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Citronellal

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Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp

Go To: Top, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase TC-WaxBP-20InnowaxHP-InnowaxCarbowax
Column length (m) 60.50.30.30.60.
Carrier gas HeliumHeliumHeliumHeliumHe
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.220.250.250.2
Phase thickness (mum)  0.250.250.250.25
Tstart (C) 40.60.40.50.60.
Tend (C) 230.220.250.240.250.
Heat rate (K/min) 3.2.6.15.2.
Initial hold (min) 3. 1.10.8.
Final hold (min)  20.4.19.15.
I 1483.1486.1486.1488.1478.
ReferenceMiyazawa, Fujita, et al., 2010Ottavioli, Bighelli, et al., 2009Seo, Kim, et al., 2009Charoensiddhi and Anprung, 2008Ferhat, Meklati, et al., 2007
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase PEG-20MBP-20BP-20DB-WaxBP-20
Column length (m) 60.50.50.60.50.
Carrier gas HeHe HeHe
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.220.220.250.22
Phase thickness (mum) 0.250.250.250.250.25
Tstart (C) 90.60.60.70.60.
Tend (C) 225.220.220.230.220.
Heat rate (K/min) 3.2.2.2.2.
Initial hold (min)    2. 
Final hold (min) 15.20.20.20.20.
I 1481.1472.1478.1488.1479.
ReferenceGil A., Van Baren C.M., et al., 2007Boti, Muselli, et al., 2006Boti, Yao, et al., 2006Choi H.S., 2006Fanciullino, Tomi, et al., 2006
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase BP-20DB-WaxDB-Wax EtrStabilwaxStabilwax
Column length (m) 50.60.30.30.30.
Carrier gas He HeH2 
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.220.250.250.320.32
Phase thickness (mum) 0.250.250.250.50.5
Tstart (C) 60.70.40.40.40.
Tend (C) 220.230.220.280.280.
Heat rate (K/min) 2.2.2.6.6.
Initial hold (min)  2.1.5.5.
Final hold (min) 20.20.10.5.5.
I 1479.1479.1501.1465.1465.
ReferenceFanciullino, Tomi, et al., 2006Lan Phi N.T., Nishiyama C., et al., 2006Perestrelo, Fernandes, et al., 2006Jirovetz, Buchbauer, et al., 2005Jirovetz, Buchbauer, et al., 2005, 2
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase DB-WaxDB-WaxSupelcowax-10ZB-WaxZB-Wax
Column length (m) 60.60.30.30.30.
Carrier gas N2N2 HeliumHe
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.250.250.320.32
Phase thickness (mum) 0.250.250.250.250.25
Tstart (C) 70.70.40.40.40.
Tend (C) 230.230.220.250.250.
Heat rate (K/min) 2.2.3.5.5.
Initial hold (min) 2.2.5.2.2.
Final hold (min) 20.20.10.5.10.
I 1492.1492.1477.1457.1457.
ReferenceNjoroge, Koaze, et al., 2005Njoroge, Koaze, et al., 2005, 2Vichi, Riu-Aumatell, et al., 2005N/AWu, Krings, et al., 2005
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase DB-WaxDB-WaxDB-WaxDB-WaxNB-20M
Column length (m) 60.60.60.60.50.
Carrier gas N2N2HeHeHe
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.250.250.250.2
Phase thickness (mum) 0.250.25  0.25
Tstart (C) 70.70.60.60.50.
Tend (C) 230.230.220.220.250.
Heat rate (K/min) 2.2.2.2.2.
Initial hold (min) 2.2.4.4. 
Final hold (min) 20.20.   
I 1488.1485.1479.1479.1480.
ReferenceChoi, 2004Choi, 2004, 2Jiang and Kubota, 2004Jiang and Kubota, 2004Raal, Arak, et al., 2004
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase DB-WaxDB-WaxDB-WaxPEG 20MDB-Wax
Column length (m) 60.60.60. 60.
Carrier gas  NitrogenHelium N2
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.250.25 0.25
Phase thickness (mum) 0.250.25  0.25
Tstart (C) 70.70.70.70.70.
Tend (C) 230.230.210.180.230.
Heat rate (K/min) 2.2.2.5.2.
Initial hold (min) 2.2. 2.2.
Final hold (min) 20. 60. 20.
I 1497.1497.1479.1465.1489.
ReferenceSawamura, Son, et al., 2004Sawamura, Sou, et al., 2004Mookdasanit, Tamura, et al., 2003Nakahara, Alzoreky, et al., 2003Tu, Onishi, et al., 2003
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase DB-WaxDB-WaxDB-WaxDB-WaxDB-Wax
Column length (m) 60.60.60.60.60.
Carrier gas N2H2N2N2He
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.320.250.250.25
Phase thickness (mum) 0.250.250.250.250.25
Tstart (C) 70.40.70.70.40.
Tend (C) 230.245.230.230.200.
Heat rate (K/min) 2.1.52.2.2.
Initial hold (min) 2. 2. 2.
Final hold (min) 20.20.20.  
I 1488.1467.1476.1486.1465.
ReferenceTu, Onishi, et al., 2003, 2Gancel, Ollé, et al., 2002Tu, Onishi, et al., 2002Tu, Thanh, et al., 2002Umano, Hagi, et al., 2002
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase DB-WaxDB-WaxCarbowax 20MBP-20PEG-20M
Column length (m) 60.60.30.50.50.
Carrier gas HeHeHeHeHe
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.250.250.220.2
Phase thickness (mum) 0.25 0.250.25 
Tstart (C) 45.40.50.60.70.
Tend (C) 240.220.215.230.220.
Heat rate (K/min) 3.2.4.2.2.
Initial hold (min)      
Final hold (min)    35. 
I 1487.1469.1465.1473.1480.
ReferenceChristoph, 2001Jiang and Kubota, 2001Kasali, Oyedeji, et al., 2001Lota, de Rocca Serra, et al., 2001Orav and Kann, 2001
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryPacked
Active phase BP-20Carbowax 20MCarbowax 20MCarbowax 20MCarbowax 20M
Column length (m) 25.60.100.100.2.
Carrier gas  He  Hydrogen
Substrate     Gas-Chrom Z (80-100 mesh)
Column diameter (mm) 0.330.250.250.25 
Phase thickness (mum) 0.50.25   
Tstart (C) 80.50.70.70.65.
Tend (C) 220.150.170.170.220.
Heat rate (K/min) 5.2.1.1.4.
Initial hold (min)  10.   
Final hold (min)  20.   
I 1494.1472.1477.1477.1491.
ReferenceBignell, Dunlop, et al., 1997Tirado, Stashenko, et al., 1995Shibamoto and Jennings, 1977Shibamoto and Jennings, 1977Stancher and Pertoldi, 1967
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI

References

Go To: Top, Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Miyazawa, Fujita, et al., 2010
Miyazawa, N.; Fujita, A.; Kubota, K., Aroma character impact compounds in Kinokuni Mandarin Orange (Citrus kinikuni) compared with Satsuma Mandarin Orange, Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 2010, 74, 4, 835-842, https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.90937 . [all data]

Ottavioli, Bighelli, et al., 2009
Ottavioli, J.; Bighelli, A.; Casanova, J.; Bang, B.T.; Y., GC (retention indices), GC-MS, and 13C NMR of two citral-rich Cymbopogon leaf oils: C. Flexuosus and C. tortilis, Spectroscopy Lett., 2009, 42, 8, 506-512, https://doi.org/10.1080/00387010903022350 . [all data]

Seo, Kim, et al., 2009
Seo, S.-M.; Kim, J.; Lee, S.-G.; Shin, C.-H.; Shin, S.-C.; Park, I.-K., Fumigant antitermitic activity of plant essential oils and components from Aiowan (Trachyspermum ammi), Allspice (Pimenta dioica), Caraway (Carum carvi), Dill (Anethum graveolens), Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), and Litsea (Litsea cubeba( oils against Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe), J. Agric. Food Chem., 2009, 57, 15, 6596-6602. [all data]

Charoensiddhi and Anprung, 2008
Charoensiddhi, S.; Anprung, P., Bioacrive compounds and volatile compounds of Thai bael fruit (Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa) as a valuable source for functional food ingredients, Internat. Food Res. J., 2008, 15, 3, 287-295. [all data]

Ferhat, Meklati, et al., 2007
Ferhat, M.A.; Meklati, B.Y.; Chemat, F., Comparison of different isolation methods of essential oil from Citrus fruits: cold pressing, hydrodistillation and microwave dry distillation, Flavour Fragr. J., 2007, 22, 6, 494-504, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1829 . [all data]

Gil A., Van Baren C.M., et al., 2007
Gil A.; Van Baren C.M.; Lira P.M.D.L.; Bandoni A.L., Identification of the genotype from the content and composition of the essential oil of lemon verbena (Aloysia citriodora Palau), J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55, 21, 8664-8669, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0708387 . [all data]

Boti, Muselli, et al., 2006
Boti, J.B.; Muselli, A.; Tomi, F.; Koukoua, G.; N'Guessan, T.Y.; Costa, J.; Casanova, J., Combined analysis of Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov. leaf oil from Ivory Coast by GC/RI, GC/MS and 13C-NMR, C.R. Chim., 2006, 9, 1, 164-168, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crci.2005.10.003 . [all data]

Boti, Yao, et al., 2006
Boti, J.B.; Yao, P.A.; Koukoua, G.; N'Guessan, T.Y.; Casanova, J., Components and chemical variability of Isolona campanulata Engler Diels leaf oil, Flavour Fragr. J., 2006, 21, 1, 166-170, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1555 . [all data]

Choi H.S., 2006
Choi H.S., Lipolytic effects of citrus peel oils and their components, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54, 9, 3254-3258, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf052409j . [all data]

Fanciullino, Tomi, et al., 2006
Fanciullino, A.-L.; Tomi, F.; Luro, F.; Desjobert, J.M.; Casanova, J., Chemical variability of peel and leaf oils of mandarins, Flavour Fragr. J., 2006, 21, 2, 359-367, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1658 . [all data]

Lan Phi N.T., Nishiyama C., et al., 2006
Lan Phi N.T.; Nishiyama C.; Choi H.-S.; Sawamura M., Evaluation of aroma characteristic compounds of Citrus natsudaidai Hayata (Natsudaidai) cold-pressed peel oil, Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 2006, 70, 8, 1832-1838, https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.50705 . [all data]

Perestrelo, Fernandes, et al., 2006
Perestrelo, R.; Fernandes, A.; Albuquerque, F.F.; Marques, J.C.; Camara, J.S., Analytical characterization of the aroma of Tinta Negra Mole red wine: Identification of the main odorants compounds, Anal. Chim. Acta., 2006, 563, 1-2, 154-164, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2005.10.023 . [all data]

Jirovetz, Buchbauer, et al., 2005
Jirovetz, L.; Buchbauer, G.; Ngassoum, M.B.; Parmentier, M., Chemical composition and olfactory characterization of essential oils of fruits and seeds of African pear (Dacryodes edulis (G. Don) H. J. Lam) from Cameroon, Flavour Fragr. J., 2005, 20, 2, 215-218, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1324 . [all data]

Jirovetz, Buchbauer, et al., 2005, 2
Jirovetz, L.; Buchbauer, G.; Stoyanova, A.; Balinova, A.; Guangjiun, Z.; Xihan, M., Solid phase microextraction/gas chromatographic and olfactory analysis of the scent and fixative properties of the essential oil of Rosa damascena L. from China, Flavour Fragr. J., 2005, 20, 1, 7-12, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1375 . [all data]

Njoroge, Koaze, et al., 2005
Njoroge, S.M.; Koaze, H.; Mwaniki, M.; Minh Tu, N.T.; Sawamura, M., Essential oils of Kenyan Citrus fruits: volatile components of two varieties of mandarins (Citrus reticulata) and a tangelo (C. paradisi × C. tangerina), Flavour Fragr. J., 2005, 20, 1, 74-79, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1376 . [all data]

Njoroge, Koaze, et al., 2005, 2
Njoroge, S.M.; Koaze, H.; Karanja, P.N.; Sawamura, M., Essential oil constituents of three varieties of Kenyan sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis), Flavour Fragr. J., 2005, 20, 1, 80-85, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1377 . [all data]

Vichi, Riu-Aumatell, et al., 2005
Vichi, S.; Riu-Aumatell, M.; Mora-Pons, M.; Buxaderas, S.; Lopez-Tamames, E., Characterization of Volatiles in Different Dry Gins, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53, 26, 10154-10160, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf058121b . [all data]

Wu, Krings, et al., 2005
Wu, S.; Krings, U.; Zorn, H.; Berger, R.G., Volatile compounds from the fruiting bodies of beefsteak fungus Fistulina hepatica (Schaeffer: Fr.) Fr., Food Chem., 2005, 92, 2, 221-226, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.07.013 . [all data]

Choi, 2004
Choi, H.-S., Volatile constituents of satsuma mandarins growing in Korea, Flavour Fragr. J., 2004, 19, 5, 406-412, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1283 . [all data]

Choi, 2004, 2
Choi, H.-S., Aroma evaluation of an aquatic herb, changpo (Acorus calamus Var. angustatus Bess), by AEDA and SPME, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52, 26, 8099-8104, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf040239p . [all data]

Jiang and Kubota, 2004
Jiang, L.; Kubota, K., Differences in the volatile components and their odor characteristics of green and ripe fruits and dried pericarp of Japanese pepper (Xanthoxylum piperitum DC.), J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52, 13, 4197-4203, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf030663a . [all data]

Raal, Arak, et al., 2004
Raal, A.; Arak, E.; Orav, A., Chemical composition of coriander seed essential oil and their conformity with EP standards, Agraarteadus, 2004, 15, 4, 234-239. [all data]

Sawamura, Son, et al., 2004
Sawamura, M.; Son, U.-S.; Choi, H.-S.; Kim, M.-S.L.; Phi, N.T.L.; Fears, M.; Kumagai, Compositional changes in commercial lemon essential oil for aromatherapy, Int. J. Aromatherapy, 2004, 14, 1, 27-36, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijat.2004.02.001 . [all data]

Sawamura, Sou, et al., 2004
Sawamura, M.; Sou, U.-S.; Choi, H.-S.; Kim, M.-S.; Phi, N.T.L.; Fears, M.; Kumagai. C., Composition changes in commercial lemon essential oil for aromatherapy, Int. J. Aromatherapy, 2004, 14, 1, 27-36, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijat.2004.02.001 . [all data]

Mookdasanit, Tamura, et al., 2003
Mookdasanit, J.; Tamura, H.; Yoshizawa T.; Tokunaga T.; Nakanishi, K., Trace Volatile Compounds in Essential Oil of Citrus Sudachi by Means of Modified Solvent Extraction Method, Food Sci Technol. Res., 2003, 9, 1, 54-61, https://doi.org/10.3136/fstr.9.54 . [all data]

Nakahara, Alzoreky, et al., 2003
Nakahara, K.; Alzoreky, N.S.; Yoshihashi, T.; Nguyen, H.T.T.; Trakoontivakorn, G., Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil from Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass), Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, 2003, 37, 4, 249-252, https://doi.org/10.6090/jarq.37.249 . [all data]

Tu, Onishi, et al., 2003
Tu, N.T.M.; Onishi, Y.; Son, U.S.; Ogawa, E.; Ukeda, H.; Sawamura, M., Characteristic odour components of Citrus inflata Hort. Ex Tanaka (Mochiyu) cold-pressed peel oil, Flavour Fragr. J., 2003, 18, 5, 454-459, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1252 . [all data]

Tu, Onishi, et al., 2003, 2
Tu, N.T.M.; Onishi, Y.; Choi, H.S.; Kondo, Y.; Ukeda, H.; Sawamura, M., Characteristic odour components of Citrus sp. (Kiyookadaidai) cold-pressed peel oil, Flavour Fragr. J., 2003, 18, 6, 515-520, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1260 . [all data]

Gancel, Ollé, et al., 2002
Gancel, A.-L.; Ollé, D.; Ollitrault, P.; Luro, F.; Brillouet, J.-M., Leaf and peel volatile compounds of an interspecific citrus somatic hybrid [Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swing. + Citrus paradisi Macfayden], Flavour Fragr. J., 2002, 17, 6, 416-424, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1119 . [all data]

Tu, Onishi, et al., 2002
Tu, N.T.M.; Onishi, Y.; Choi, H.-S.; Kondo, Y.; Bassore, S.M.; Ukeda, H.; Sawamura, M., Characteristic odor components of Citrus sphaerocarpa Tanaka (Kabosu) cold-pressed peel oil, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50, 10, 2908-2913, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf011578a . [all data]

Tu, Thanh, et al., 2002
Tu, N.T.M.; Thanh, L.X.; Une, A.; Ukeda, H.; Sawamura, M., Volatile constituents of Vietnamese pummelo, orange, tangerine and lime peel oils, Flavour Fragr. J., 2002, 17, 3, 169-174, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1076 . [all data]

Umano, Hagi, et al., 2002
Umano, K.; Hagi, Y.; Shibamoto, T., Volatile chemicals identified in extracts from newly hybrid citrus, dekopon (Shiranuhi mandarin Suppl. J.), J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50, 19, 5355-5359, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0203951 . [all data]

Christoph, 2001
Christoph, F., Chemische Zuzammensetzung und antimikrobielle Eigenschaften der ätherischen Öle von Leptospermum scoparium J. R. et G. Forst. und anderer Teebaumöle der Gattungen Kunzea, Leptospermum und Melaleuca unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Handelsölen, Dissertation, University of Hamburg, Germany, 2001, 196. [all data]

Jiang and Kubota, 2001
Jiang, L.; Kubota, K., Formation by mechanical stimulus of the flavor compounds in young leaves of Japanese pepper (Xanthoxylum piperitum DC.), J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001, 49, 3, 1353-1357, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf001166m . [all data]

Kasali, Oyedeji, et al., 2001
Kasali, A.A.; Oyedeji, A.O.; Ashilokun, A.O., Volatile leaf oil constituents of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, Flavour Fragr. J., 2001, 16, 5, 377-378, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1019 . [all data]

Lota, de Rocca Serra, et al., 2001
Lota, M.-L.; de Rocca Serra, D.; Tomi, F.; Casanova, J., Chemical variability of peel and leaf essential oils of 15 species of mandarins, Biochem. Syst. Ecol., 2001, 29, 1, 77-104, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-1978(00)00029-6 . [all data]

Orav and Kann, 2001
Orav, A.; Kann, J., Determination of peppermint and orange aroma compounds in food and beverages, Proc. Est. Acad. Sci. Chem., 2001, 50, 4, 217-225. [all data]

Bignell, Dunlop, et al., 1997
Bignell, C.M.; Dunlop, P.J.; Brophy, J.J., Volatile leaf oils of some Queensland and Norther Australian species of the genus Eucalyptus (Series II) Part II. Subgenera (a) Blakella, (b) Corymbia, (c) Unnamed, (d) Idiogenes, (e) Monocalyptus and (f) Symphyomyrtus, Flavour Fragr. J., 1997, 12, 4, 277-284, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1026(199707)12:4<277::AID-FFJ642>3.0.CO;2-B . [all data]

Tirado, Stashenko, et al., 1995
Tirado, C.B.; Stashenko, E.E.; Combariza, M.Y.; Martinez, J.R., Comparative study of Colombian citrus oils by high-resolution gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. Chromatogr. A, 1995, 697, 1-2, 501-513, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(94)00955-9 . [all data]

Shibamoto and Jennings, 1977
Shibamoto, T.; Jennings, W.G., The volatile composition of the leaf oil of California Juniper (J. californica Carr.) in Proceedings of VII International Congress of Essential Oils, October 7-11, 1977, Kyoto, Japan, 1977, 413-418. [all data]

Stancher and Pertoldi, 1967
Stancher, B.; Pertoldi, M.G., Characterization of commercial materials used in synthetic essential oil production. Identification and gas-chromatographic determination of impurities, Rassegna chimica, 1967, 19, 3, 99-109. [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp, References