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Butanoic acid, ethyl ester

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Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, temperature ramp

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase DB-WaxInnowaxFFAPDB-WaxDB-Wax
Column length (m) 30.30.30.30.30.
Carrier gas HeH2HeHeHe
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.250.250.250.25
Phase thickness (mum) 0.250.250.250.50.5
Tstart (C) 50.45.35.40.40.
Tend (C) 180.210.225.250.250.
Heat rate (K/min) 3.53.510.4.4.
Initial hold (min) 2.5.5.5.5.
Final hold (min) 25.20.25.15.15.
I 1028.1036.1048.1035.1035.
ReferenceBotelho, Caldeira, et al., 2007Botelho, Caldeira, et al., 2007Lozano P.R., Miracle E.R., et al., 2007Pozo-Bayon M.A., Ruiz-Rodriguez A., et al., 2007Pozo-Bayon M.A., Ruiz-Rodriguez A., et al., 2007
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase DB-WaxSupelcowax-10DB-Wax EtrDB-WaxDB-Wax
Column length (m) 30.30.30.60.30.
Carrier gas HeHeHeHeHe
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.320.320.250.250.32
Phase thickness (mum) 0.50.50.250.250.5
Tstart (C) 40.70.40.40.40.
Tend (C) 240.220.250.265.265.
Heat rate (K/min) 7.4.5.7.7.
Initial hold (min)  7.3.  
Final hold (min) 5.20.15.5.5.
I 1041.1049.1061.1041.1033.
ReferenceRuiz Perez-Cacho, Mahattanatawee, et al., 2007Arena, Guarrera, et al., 2006Aubert C. and Pitrat M., 2006Gurbuz O., Rouseff J.M., et al., 2006Gurbuz O., Rouseff J.M., et al., 2006
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase CP-Wax 52CBDB-WaxDB-WaxDB-WaxStabilwax
Column length (m) 60.30.30.30.30.
Carrier gas HeHe HeN2
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.250.320.250.32
Phase thickness (mum) 0.250.250.50.251.
Tstart (C) 40.50.40.40.40.
Tend (C) 250.220.200.250.230.
Heat rate (K/min) 4.4.5.3.4.
Initial hold (min)  4.3. 2.
Final hold (min)  20.8.20.10.
I 1039.1027.1052.1048.1048.
ReferenceKourkoutas, Elmore, et al., 2006Osorio, Alarcon, et al., 2006Petka, Ferreira, et al., 2006Berlinet, Ducruet, et al., 2005Fang and Qian, 2005
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase DB-WaxDB-WaxSupelcowax-10DB-WaxDB-Wax
Column length (m) 60.60.30.30.30.
Carrier gas HeHeHe H2
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.320.320.250.250.25
Phase thickness (mum) 1.1.0.250.250.25
Tstart (C) 45.45.60.40.40.
Tend (C) 250.250.240.200.250.
Heat rate (K/min) 5.5.3.10.3.
Initial hold (min) 1.1.5.3.3.
Final hold (min) 12.12.10.20.20.
I 1067.1073.1069.1000.1037.
ReferenceMalliaa, Fernandez-Garcia, et al., 2005Malliaa, Fernandez-Garcia, et al., 2005Riu-Aumatell, Lopez-Tamames, et al., 2005Whetstine, Cadwallader, et al., 2005Aubert and Bourger, 2004
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase DB-FFAPDB-FFAPDB-WaxDB-WaxDB-Wax
Column length (m) 15.15.30.30.30.
Carrier gas HeHe  Helium
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.320.320.250.250.32
Phase thickness (mum) 0.250.250.250.250.50
Tstart (C) 35.35.40.40.40.
Tend (C) 225.225.200.200.240.
Heat rate (K/min) 10.10.10.10.7.
Initial hold (min) 5.5.5.5. 
Final hold (min) 15.15.15.15.5.
I 1029.1052.1022.1022.1001.
ReferenceAvsar, Karagul-Yuceer, et al., 2004Avsar, Karagul-Yuceer, et al., 2004Avsar, Karagul-Yuceer, et al., 2004Avsar, Karagul-Yuceer, et al., 2004Bell, 2004
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase ZB-WaxDB-WaxDB-WaxDB-WaxDB-Wax
Column length (m) 30.30.30.30.30.
Carrier gas HeHeHeHeHe
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.320.250.250.25
Phase thickness (mum) 0.150.50.250.250.25
Tstart (C) 35.40.40.40.40.
Tend (C) 220.240.240.240.250.
Heat rate (K/min) 1.85.6.6.3.
Initial hold (min) 10.5.10.10. 
Final hold (min) 10. 25.25.20.
I 1023.1041.1023.1030.1021.
ReferenceLedauphin, Saint-Clair, et al., 2004Rega, Fournier, et al., 2004Varming, Andersen, et al., 2004Varming, Petersen, et al., 2004Brat, Rega, et al., 2003
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase DB-WaxDB-WaxAT-WaxDB-WaxDB-Wax
Column length (m) 60.30.60.30.30.
Carrier gas He He  
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.320.320.320.32
Phase thickness (mum)  0.50.250.50.5
Tstart (C) 40.40.65.35.40.
Tend (C) 220.240.250.240.240.
Heat rate (K/min) 3.7.2.5.7.
Initial hold (min) 10. 10.5. 
Final hold (min) 30.5.60.5.5.
I 1036.1037.1021.1041.1057.
ReferenceHayata, Sakamoto, et al., 2003Högnadóttir and Rouseff, 2003Pino, Almora, et al., 2003Rega, Fournier, et al., 2003Valim, Rouseff, et al., 2003
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase AT-WaxDB-FFAPAT-WaxAT-WaxDB-Wax
Column length (m) 60.15.60.60.30.
Carrier gas He HeHeHe
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.320.320.320.320.32
Phase thickness (mum) 0.250.250.250.250.5
Tstart (C) 65.30.65.65.35.
Tend (C) 250.225.250.250.250.
Heat rate (K/min) 2.10.2.2.1.1
Initial hold (min) 10.2.10.10. 
Final hold (min) 60.20.60.60.10.
I 1025.1020.1024.1025.1040.4
ReferencePino, Marbot, et al., 2002Zhou, Wintersteen, et al., 2002Pino and Marbot, 2001Pino, Marbot, et al., 2001Siegmund, Derler, et al., 2001
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase Supelcowax-10Supelcowax-10DB-FFAPDB-FFAPDB-Wax
Column length (m) 60.60.30.30.60.
Carrier gas HeHeH2H2He
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.250.320.320.25
Phase thickness (mum) 0.250.25  0.25
Tstart (C) 35.35.40.40.50.
Tend (C) 195.195.220.220.230.
Heat rate (K/min) 2.2.3.3.3.
Initial hold (min)  5.   
Final hold (min) 90.90.   
I 1039.1039.1021.1023.1044.
ReferenceChung, 2000Chung, 1999Guillard, le Quere, et al., 1997Guillard, le Quere, et al., 1997Shimoda, Peralta, et al., 1996
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillaryCapillary
Active phase DB-WaxDB-WaxDB-WaxCarbowax 20MCarbowax 20M
Column length (m) 30.60.30.25.25.
Carrier gas HeHeHe  
Substrate      
Column diameter (mm) 0.250.250.250.310.31
Phase thickness (mum)      
Tstart (C) 40.35.40.50.50.
Tend (C) 200.180.200.200.200.
Heat rate (K/min) 2.3.2.2.2.
Initial hold (min) 5.5.10.  
Final hold (min)      
I 1037.1040.1032.1025.1031.
ReferenceIwaoka, Hagi, et al., 1994Stashenko, Macku, et al., 1992Umano, Hagi, et al., 1992Suárez and Duque, 1991Suárez and Duque, 1991
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI
Column type CapillaryCapillaryPacked
Active phase OV-351Carbowax 20MCarbowax 20M
Column length (m) 25.  
Carrier gas N2He 
Substrate   Celite 545
Column diameter (mm) 0.32  
Phase thickness (mum)    
Tstart (C) 100.50.75.
Tend (C) 230.160.228.
Heat rate (K/min) 6.1.4.6
Initial hold (min)  10. 
Final hold (min)    
I 1057.1025.1032.
ReferenceKorhonen, 1985Chen, Kuo, et al., 1982van den Dool and Kratz, 1963
Comment MSDC-RI MSDC-RI MSDC-RI

References

Go To: Top, Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, temperature ramp, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Botelho, Caldeira, et al., 2007
Botelho, G.; Caldeira, I.; Mendes-Faia, A.; Clímaco, M.C., Evaluation of two quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry methods for clonal red wines differentiation, Flavour Fragr. J., 2007, 22, 5, 414-420, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1815 . [all data]

Lozano P.R., Miracle E.R., et al., 2007
Lozano P.R.; Miracle E.R.; Krause A.J.; Drake M.; Cadwallader K.R., Effect of cold storage and packaging material on the major aroma components of sweet cream butter, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55, 19, 7840-7846, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf071075q . [all data]

Pozo-Bayon M.A., Ruiz-Rodriguez A., et al., 2007
Pozo-Bayon M.A.; Ruiz-Rodriguez A.; Pernin K.; Cayot N., Influence of eggs on the aroma composition of a sponge cake and on the aroma release in model studies on flavored sponge cakes, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55, 4, 1418-1426, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf062203y . [all data]

Ruiz Perez-Cacho, Mahattanatawee, et al., 2007
Ruiz Perez-Cacho, P.; Mahattanatawee, K.; Smoot, J.M.; Rouseff, R., Identification of Sulfur Volatiles in Canned Orange Juices Lacking Orange Flavor, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55, 14, 5761-5767, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0703856 . [all data]

Arena, Guarrera, et al., 2006
Arena, E.; Guarrera, N.; Campisi, S.; Nicolosi Asmundo, C., Comparison of odour active compounds detected by gas-chromatography-olfactometry between hand-squeezed juices from different orange varieties, Food Chem., 2006, 98, 1, 59-63, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.04.035 . [all data]

Aubert C. and Pitrat M., 2006
Aubert C.; Pitrat M., Volatile compounds in the skin and pulp of Queen Anne's pocket melon, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54, 21, 8177-8182, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf061415s . [all data]

Gurbuz O., Rouseff J.M., et al., 2006
Gurbuz O.; Rouseff J.M.; Rouseff R.L., Comparison of aroma volatiles in commercial Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines using gas chromatography - Olfactometry and gas chromatography - Mass spectrometry, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54, 11, 3990-3996, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf053278p . [all data]

Kourkoutas, Elmore, et al., 2006
Kourkoutas, D.; Elmore, J.S.; Mottram, D.S., Comparison of the volatile compositions and flavour properties of cantaloupe, Galia and honeydew muskmelons, Food Chem., 2006, 97, 1, 95-102, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.03.026 . [all data]

Osorio, Alarcon, et al., 2006
Osorio, C.; Alarcon, M.; Moreno, C.; Bonilla, A.; Barrios, J.; Garzon, C.; Duque, C., Characterization of Odor-Active Volatiles in Champa ( Campomanesia lineatifolia R. P.), J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54, 2, 509-516, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf052098c . [all data]

Petka, Ferreira, et al., 2006
Petka, J.; Ferreira, V.; González-Viñas, M.A.; Cacho, J., Sensory and Chemical Characterization of the Aroma of a White Wine Made with Devín Grapes, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54, 3, 909-915, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0518397 . [all data]

Berlinet, Ducruet, et al., 2005
Berlinet, C.; Ducruet, V.; Brillouet, J.-M.; Reynes, M.; Brat, P., Evolution of aroma compounds from orange juice stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET), Food Addit. Contam., 2005, 22, 2, 185-195, https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030500037860 . [all data]

Fang and Qian, 2005
Fang, Y.; Qian, M., Aroma compounds in Oregon Pinot Noir wine determined by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), Flavour Fragr. J., 2005, 20, 1, 22-29, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1551 . [all data]

Malliaa, Fernandez-Garcia, et al., 2005
Malliaa, S.; Fernandez-Garcia, E.; Bosset, J.O., Comparison of purge and trap and solid phase microextraction techniques for studying the volatile aroma compounds of three European PDO hard cheeses, Int. Dairy J., 2005, 15, 6-9, 741-758, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2004.11.007 . [all data]

Riu-Aumatell, Lopez-Tamames, et al., 2005
Riu-Aumatell, M.; Lopez-Tamames, E.; Buxaderas, S., Assessment of the Volatile Composition of Juices of Apricot, Peach, and Pear According to Two Pectolytic Treatments, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53, 20, 7837-7843, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf051397z . [all data]

Whetstine, Cadwallader, et al., 2005
Whetstine, M.E.C.; Cadwallader, K.R.; Drake, M.A., Characterization of aroma compounds responsible for the rosy/floral flavor in cheddar cheese, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53, 8, 3126-3132, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf048278o . [all data]

Aubert and Bourger, 2004
Aubert, C.; Bourger, N., Investigation of volatiles in charentais cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo Var. cantalupensis). Characterization of aroma constituents in some cultivars, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52, 14, 4522-4528, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf049777s . [all data]

Avsar, Karagul-Yuceer, et al., 2004
Avsar, Y.K.; Karagul-Yuceer, Y.; Drake, M.A.; Singh, T.K.; Yoon, Y.; Cadwallader, K.R., Characterization of nutty flavor in cheddar cheese, J. Dairy Sci., 2004, 87, 7, 1999-2010, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)70017-X . [all data]

Bell, 2004
Bell, W.A.-M., Examination of Aroma Volatiles Formed from Thermal Processing of Florida Reconstituted Grapefruit Juice. A Thesis presented to the graduate school of the university of Florida in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of master of science, 2004. [all data]

Ledauphin, Saint-Clair, et al., 2004
Ledauphin, J.; Saint-Clair, J.-F.; Lablanquie, O.; Guichard, H.; Founier, N.; Guichard, E.; Barillier, D., Identification of trace volatile compounds in freshly distilled calvados and cognac using preparative separations coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52, 16, 5124-5134, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf040052y . [all data]

Rega, Fournier, et al., 2004
Rega, B.; Fournier, N.; Nicklaus, S.; Guichard, E., Role of pulp in flavor release and sensory perception in orange juice, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52, 13, 4204-4212, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf035361n . [all data]

Varming, Andersen, et al., 2004
Varming, C.; Andersen, M.L.; Poll, L., Influence of thermal treatment on black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) juice aroma, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52, 25, 7628-7636, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf049435m . [all data]

Varming, Petersen, et al., 2004
Varming, C.; Petersen, M.A.; Poll, L., Comparison of isolation methods for the determination of important aroma compounds in black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) juice, using nasal impact frequency profiling, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52, 6, 1647-1652, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf035133t . [all data]

Brat, Rega, et al., 2003
Brat, P.; Rega, B.; Alter, P.; Reynes, M.; Brillouet, J.-M., Distribution of volatile compounds in the pulp, cloud, and serum of freshly squeezed orange juice, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2003, 51, 11, 3442-3447, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf026226y . [all data]

Hayata, Sakamoto, et al., 2003
Hayata, Y.; Sakamoto, T.; Maneerat, C.; Li, X.; Kozuka, H.; Sakamoto, K., Evaluation of aroma compounds contributing to muskmelon flavor in Porapak Q extracts by aroma extract dilution analysis, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2003, 51, 11, 3415-3418, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0209950 . [all data]

Högnadóttir and Rouseff, 2003
Högnadóttir, Á.; Rouseff, R.L., Identification of aroma active compounds in organce essence oil using gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. Chromatogr. A, 2003, 998, 1-2, 201-211, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(03)00524-7 . [all data]

Pino, Almora, et al., 2003
Pino, J.; Almora, K.; Marbot, R., Volatile components of papaya (Carica papaya L., maradol variety) fruit, Flavour Fragr. J., 2003, 18, 6, 492-496, https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1248 . [all data]

Rega, Fournier, et al., 2003
Rega, B.; Fournier, N.; Guichard, E., Solid phase microextraction (SPME) of orange juice flavor: odor representativeness by direct gas chromatography olfactometry (D-GC-O), J. Agric. Food Chem., 2003, 51, 24, 7092-7099, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf034384z . [all data]

Valim, Rouseff, et al., 2003
Valim, M.F.; Rouseff, R.L.; Lin, J., Gas chromatographic-olfactometric characterization of aroma compounds in two types of cashew apple nectar, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2003, 51, 4, 1010-1015, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf025738+ . [all data]

Pino, Marbot, et al., 2002
Pino, J.A.; Marbot, R.; Vázquez, C., Characterization of volatile in Cosa Rican Guava [Psidium friedrichsthalianum (Berg) Niedenzu] fruit, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50, 21, 6023-6026, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf011456i . [all data]

Zhou, Wintersteen, et al., 2002
Zhou, Q.; Wintersteen, C.L.; Cadwallader, K.R., Identification and quantification of aroma-active components that contribute to the distinct malty flavor of buckwheat honey, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50, 7, 2016-2021, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf011436g . [all data]

Pino and Marbot, 2001
Pino, J.A.; Marbot, R., Volatile flavor constituents of acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) fruit, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001, 49, 12, 5880-5882, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf010270g . [all data]

Pino, Marbot, et al., 2001
Pino, J.A.; Marbot, R.; Vázquez, C., Characterization of volatiles in strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) fruit, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001, 49, 12, 5883-5887, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf010414r . [all data]

Siegmund, Derler, et al., 2001
Siegmund, B.; Derler, K.; Pfannhauser, W., Changes in the aroma of a strawberry drink during storage, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001, 49, 7, 3244-3252, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf010116u . [all data]

Chung, 2000
Chung, H.Y., Volatile flavor components in red fermented soybean (Glycine max) curds, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2000, 48, 5, 1803-1809, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf991272s . [all data]

Chung, 1999
Chung, H.Y., Volatile components in fermented soybean (Glycine max) curds, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1999, 47, 7, 2690-2696, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf981166a . [all data]

Guillard, le Quere, et al., 1997
Guillard, A.-S.; le Quere, J.-L.; Vendeuvre, J.-L., Emerging research approaches benefit to the study of cooked cured ham flavour, Food Chem., 1997, 59, 4, 567-572, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(97)00001-0 . [all data]

Shimoda, Peralta, et al., 1996
Shimoda, M.; Peralta, R.R.; Osajima, Y., Headspace gas analysis of fish sauce, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1996, 44, 11, 3601-3605, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf960345u . [all data]

Iwaoka, Hagi, et al., 1994
Iwaoka, W.; Hagi, Y.; Umano, K.; Shibamoto, T., Volatile chemicals identified in fresh and cooked breadfruit, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1994, 42, 4, 975-976, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00040a026 . [all data]

Stashenko, Macku, et al., 1992
Stashenko, H.; Macku, C.; Shibamato, T., Monitoring volatile chemicals formed from must during yeast fermentation, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1992, 40, 11, 2257-2259, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00023a040 . [all data]

Umano, Hagi, et al., 1992
Umano, K.; Hagi, Y.; Nakahara, K.; Shoji, A.; Shibamoto, T., Volatile constituents of green and ripened pineapple (Aanas comosus [L.] Merr.), J. Agric. Food Chem., 1992, 40, 4, 599-603, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00016a014 . [all data]

Suárez and Duque, 1991
Suárez, M.; Duque, C., Volatile constituents of lulo (Salanum vestissimum D.) fruit, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1991, 39, 8, 1498-1500, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00008a026 . [all data]

Korhonen, 1985
Korhonen, I.O.O., Gas-liquid chromatographic analyses. XLIII. Retention increments for 2-chloro-, 2,2-dichloro- and 2,2,2-trichloroethyl esters of aliphatic C2-C20 n-alkanoic acids on SE-30 and OV-351 capillary columns, J. Chromatogr., 1985, 329, 43-56, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)81894-X . [all data]

Chen, Kuo, et al., 1982
Chen, C.-C.; Kuo, M.-C.; Hwang, L.S.; Wu, J.S.-B.; Wu, C.-M., Headspace components of passion fruit juice, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1982, 30, 6, 1211-1215, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00114a052 . [all data]

van den Dool and Kratz, 1963
van den Dool, H.; Kratz, P. Dec., A generalization of the retention index system including linear temperature programmed gas-liquid partition chromatography, J. Chromatogr., 1963, 11, 463-471, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)80947-X . [all data]


Notes

Go To: Top, Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, temperature ramp, References