj/mol from missing citation.

Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafliquid3.84kcal/molCcbCox and Gundry, 1958ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltacliquid-969.63kcal/molCcbCox and Gundry, 1958ALS
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
liquid59.393cal/mol*KN/ASteele, Chirico, et al., 1986DH

Constant pressure heat capacity of liquid

Cp,liquid (cal/mol*K) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
44.159298.15Steele, Chirico, et al., 1986T = 10 to 450 K.; DH

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Chris Muzny, director
DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos
ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil431. ± 2.KAVGN/AAverage of 14 values; Individual data points
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus209.415KN/ASteele, Chirico, et al., 1986DH
Tfus205.2KN/AAssal, 1966Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 1. K; TRC
Tfus205.25KN/AKyte, Jeffery, et al., 1960Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.5 K; TRC
Tfus209.19KN/ACoulson, Cox, et al., 1959Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.03 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Ttriple209.35KN/AChirico, Hossenlopp, et al., 1994Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.01 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc647.KN/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
Tc647.15KN/AAmbrose and Grant, 1957Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 1.5 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap11.35kcal/molN/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
Deltavap11.4kcal/molCGCChickos, Hosseini, et al., 1995Based on data from 323. - 373. K.; AC
Deltavap11.42kcal/molVCox, 1960ALS

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
9.209431.6N/AMajer and Svoboda, 1985 
10.9330.N/ASakoguchi, Ueoka, et al., 1995Based on data from 288. - 373. K.; AC
10.7340.EBSteele, Chirico, et al., 1995Based on data from 331. - 473. K.; AC
10.1380.EBSteele, Chirico, et al., 1995Based on data from 331. - 473. K.; AC
9.51420.EBSteele, Chirico, et al., 1995Based on data from 331. - 473. K.; AC
8.84460.EBSteele, Chirico, et al., 1995Based on data from 331. - 473. K.; AC
11.3313.EBLencka, 1990Based on data from 298. - 431. K.; AC
10.4364.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 349. - 433. K. See also Kkykj and Repas, 1973.; AC
11.4282.MMWisniewska, Lencka, et al., 1986Based on data from 267. - 358. K.; AC
11.1313.CMajer, Svoboda, et al., 1985AC
10.7343.CMajer, Svoboda, et al., 1985AC
10.5368.CMajer, Svoboda, et al., 1985AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

ΔvapH = A exp(-βTr) (1 − Tr)β
    ΔvapH = Enthalpy of vaporization (at saturation pressure) (kcal/mol)
    Tr = reduced temperature (T / Tc)

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Temperature (K) A (kcal/mol) beta Tc (K) Reference Comment
313. - 368.15.740.3033647.Majer and Svoboda, 1985 

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (atm)
    T = temperature (K)

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Temperature (K) A B C Reference Comment
423.54 - 432.9712.5335113550.483649.591Coulson, Cox, et al., 1959, 2Coefficents calculated by NIST from author's data.

Enthalpy of fusion

DeltafusH (kcal/mol) Temperature (K) Reference Comment
2.11209.4Chirico, Hossenlopp, et al., 1994, 2AC

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Henry's Law data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Rolf Sander

Henry's Law constant (water solution)

kH(T) = H exp(d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) ((1/T) - 1/(298.15 K)))
H = Henry's law constant for solubility in water at 298.15 K (mol/kg*bar)
d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) = Temperature dependence constant (K)

H (mol/kg*bar) d(ln(kH))/d(1/T) (K) Method Reference
150.7100.MN/A

Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron

View reactions leading to C7H9N+ (ion structure unspecified)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)230.1kcal/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity222.5kcal/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
8.85 ± 0.03PIWatanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962RDSH

IR Spectrum

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Data compiled by: Coblentz Society, Inc.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin Japan AIST/NIMC Database- Spectrum MS-NW-2070
NIST MS number 227867

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


UV/Visible spectrum

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Victor Talrose, Eugeny B. Stern, Antonina A. Goncharova, Natalia A. Messineva, Natalia V. Trusova, Margarita V. Efimkina

Spectrum

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UVVis spectrum
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Additional Data

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Source Andon, Cox, et al., 1954
Owner INEP CP RAS, NIST OSRD
Collection (C) 2007 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin INSTITUTE OF ENERGY PROBLEMS OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, RAS
Source reference RAS UV No. 937
Instrument Unicam SP 500
Melting point -64
Boiling point 158.5

References

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Cox and Gundry, 1958
Cox, J.D.; Gundry, H.A., Heats of combustion. Part II. The six lutidines, J. Chem. Soc., 1958, 1019-1022. [all data]

Steele, Chirico, et al., 1986
Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Collier, W.B.; Hossenlopp, I.A.; Nguyen, A.; Strube, M.M., Thermochemical and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen compounds found in fossil materials, NIPER Report, 1986, 188, 112p. [all data]

Assal, 1966
Assal, F.A., Vapour-liquid equilibria in phenol-pyridine base systems, Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci., Ser. Sci. Chim., 1966, 14, 603. [all data]

Kyte, Jeffery, et al., 1960
Kyte, C.T.; Jeffery, G.H.; Vogel, A.I., Physical Properties and Chem. Constitution XXVII. Pyridine Derivatives, J. Chem. Soc., 1960, 1960, 4454. [all data]

Coulson, Cox, et al., 1959
Coulson, E.A.; Cox, J.D.; Herington, E.F.G.; Martin, J.F., The Preparation and Physical Properties of the Pure Lutidines, J. Chem. Soc., 1959, 1959, 1934. [all data]

Chirico, Hossenlopp, et al., 1994
Chirico, R.D.; Hossenlopp, I.A.; Gammon, B.E.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Steele, W.V., Heat capacities of the six dimethylpyridines between the temperatures 10 K and 445 K and methyl-group rotational barriers in the solid state a,b, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1994, 26, 11, 1187, https://doi.org/10.1006/jcht.1994.1138 . [all data]

Majer and Svoboda, 1985
Majer, V.; Svoboda, V., Enthalpies of Vaporization of Organic Compounds: A Critical Review and Data Compilation, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1985, 300. [all data]

Ambrose and Grant, 1957
Ambrose, D.; Grant, D.G., The Critical Temperatures of Some Hydrocarbons and Pyridine Bases, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1957, 53, 771. [all data]

Chickos, Hosseini, et al., 1995
Chickos, James S.; Hosseini, Sarah; Hesse, Donald G., Determination of vaporization enthalpies of simple organic molecules by correlations of changes in gas chromatographic net retention times, Thermochimica Acta, 1995, 249, 41-62, https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-6031(95)90670-3 . [all data]

Cox, 1960
Cox, J.D., The second virial coefficients, latent heats of vaporization and heats of formation of the lutidines, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1960, 56, 959. [all data]

Sakoguchi, Ueoka, et al., 1995
Sakoguchi, Akihiro; Ueoka, Ryuichi; Kato, Yasuo; Arai, Yasuhiko, Vapor Pressures of Alkylpyridines and Alkylpyrazines., KAGAKU KOGAKU RONBUNSHU, 1995, 21, 1, 219-223, https://doi.org/10.1252/kakoronbunshu.21.219 . [all data]

Steele, Chirico, et al., 1995
Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Nguyen, A.; Knipmeyer, S.E., Vapor pressures, high-temperature heat capacities, critical properties, derived thermodynamic functions, and barriers to methyl-group rotation, for the six dimethylpyridines, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 1995, 27, 3, 311-334, https://doi.org/10.1006/jcht.1995.0030 . [all data]

Lencka, 1990
Lencka, Malgorzata, Measurements of the vapour pressures of pyridine, 2-methylpyridine, 2,4-dimethylpyridine, 2,6-dimethylpyridine, and 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine from 0.1 kPa to atmospheric pressure using a modified Swietoslawski ebulliometer, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 1990, 22, 5, 473-480, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9614(90)90139-H . [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

Kkykj and Repas, 1973
Kkykj, J.; Repas, M., Petrochemia, 1973, 13, 179. [all data]

Wisniewska, Lencka, et al., 1986
Wisniewska, Barbara; Lencka, Malgorzata; Rogalski, Marek, Vapour pressures of 2,4-, 2,6-, and 3,5-dimethylpyridine at temperatures from 267 to 360 K, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 1986, 18, 8, 703-708, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9614(86)90102-3 . [all data]

Majer, Svoboda, et al., 1985
Majer, V.; Svoboda, V.; Lencka, M., Enthalpies of vaporization and cohesive energies of dimethylpyridines and trimethylpyridines, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 1985, 17, 4, 365-370, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9614(85)90133-8 . [all data]

Coulson, Cox, et al., 1959, 2
Coulson, E.A.; Cox, J.D.; Herington, E.F.G.; Martin, J.F., The Preparation and Physical Properties of the Pure Lutidines, J. Chem. Soc., 1959, 1934-1940, https://doi.org/10.1039/jr9590001934 . [all data]

Chirico, Hossenlopp, et al., 1994, 2
Chirico, R.D.; Hossenlopp, I.A.; Gammon, B.E.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Steele, W.V., Heat capacities of the six dimethylpyridines between the temperatures 10 K and 445 K and methyl-group rotational barriers in the solid state a,b, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 1994, 26, 11, 1187-1218, https://doi.org/10.1006/jcht.1994.1138 . [all data]

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556018 . [all data]

Watanabe, Nakayama, et al., 1962
Watanabe, K.; Nakayama, T.; Mottl, J., Ionization potentials of some molecules, J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer, 1962, 2, 369. [all data]

Andon, Cox, et al., 1954
Andon, R.J.L.; Cox, J.D.; Herington, E.F.G., The ultra-violet absorption spectra and dissociation constants of certain pyridine bases in aqueous solution, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1954, 50, 918-927. [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Henry's Law data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References