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Gas phase ion energetics data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data evaluated as indicated in comments:
HL - Edward P. Hunter and Sharon G. Lias
L - Sharon G. Lias

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
B - John E. Bartmess
LBLHLM - Sharon G. Lias, John E. Bartmess, Joel F. Liebman, John L. Holmes, Rhoda D. Levin, and W. Gary Mallard
LLK - Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi
RDSH - Henry M. Rosenstock, Keith Draxl, Bruce W. Steiner, and John T. Herron

View reactions leading to C4H6+ (ion structure unspecified)

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
IE (evaluated)9.072 ± 0.007eVN/AN/AL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Proton affinity (review)783.4kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Gas basicity757.6kJ/molN/AHunter and Lias, 1998HL

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference Comment
9.082 ± 0.004SMallard, Miller, et al., 1983LBLHLM
9.07PEMasclet, Mouvier, et al., 1981LLK
9.09PEKimura, Katsumata, et al., 1981LLK
9.03EIDannacher, Flamme, et al., 1980LLK
9.03PEBieri and Asbrink, 1980LLK
9.03 ± 0.02PEBieri, Burger, et al., 1977LLK
9.0691SMcDiarmid, 1976LLK
9.06PEBrundle and Robin, 1970RDSH
9.06 ± 0.02PIMatthews and Warneck, 1969RDSH
9.09 ± 0.05PEEland, 1969RDSH
9.07 ± 0.02PIParr and Elder, 1968RDSH
9.07PEDewar and Worley, 1968RDSH
~9.2DERDewar and Worley, 1968RDSH
9.18 ± 0.04EIBock and Seidl, 1968RDSH
9.09 ± 0.03EIFranklin and Mogenis, 1967RDSH
9.075 ± 0.005PIBrehm, 1966RDSH
9.07 ± 0.01PIWatanabe, 1954RDSH
9.06 ± 0.01SPrice and Walsh, 1940RDSH
9.03PESchmidt, Schweig, et al., 1976Vertical value; LLK

Appearance energy determinations

Ion AE (eV) Other Products MethodReferenceComment
C2H2+15.4 ± 0.1?EIDannacher, Flamme, et al., 1980LLK
C2H2+16.5 ± 0.1?EIFranklin and Mogenis, 1967RDSH
C2H3+15.1 ± 0.1?EIDannacher, Flamme, et al., 1980LLK
C2H3+15.7 ± 0.2?EIFranklin and Mogenis, 1967RDSH
C2H4+12.6 ± 0.1C2H2EIDannacher, Flamme, et al., 1980LLK
C2H4+12.5 ± 0.1C2H2PIBrehm, 1966RDSH
C3H+12.44?EIField, Franklin, et al., 1957RDSH
C3H3+11.3 ± 0.1CH3EIDannacher, Flamme, et al., 1980LLK
C3H3+11.39 ± 0.03CH3PIMatthews and Warneck, 1969RDSH
C3H3+11.40 ± 0.02CH3PIParr and Elder, 1968RDSH
C3H3+11.35 ± 0.05CH3PIBrehm, 1966RDSH
C4H+15.752H2+HEIField, Franklin, et al., 1957RDSH
C4H2+16.87 ± 0.05?EIFranklin and Mogenis, 1967RDSH
C4H3+14.9 ± 0.1H3EIDannacher, Flamme, et al., 1980LLK
C4H3+16.25 ± 0.05H2+HEIFranklin and Mogenis, 1967RDSH
C4H4+13.0 ± 0.1H2EIDannacher, Flamme, et al., 1980LLK
C4H4+13.84 ± 0.07H2EIFranklin and Mogenis, 1967RDSH
C4H5+11.4 ± 0.1HPIDannacher, Flamme, et al., 1980LLK
C4H5+11.56 ± 0.04HPIParr and Elder, 1968RDSH
C4H5+11.39 ± 0.05HPIBrehm, 1966RDSH

De-protonation reactions

C4H5- + Hydrogen cation = 1,3-Butadiene

By formula: C4H5- + H+ = C4H6

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1672. ± 13.kJ/molG+TSDevisser, Dekoning, et al., 1995gas phase; B
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1637. ± 13.kJ/molIMRBDevisser, Dekoning, et al., 1995gas phase; B


Go To: Top, Gas phase ion energetics data, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Hunter and Lias, 1998
Hunter, E.P.; Lias, S.G., Evaluated Gas Phase Basicities and Proton Affinities of Molecules: An Update, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1998, 27, 3, 413-656, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.556018 . [all data]

Mallard, Miller, et al., 1983
Mallard, W.G.; Miller, J.H.; Smyth, K.C., The ns Rydberg series of 1,3-trans-butadiene observed using multiphoton ionization, J. Chem. Phys., 1983, 79, 5900. [all data]

Masclet, Mouvier, et al., 1981
Masclet, P.; Mouvier, G.; Bocquet, J.F., Effets electroniques et effets steriques dus a la substitution alcoyle dans les dienes conjugues, J. Chim. Phys., 1981, 78, 99. [all data]

Kimura, Katsumata, et al., 1981
Kimura, K.; Katsumata, S.; Achiba, Y.; Yamazaki, T.; Iwata, S., Ionization energies, Ab initio assignments, and valence electronic structure for 200 molecules in Handbook of HeI Photoelectron Spectra of Fundamental Organic Compounds, Japan Scientific Soc. Press, Tokyo, 1981. [all data]

Dannacher, Flamme, et al., 1980
Dannacher, J.; Flamme, J.P.; Stadelmann, J.P.; Vogt, J., Unimolecular fragmentations of internal energy selected 1,3-butadiene cations, Chem. Phys., 1980, 51, 189. [all data]

Bieri and Asbrink, 1980
Bieri, G.; Asbrink, L., 30.4-nm He(II) photoelectron spectra of organic molecules, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 20, 149. [all data]

Bieri, Burger, et al., 1977
Bieri, G.; Burger, F.; Heilbronner, E.; Maier, J.P., Valence ionization enrgies of hydrocarbons, Helv. Chim. Acta, 1977, 60, 2213. [all data]

McDiarmid, 1976
McDiarmid, R., On the ultraviolet spectrum of trans-1,3-butadiene, J. Chem. Phys., 1976, 64, 514. [all data]

Brundle and Robin, 1970
Brundle, C.R.; Robin, M.B., Nonplanarity in hexafluorobutadiene as revealed by photoelectron and optical spectroscopy, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1970, 92, 5550. [all data]

Matthews and Warneck, 1969
Matthews, C.S.; Warneck, P., Heats of formation of CHO+ and C3H3+ by photoionization, J. Chem. Phys. 5, 1969, 1, 854. [all data]

Eland, 1969
Eland, J.H.D., Photoelectron spectra of conjugated hydrocarbons and heteromolecules, Intern. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 1969, 2, 471. [all data]

Parr and Elder, 1968
Parr, A.C.; Elder, F.A., Photoionization of 1,3butadiene, 1,2-butadiene, allene, and propyne, J. Chem. Phys., 1968, 49, 2659. [all data]

Dewar and Worley, 1968
Dewar, M.J.S.; Worley, S.D., Ionization potential of cis-1,3-butadiene, J. Chem. Phys., 1968, 49, 2454. [all data]

Bock and Seidl, 1968
Bock, H.; Seidl, H., 'd-Orbital effects' in silicon- substituted «pi»-electron systems. XI. Syntheses and properties of the isomeric bis(trimethylsilyl)-1,3-butadienes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1968, 90, 5694. [all data]

Franklin and Mogenis, 1967
Franklin, J.L.; Mogenis, A., An electron impact study of ions from several dienes, J. Phys. Chem., 1967, 71, 2820. [all data]

Brehm, 1966
Brehm, B., Massenspektrometrische Untersuchung der Photoionisation von Molekulen, Z. Naturforsch., 1966, 21a, 196. [all data]

Watanabe, 1954
Watanabe, K., Photoionization and total absorption cross section of gases. I. Ionization potentials of several molecules. Cross sections of NH3 and NO, J. Chem. Phys., 1954, 22, 1564. [all data]

Price and Walsh, 1940
Price, W.C.; Walsh, A.D., The absorption spectra of conjugated dienes in the vacuum ultra-violet (1), Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), 1940, A174, 220. [all data]

Schmidt, Schweig, et al., 1976
Schmidt, H.; Schweig, A.; Anastassiou, A.G.; Wetzel, J.C., The dominant role of hyperconjugation in the 9-oxabicyclo[4.2.1]nona-2,4,7-triene series, Tetrahedron, 1976, 32, 2239. [all data]

Field, Franklin, et al., 1957
Field, F.H.; Franklin, J.L.; Lampe, F.W., Reactions of gaseous ions. II. Acetylene, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1957, 79, 2665. [all data]

Devisser, Dekoning, et al., 1995
Devisser, S.P.; Dekoning, L.J.; Vanderhart, W.J.; Nibbering, N.M.M., Chemical properties of butadienyl anions in the gas-phase, Recl. Trav. Chim. Pays-Bas, 1995, 114, 6, 267, https://doi.org/10.1002/recl.19951140603 . [all data]


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