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Benzene, 1,4-bis(1-methylethyl)-

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Condensed phase thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltafliquid-132.3kJ/molEqkPopov, Rozhnov, et al., 1974 

Phase change data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled as indicated in comments:
BS - Robert L. Brown and Stephen E. Stein
TRC - Thermodynamics Research Center, NIST Boulder Laboratories, Kenneth Kroenlein director
AC - William E. Acree, Jr., James S. Chickos

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tboil483.5KN/AWeast and Grasselli, 1989BS
Tboil483.52KN/AMelpolder, Woodbridge, et al., 1948Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 2. K; TRC
Tboil483.5KN/ANewton, 1943Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 2. K; TRC
Tboil477.KN/AToussaint and Hennion, 1940Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 8. K; TRC
Tboil477.65KN/AO'Connor and Sowa, 1938Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 1.5 K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tfus256.07KN/AMcDonald, Shrader, et al., 1959Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.05 K; TRC
Tfus256.11KN/AStreiff, Hulme, et al., 1955Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.02 K; TRC
Tfus256.11KN/AStreiff, Hulme, et al., 1955Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.02 K; TRC
Tfus256.12KN/AStreiff, Hulme, et al., 1955Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 0.01 K; TRC
Tfus256.08KN/AMelpolder, Woodbridge, et al., 1948Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 1. K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Tc794.15KN/AGlaser and Ruland, 1957Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 3. K; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Pc97.7786barN/AGlaser and Ruland, 1957Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 4.053 bar; TRC
Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltavap56.5 ± 0.3kJ/molGSVerekin, 1998Based on data from 283. - 318. K.; AC

Enthalpy of vaporization

DeltavapH (kJ/mol) Temperature (K) Method Reference Comment
50.7 ± 0.2400.EBSteele, Chirico, et al., 2002Based on data from 366. - 530. K.; AC
46.3 ± 0.3440.EBSteele, Chirico, et al., 2002Based on data from 366. - 530. K.; AC
43.0 ± 0.5480.EBSteele, Chirico, et al., 2002Based on data from 366. - 530. K.; AC
39.3 ± 0.9520.EBSteele, Chirico, et al., 2002Based on data from 366. - 530. K.; AC
56.3 ± 0.3301.GSVerekin, 1998Based on data from 283. - 318. K.; AC
47.6408.AStephenson and Malanowski, 1987Based on data from 393. - 485. K.; AC
48.9408.N/AMcDonald, Shrader, et al., 1959, 2Based on data from 393. - 485. K. See also Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984.; AC

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
    P = vapor pressure (bar)
    T = temperature (K)

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Temperature (K) A B C Reference
393.41 - 484.733.81761641.44-81.204McDonald, Shrader, et al., 1959, 2

In addition to the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) data available from this site, much more physical and chemical property data is available from the following TRC products:


Reaction thermochemistry data

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein

Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below.

Individual Reactions

2Benzene, (1-methylethyl)- = Benzene, 1,4-bis(1-methylethyl)- + Benzene

By formula: 2C9H12 = C12H18 + C6H6

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar1.5 ± 0.63kJ/molEqkPopov, Rozhnov, et al., 1974gas phase

Benzene, 1,4-bis(1-methylethyl)- = Benzene, 1,3-bis(1-methylethyl)-

By formula: C12H18 = C12H18

Quantity Value Units Method Reference Comment
Deltar0.0 ± 0.54kJ/molEqkPopov, Rozhnov, et al., 1974gas phase

Gas phase ion energetics data

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Sharon G. Lias, Rhoda D. Levin, and Sherif A. Kafafi

View reactions leading to C12H18+ (ion structure unspecified)

Ionization energy determinations

IE (eV) Method Reference
8.35PEBock, Kaim, et al., 1978

IR Spectrum

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, References, Notes

Data compiled by: Coblentz Society, Inc.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director


Mass spectrum (electron ionization)

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Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Spectrum

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Mass spectrum
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Additional Data

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Owner NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center
Collection (C) 2014 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, 1990.
NIST MS number 114785

All mass spectra in this site (plus many more) are available from the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library. Please see the following for information about the library and its accompanying search program.


UV/Visible spectrum

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), Gas Chromatography, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: Victor Talrose, Alexander N. Yermakov, Alexy A. Usov, Antonina A. Goncharova, Axlexander N. Leskin, Natalia A. Messineva, Natalia V. Trusova, Margarita V. Efimkina

Spectrum

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UVVis spectrum
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1.) Enter the desired X axis range (e.g., 100, 200)
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Additional Data

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Download spectrum in JCAMP-DX format.

Source Kusakov, et al., 1963
Owner INEP CP RAS, NIST OSRD
Collection (C) 2007 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce
on behalf of the United States of America. All rights reserved.
Origin INSTITUTE OF ENERGY PROBLEMS OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, RAS
Source reference RAS UV No. 20031
Instrument unknown
Melting point - 17
Boiling point 210.3

Gas Chromatography

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, isothermal

View large format table.

Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-1MS90.1152.7Vickers, Kuhn, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He
CapillaryDB-190.1152.1Vickers, Kuhn, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He
CapillaryDB-560.1168.7Kuhn, 200130. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, H2
CapillaryDB-5MS60.1168.9Kuhn, 200130. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, H2
CapillaryOV-101100.1160.Matisová, Kovacicová, et al., 1989He; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm
CapillaryOV-101100.1160.Matisová, Rukríglová, et al., 1988H2; Column length: 278. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryOV-101100.1162.Gerasimenko and Nabivach, 1982N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.30 mm
CapillaryOV-101120.1167.Gerasimenko and Nabivach, 1982N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.30 mm
CapillaryOV-101140.1171.Gerasimenko and Nabivach, 1982N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.30 mm
CapillarySqualane86.1151.2Macák, Nabivach, et al., 1982N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane96.1153.4Macák, Nabivach, et al., 1982N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillaryOV-101100.1161.6Gerasimenko, Kirilenko, et al., 1981N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm
CapillaryOV-101120.1166.7Gerasimenko, Kirilenko, et al., 1981N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm
CapillaryOV-101140.1171.3Gerasimenko, Kirilenko, et al., 1981N2; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.3 mm
CapillarySqualane86.1151.2Nabivach, Bur'yan, et al., 1978Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane96.1153.4Nabivach, Bur'yan, et al., 1978Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane100.1154.Engewald and Wennrich, 1976N2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.23 mm
CapillarySqualane80.1148.55Soják and Rijks, 1976H2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySE-3065.1152.0Svob and Deur-Siftar, 1974He; Column length: 25.5 m; Column diameter: 0.5 mm

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryOV-1011158.Hayes and Pitzer, 1982110. m/0.25 mm/0.20 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 35. C; Tend: 200. C
CapillaryApiezon L1179.Louis, 1971N2, 1. K/min; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Tstart: 60. C

Kovats' RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPetrocol DH-1001159.5Haagen-Smit Laboratory, 1997He; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.2 mm; Program: 5C(10min) => 5C/min => 50C(48min) => 1.5C/min => 195C(91min)
CapillarySqualane1183.Medvedovskaya, Tikhomirova, et al., 1997Program: not specified

Kovats' RI, polar column, isothermal

View large format table.

Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryCarbowax 20M100.1380.7Engewald and Wennrich, 1976N2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.23 mm
CapillaryCarbowax 600090.1417.6Svob and Deur-Siftar, 1974He; Column length: 10. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-51170.1Song, Lai, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51173.4Song, Lai, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51174.7Song, Lai, et al., 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 6. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-11154.4Sun and Stremple, 200330. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 325. C
CapillaryOV-11160.9Gautzsch and Zinn, 19968. K/min; Tstart: 35. C; Tend: 300. C
CapillaryDB-51170.1Lai and Song, 199530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 2. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51173.4Lai and Song, 199530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 4. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryDB-51174.7Lai and Song, 199530. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 6. K/min; Tstart: 40. C; Tend: 310. C
CapillaryPetrocol DH1160.White, Hackett, et al., 1992100. m/0.25 mm/0.5 «mu»m, He, 1. K/min; Tstart: 30. C; Tend: 220. C
CapillaryOV-1011158.Hayes and Pitzer, 1981108. m/0.25 mm/0.2 «mu»m, 1. K/min; Tstart: 35. C; Tend: 200. C

Van Den Dool and Kratz RI, polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryDB-Wax1404.Shimoda, Wu, et al., 199660. m/0.25 mm/0.25 «mu»m, He, 3. K/min; Tstart: 50. C; Tend: 230. C

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, isothermal

View large format table.

Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryMethyl Silicone120.1162.Chen and Feng, 2006 
CapillaryOV-101100.1162.Tian, 1993Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm
CapillaryOV-101100.1162.Tian, 1993Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm
CapillaryOV-101120.1167.Tian, 1993Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm
CapillaryOV-101120.1167.Tian, 1993Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.20 mm
CapillarySqualane95.41143.Sojak and Vigdergauz, 1978H2
CapillarySqualane110.1157.Papazova and Pankova, 1975N2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm
CapillarySqualane130.1162.Papazova and Pankova, 1975N2; Column length: 100. m; Column diameter: 0.25 mm

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryPetrocol DH1168.Supelco, 2012100. m/0.25 mm/0.50 «mu»m, Helium, 20. C @ 15. min, 15. K/min, 220. C @ 30. min

Normal alkane RI, non-polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillarySE-301161.Xiuhua, Zhang, et al., 1996Program: not specified
CapillaryOV-1, SE-30, Methyl silicone, SP-2100, OV-101, DB-1, etc.1158.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified

Normal alkane RI, polar column, isothermal

View large format table.

Column type Active phase Temperature (C) I Reference Comment
CapillaryPEG-40M100.1402.Nesterov, Nesterova, et al., 2000Column length: 50. m
CapillaryPEG-40M100.1402.Nesterov, Nesterova, et al., 2000Column length: 50. m
CapillaryPEG-40M120.1412.Nesterov, Nesterova, et al., 2000Column length: 50. m
CapillaryPEG-40M140.1426.Nesterov, Nesterova, et al., 2000Column length: 50. m
CapillaryPEG-40M160.1435.Nesterov, Nesterova, et al., 2000Column length: 50. m
CapillaryPEG-40M80.1392.Nesterov, Nesterova, et al., 2000Column length: 50. m

Normal alkane RI, polar column, temperature ramp

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryCarbowax 20M1358.Herain, MRAVEC, et al., 199170. C @ 21. min, 5. K/min, 150. C @ 999. min

Normal alkane RI, polar column, custom temperature program

View large format table.

Column type Active phase I Reference Comment
CapillaryCarbowax 400, Carbowax 20M, Carbowax 1540, Carbowax 4000, Superox 06, PEG 20M, etc.1418.Waggott and Davies, 1984Hydrogen; Column length: 50. m; Column diameter: 0.32 mm; Program: not specified

References

Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, Gas Chromatography, Notes

Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved.

Popov, Rozhnov, et al., 1974
Popov, V.E.; Rozhnov, A.M.; Satronov, V.S.; Volkova, A.G., Disproportionation equilibrium for isopropylbenzene, Neftekhimiya, 1974, 14, 364-367. [all data]

Weast and Grasselli, 1989
CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds, 2nd Editon, Weast,R.C and Grasselli, J.G., ed(s)., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1989, 1. [all data]

Melpolder, Woodbridge, et al., 1948
Melpolder, F.W.; Woodbridge, J.E.; Headington, C.E., The isolation and physical properties of the diisopropyl- benzenes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1948, 70, 935-9. [all data]

Newton, 1943
Newton, A., Polyisopropylbenzenes: I preparation and properties of two di-, two tri-, and one tetra-isopropylbenzene, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1943, 65, 320-3. [all data]

Toussaint and Hennion, 1940
Toussaint, N.F.; Hennion, G.F., Alkylation of Benzene with Alcohols, Boron Fluoride, and Assistants, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1940, 62, 1145. [all data]

O'Connor and Sowa, 1938
O'Connor, M.J.; Sowa, F.J., Organic Reactions with Boron Fluoride XVIII. The Reaction of ethers with Benzene, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1938, 60, 125. [all data]

McDonald, Shrader, et al., 1959
McDonald, R.A.; Shrader, S.A.; Stull, D.R., Vapor Pressures and Freezing Points of 30 Organics, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1959, 4, 311. [all data]

Streiff, Hulme, et al., 1955
Streiff, A.J.; Hulme, A.R.; Cowie, P.A.; Krouskop, N.C.; Rossini, F.D., Purification, Purity, and Freezing Points of Sixty-four American Petroleum Institute Standard and Research Hydrocarbons, Anal. Chem., 1955, 27, 411. [all data]

Glaser and Ruland, 1957
Glaser, F.; Ruland, H., Untersuchungsen über dampfdruckkurven und kritische daten einiger technisch wichtiger organischer substanzen, Chem. Ing. Techn., 1957, 29, 772. [all data]

Verekin, 1998
Verekin, S.P., Thermochemical properties of isopropylbenzenes, Thermochim. Acta, 1998, 316, 131-136. [all data]

Steele, Chirico, et al., 2002
Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Cowell, A.B.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A., Thermodynamic Properties and Ideal-Gas Enthalpies of Formation for 1,4-Diisopropylbenzene, 1,2,4,5-Tetraisopropylbenzene, Cyclohexanone Oxime, Dimethyl Malonate, Glutaric Acid, and Pimelic Acid, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 2002, 47, 4, 725-739, https://doi.org/10.1021/je010088b . [all data]

Stephenson and Malanowski, 1987
Stephenson, Richard M.; Malanowski, Stanislaw, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, 1987, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3173-2 . [all data]

McDonald, Shrader, et al., 1959, 2
McDonald, R.A.; Shrader, S.A.; Stull, D.R., Vapor Pressures and Freezing Points of Thirty Pure Organic Compounds., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1959, 4, 4, 311-313, https://doi.org/10.1021/je60004a009 . [all data]

Boublik, Fried, et al., 1984
Boublik, T.; Fried, V.; Hala, E., The Vapour Pressures of Pure Substances: Selected Values of the Temperature Dependence of the Vapour Pressures of Some Pure Substances in the Normal and Low Pressure Region, 2nd ed., Elsevier, New York, 1984, 972. [all data]

Bock, Kaim, et al., 1978
Bock, H.; Kaim, W.; Rohwer, H.E., Die hyperkonjugative Stabilisierung von p-Xylol-Radikalkationen durch (H3C)3Si-Substituenten, Chem. Ber., 1978, 111, 3573. [all data]

Kusakov, et al., 1963
Kusakov, M.M., et al., Ultraviolet Absorption Spectra of Aromatic Hydrocarbons, 1963, 66. [all data]

Vickers, Kuhn, et al., 2003
Vickers, A.K.; Kuhn, E.; Lautamo, R., A novel, inert, low bleed column for GC-MS, 2003, retrieved from http://www.chem.agilent.com/cag/cabu/gcapps.htm. [all data]

Kuhn, 2001
Kuhn, E.R., Selectivity vs. polarity: the fundamentals of chromatographic separation, J. Sep. Sci., 2001, 24, 6, 473-476, https://doi.org/10.1002/1615-9314(20010601)24:6<473::AID-JSSC473>3.0.CO;2-Y . [all data]

Matisová, Kovacicová, et al., 1989
Matisová, E.; Kovacicová, E.; Ha, P.T.; Kolek, E.; Engewald, W., Identification of alkylbenzenes up to C12 by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. II. Retention indices on OV-101 columns and retention-molecular structure correlations, J. Chromatogr., 1989, 475, 2, 113-123, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)89667-9 . [all data]

Matisová, Rukríglová, et al., 1988
Matisová, E.; Rukríglová, M.; Krupcík, J.; Kovacicová, E.; Holotík, S., Identification of alkylbenzenes up to C12 by capillary gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. I. OV-101 as stationary phase, J. Chromatogr., 1988, 455, 301-309, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)82129-4 . [all data]

Gerasimenko and Nabivach, 1982
Gerasimenko, V.A.; Nabivach, V.M., Relationship between molecular structure and gas chromatographic retention of alkylbenzenes C8-C1 2 on polydimethylsiloxane, Zh. Anal. Khim., 1982, 37, 110-116. [all data]

Macák, Nabivach, et al., 1982
Macák, J.; Nabivach, V.; Buryan, P.; Sindler, S., Dependence of retention indices of alkylbenzenes on their molecular structure, J. Chromatogr., 1982, 234, 2, 285-302, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)81867-1 . [all data]

Gerasimenko, Kirilenko, et al., 1981
Gerasimenko, V.A.; Kirilenko, A.V.; Nabivach, V.M., Capillary gas chromatography of aromatic compounds found in coal tar fractions, J. Chromatogr., 1981, 208, 1, 9-16, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)87953-4 . [all data]

Nabivach, Bur'yan, et al., 1978
Nabivach, V.M.; Bur'yan, P.; Matsak, I., Retention indices of aromatic hydrocarbons on a squalane capillary column, Zh. Anal. Khim., 1978, 33, 7, 1108-1113. [all data]

Engewald and Wennrich, 1976
Engewald, W.; Wennrich, L., Molekülstruktur und Retentionsverhalten. VIII. Zum Retentionsverhalten höherer Alkylbenzole bei der Gas-Verteilungs-Chromatographie, Chromatographia, 1976, 9, 11, 540-547, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02275960 . [all data]

Soják and Rijks, 1976
Soják, L.; Rijks, J.A., Capillary gas chromatography of alkylbenzenes. I. Some problems encountered with the precision of the retention indcies of alkylbenzenes, J. Chromatogr., 1976, 119, 505-521, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)86812-0 . [all data]

Svob and Deur-Siftar, 1974
Svob, V.; Deur-Siftar, D., Kovats Retention Indices in the Identification of Alkylbenzene Degradation Products, J. Chromatogr., 1974, 91, 677-689, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)97947-6 . [all data]

Hayes and Pitzer, 1982
Hayes, P.C., Jr.; Pitzer, E.W., Characterizing petroleum- and shale-derived jet fuel distillates via temperature-programmed Kováts indices, J. Chromatogr., 1982, 253, 179-198, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)88376-X . [all data]

Louis, 1971
Louis, R., Kovats-index-tafeln zur gaschromatographischen analyse von kohlenwasserstoffgemischen, Erdoel Kohle Erdgas Petrochem., 1971, 24, 2, 88-94. [all data]

Haagen-Smit Laboratory, 1997
Haagen-Smit Laboratory, Procedure for the detailed hydrocarbon analysis of gasolines by single column high efficiency (capillary) column gas chromatography, SOP NO. MLD 118, Revision No. 1.1, California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board, El Monte, California, 1997, 22. [all data]

Medvedovskaya, Tikhomirova, et al., 1997
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Song, Lai, et al., 2003
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Notes

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